Free Essay

Pencil Registor

In: Science

Submitted By daisyd
Words 3874
Pages 16
Project Design

Problem Statement

* The purpose of this project is to make a resistor from a pencil. I would like or want to figure out how electricity is trapped or contained to form the energy in a circuit to make electrical appliances work. In my experiment: I will create my own resistor out of pencils, along with my own circuit board to see the effects a circuit has on energy.

*What a resistor does is slows down the flow of electricity through devices, which now days many devices use: dimmer switches, fan regulators, lights, and what I’m typing on a computer, and many more things in everyday living.

Relevance of your testable question

* Graphite will be the main material used on this project: which is the pencil lead. It is an electrical conductor, which allows many electrical possibilities. It is one of the allotropes of carbon, which in the next paragraph I will give a brief description from Wikipedia. Graphite is considered a semimetal, so there are many electrical possibilities that can be done with it. Along with many other uses for it.

Allotropes (Graphite) “unlike a diamond, graphite is an electrical conductor. Thus, it can be used in, for instance, electrical arc lamp electrodes. Like wise, under standard conditions, graphite is the most stable form of carbon. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat formation of carbon compounds.”
(Definition retrieved from Wikipedia)

Literature review

The literature I used and the websites were very helpful. They gave me idea on how to conduct the following experiment. I went even further and talked to my grandpa who was an electrical engineer for Boeing, to help also further explain the process that would be taking place. Science buddies websites that was done by: Sara Agee Ph. D was the most helpful in guiding me through this experiment. Other experiments that I have tried, failed due to how it was set-up and lack of quantitative data. So in the experiment portion I will explain how this experiment should be set-up, but if I have a hard time describing I will resort to Science Buddies followed by proper citation. Though I understand when doing an experiment you want to see an “experiment!!” But at the end of this project: I did experiment and was able to see success!

Internet resources

1. Allotropes of Carbon
Wikipedia contributors. (9 December 2012 00:53 UTC). Allotropes of carbon. Retrieved 18 December 2012 10:18 UTC, from

2. Scince Buddies, Pencil Resistor
Agee, Sarah, Ph. D.. (Last edit date: 2009-03-15). Science Buddies. In Pencil Resistor.. Retrieved November 01, 2012, from

3. Surf this website for kids by the First Energy Corporation. Find out about electricity, history, efficiency and safety while having fun too! They also provide an excellent glossary: 
2005. "Electric Avenue." First Energy Corp. Akron, OH. [12/13/05] 4. Thelwell, Andy, 2005. "The Blobz Guide to Electrical Circuits." Staffordshire University, UK. [12/13/05] 5. The best place to buy the electronic parts/tools for exploring and playing with electricity is Radio Shack. Find all of your supplies on the online catalog: 
2012. "Radio Shack: Cables, Parts & Connectors". Radio Shack Corp. Fort Worth, TX. [12/13/05]

* Also Books 1. Glover, David. 1993. Batteries, Bulbs, and Wire. New York, NY. Kingfisher. 2. Berger, Melvin. 1989. Switch On, Switch Off. New York, NY. Harper Trophy. 3. Cole, Joanna and Degen, Bruce. 1997. The Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip. New York, NY. Scholastic Books.

Experimental Design:

* Most circuits are designed to allow electricity to flow freely. Where others are designed to slow down the flow of electricity. The one’s that slow down or hinder is where the resistor takes place. A resistor is an electronic unit that is fitted to an electrical unit to hinder the energy flow, with accordance to Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s law is explained also in Wikipedia, but a breakdown would be: (R) resistance, (I) electrical current and (V) voltage. A resistor is useful in limiting the current so that just the right amount of current flows through:
I.E. If the current is too strong when flowing through an object (light bulb) there is damage done to that object (filament is damaged). Hence this is why we a need a resistor in place to control the flow of electricity.

* