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Pengalaman Sufi Rumi

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PENGALAMAN DAN KARAKTERISTIK SUFISME JALALUDDIN RUMI
Sufisme adalah suatu ilmu yang mempelajari cara bagaimana seorang muslim dapat berada sedekat mungkin dengan Allah Swt. Adapun kesadaran berada dekat dengan Tuhan dapat diambil dari berbagai bentuk sesuai dengan kondisi sufi itu sendiri. Yakni bisa berbentuk ma'rifah, mahabbah, ittihad, hulul maupun wihdah al-wujud. Untuk mencapai tujuannya, seorang sufi harus menempuh jalan panjang, di antaranya melalui al-zuhd, yaitu keadaan meninggalkan dunia dan hidup kematerian.
Apabila dilihat dari luasnya wawasan dan tajamnya penglihatan pandangan seorang Jalaluddin Rumi, dari tema-tema universal yang diangkat dalam setiap baris karyanya dan dari cara mengungkapkan pikiran dalam bahasa puisi yang sarat simbol, tak dapat kita pungkiri bahwa bahwa Rumi adalah seorang yang jenius sebagaimana diungkapkan Erich Fromm:
"Dua ratus tahun sebelum pemikiran humanisme renaisance, Rumi telah mendahului mengemukakan ide-ide tentang toleransi agama yang dapat ditemukan pada Erasmus dan Nicholas De Cusa, dan ide-ide tentang cinta sebagai tenaga kreatif yang fundamental sebagai yang dikemukakan oleh Facini... Rumi bukan saja seorang penyair dan mistikus (sufi) serta pendiri Tarekat; tetapi ia juga seorang manusia yang mengetahui secara mendalam tabiat-tabiat manusia.”
Lalu bagaimana dengan pengalaman dan karakteristik sufi seorang Jalaluddin Rumi? Melalui syair-syair dan puisi yang ia tulis, sebagian orang menganggap ia sebagai pelopor yang menghidupkan kembali semangat keagamaan kaum muslimin dan berusaha membuang jauh-jauh kesan yang selama ini merusak citra para sufi yang dianggap sebagai fatalis. Ia mengetengahkan gagasan-gagasan yang mendorong manusia untuk senantiasa berbuat, berkarya dan bekerja keras untuk menunaikan tugas kemanusiaannya yang amat berat.
Rumi adalah termasuk tokoh sufi yang produktif. Dia aktif menulis karya-karya sufisme yang mayoritas berbentuk sya'ir atau prosa. Karena itu, wajarlah jika ia dijuluki sebagai penyair sufi besar. Karya sastra Rumi bisa dibilang sangat jamak; dalam bukunya Diwan-i Syams-i Tabriz terdapat kurang lebih 2500 lirik; dalam Masnawi sekitar 25.000 bait syair; dan Ruba'iyyat (syair empat baris) yang kira-kira 1600 barisnya adalah asli.
Sebagaimana yang telah dikemukakan diatas bahwa karya-karya Rumi mayoritas berbentuk sya'ir, maka untuk melacak dan mengetahui lebih jauh karakteristik sufisme Rumi perlu juga dilakukan analisa terhadap karya-karya tersebut.
Ekspresi-ekspresi sufisme sering berpegang pada keseimbangan antara cinta dan pengetahuan, suatu bentuk ekspresi emosional yang lebih mudah memadukan sikap keagamaan yang merupakan titik awal setiap kehidupan kerohanian Islam. Begitu pula yang dilakukan oleh Jalaluddin Rumi, ia mengekspresikannya dalam bahasa cinta. Hal itu dapat ditemukan dalam sya'irnya:
Aku adalah kehidupan dari yang kucintai
Apa yang dapat kulakukan hai orang-orang Muslim ?
Aku sendiri tidak tahu.
Aku bukan orang kristen, bukan orang Yahudi, bukan orang Magi, bukan orang Mosul,
Bukan dari Timur, bukan dari barat, bukan dari darat, bukan dari laut,
Bukan dari tambang Alama, bukan dari langit yang melingkar,
Bukan dari bumi, bukan dari air, bukan dari udara, bukan dari api,
Bukan dari singgasana, bukan dari tanah, dari eksistensi, dari ada,
Bukan dari India, Cina, Bulgaria, Saqsee,
Bukan dari kerajaan-kerajaan Irak dan Kurasan,
Bukan dari dunia ini atau yang berikutnya; dari syurga atau neraka,
Bukan dari Adam, Hawa, taman-taman syurgawi, atau firdausi,
Tempatku tanpa tempat, jejakku tanpa jejak,
Bukan raga atau jiwa; semua adalah kehidupan dari yang kucintai.

Dalam kenyataannya, perbedaan antara jalan pengetahuan dan jalan cinta bermuara pada masalah keunggulan salah satunya atas lainnya, meskipun sebenarnya tidak pernah ada pemisahan sepenuhnya antara kedua modus rohani tersebut. Pengetahuan tentang Tuhan selalu memikirkan cinta, sementara cinta mengisyaratkan adanya pengetahuan mengenai obyek cinta, walaupun itu hanya merupakan pengetahuan langsung dan renungan.

Obyek cinta rohani adalah keindahan Tuhan yang merupakan suatu aspek dari ketakterbatasan Tuhan, dan melalui obyek ini rasa cinta menjadi terang dan jelas. Cinta yang penuh dan terpadu berputar mengelilingi sesuatu titik tunggal yang tak terlukiskan, Allah Swt. Selanjutnya menurut Rumi, cinta lebih tinggi dari kecemasan, hal ini dapat kita fahami dalam syairnya:
Sang Sufi bermi'raj ke 'Arsy dalam sekejap, sang zahid membutuhkan waktu sebulan untuk sehari perjalanan.

Meskipun bagi sang zahid, sehari bernilai besar sekali, namun bagaimana satu harinya bisa sama dengan lima puluh ribu tahun ?

Dalam kehidupan sang Sufi, setiap hari berarti lima puluh ribu tahun di dunia ini.
Cinta (mahabbah), dan juga gairah cinta ('isyq) adalah sifat Tuhan, takut adalah sifat hawa nafsu dan birahi.

Cinta memiliki lima ratus sayap, dan setiap sayap membentang dari atas syurga di langit tertinggi sampai di bawah bumi.

Sang zahid yang ketakutan berlari dengan kaki, para pecinta Tuhan terbang lebih cepat dari pada kilat.

Semoga Rahmat Tuhan membebaskanmu dari pengembaraan ini!, tak ada yang sampai kecuali rajawali yang setialah yang menemukan jalan menuju sang Raja.
Menurut Annemarie Schimmel, kekuatan Rumi adalah cintanya, suatu pengalaman cinta dalam makna manusiawi tetapi sama sekali didasarkan pada Tuhan. Ia merasa bahwa dalam setiap do'a ada rahmat Ilahi, dan ia membukanya sendiri rahmat Ilahi itu. Beserta dengan kehendak Ilahi, ia menemukan pemecahan bagi teka-teki taqdir dan mampu menjulang ke puncak kebahagiaan dari kesedihan yang paling dalam karena perpisahan.
Selanjutnya, Schimmel mengatakan bahwa Rumi telah mengalami keindahan dan keagungan Ilahi dengan seluruh indranya. Pengalaman indrawi terpantul kuat dalam sajaknya, dan dalam sajak itu selalu terjaga keseimbangan antara pengalaman indrawi dan kasih Ilahi, sebagaimana berikut:
Lewat Cintalah semua yang pahit akan jadi manis,
Lewat cintalah semua yang tembaga akan jadi emas,
Lewat cintalah semua endapan akan jadi anggur murni,
Lewat cintalah semua kesedihan akan jadi obat,
Lewat cintalah si mati akan jadi hidup,
Lewat cintalah Raja jadi budak..
Dari beberapa syair Rumi tersebut, kita memperoleh pemahaman bahwa pemahaman atas Tuhan beserta alam semesta hanya mungkin lewat bahasa cinta, bukan semata-mata dengan kerja dan usaha yang bersifat fisik lahiriyah.
Dari syair Rumi dan ungkapan-ungkapan sufistiknya, kita memperoleh gambaran bahwa Tuhan sebagai satu-satunya tujuan, tak ada yang menyamai. Karena itu, penggambaran Tuhan hanya mungkin lewat perbandingan, di mana yang terpenting adalah makna perbandingan itu sendiri, bukan wujud lahiriyah atau interpretasi fisiknya. Manusia senantiasa tidak puas; nafsunya selalu ingin terpenuhi. Karena itu, ia harus terus bertarung melalui segala usaha. Namun, baru dalam cintalah ia mendapatkan kepuasan. Cinta, menurut Rumi, adalah lenyapnya kedirian, yaitu kesatuan sempurna antara kekasih Tuhan dengan Tuhan. Dengan ketiadaan diri (fana') berarti terbuka bagi memancarnya cahaya Ilahi. Dengan kata lain, Tuhan adalah segala-galanya, tak ada selain Dia. Jadi, karakteristik sufisme Rumi adalah menjadikan cinta sebagai sarana untuk bisa bersatu dan dekat dengan Tuhan.

REFERENSI
Nicholson, Reynold A. 1993. Jalaluddin Rumi : Ajaran Dan Pengalaman Sufi. Jakarta : Pustaka Firdaus.…...

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...Unlike orthodox Muslims, Sufis engage in many dance, music, and prayer activities during worship to express their devotion and longing for Allah. Music unites all Sufis in a universal prayer. Dhikr is the remembrance of God and this idea is often the center of many prayers, singing, and dancing. These short phrases are recited to show devotion, obtain a feeling of peace, and develop faith (Hamilton, Sufism, 1.13). In the Sufi community, musicians, singers, chanters, poets, and followers all join together to participate in sama, the listening of a prayer or poetry sometimes accompanied by music (Ernst, 180). In sama, Sufis can experience spiritual ecstasy, wajd. To outsiders, the Rumi dance is a dance full of whirling but to Sufis, it is considered a prayer. Today, Sufi music has attracted many music lovers from different backgrounds (Sufi Soul). Sufi Muslims also engage in brotherhoods in which every Sufi disciple has a Sufi spiritual master to help them out in their spiritual journey. Sufis believe that there is always a barrier between them and Allah, and that mediator is Muhammad. These Sufi master-disciple chains trace back to Muhammad who is the “ultimate source of Sufi wisdom and the definitive model for Sufis” (Brown, 198-199). To be included in this discipleship, a Sufi master must deem the person worthy to receive the instructions of the Sufi master (Hamilton, Sufism, 1.14). Like Hinduism and Sikhism, hospitality plays a major role in how Sufi Muslims interact with......

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The Influence of the Culture and Author in the Novel of “Khotbah Di Atas Bukit” by Kuntowijoyo

...call the extrinsic of the contain on the book or we can say with the feeling of the authors. At this essay, the writers want to discuss of the use of extrinsic which is contained in the novel that is associated with thinking, and culture of the author. As has been described previously, the culture of the authors environment will affect the results of his work “Sosiologi pengarang, profesi pengarang, dan institusi sastra. Masalah yang berkaitan disini adalah dasar ekonomi produksi sastra, latar belakang sosial, status pengarang, dan ideology pengarang yang terlihat dari berbagai kegiatan pengarang diluar karya sastra” (Wellek & Warren, 2013: 100). “Karya sastra merupakan sturkturalis pengalaman. Pengalaman pribadi, pengalaman orang lain, pengalaman kolektif, pengalaman hasil riset. Pengalaman menjadi bahan dasar suatu cerita itu berserakan, terletak disana sini, tidak pernah utuh, dan selalu sepotong-sepotong” (Kosasih, 2012: 95). As in this quote an author experiences have an important role in his work. Experience is the source and reason how a writer can create a masterpiece. And from the quotations before, it was clear that the extrinsic elements that can be seen from the culture where the author lived at the time the work was created and also the thought or view of the author of an issue will have a major impact on the work he made at that time. The genre which is contained in the novel "Khotbah Di Atas Bukit" by Kuntowijoyo is mysticism, which further highlight on the...

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The Answers

...millions of years ago to provide guidance and an explanation for some of the things we will never know. We do not know how or why we ended up on this Earth, so people use religion as an explanation for that. It's comforting knowing that there is a God or Gods that put us here for a certain reason, and that is what religion gives us.There a lot of things in this world that are unexplained and we will never actually know why or how they happened, so people use religion and mystical experiences to try and become enlightened. The different beliefs and practices in every religion is what is used to enlighten. This process is going to be different when looking at the Hindu mystics in comparison to christian mystics, the upanishads, the beliefs of Rumi, Abraham Maslow, and the beliefs of the Islamic people. The idea that they are trying to acquire some form of higher knowledge through religion is going to consistent in all. Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist in the 19th century said “In a word, we can study today what happened in the past and was then explainable in supernatural terms only. By so doing, we are enable to examine religion in all its facets and in all its meanings in a way that makes it a part of science rather than something outside and exclusive to it” (20). It is impossible for us to study and understand religion in a tangible way because noone was there to know what exactly happened, and that’s there the bible came from. Maslow believed that there are two......

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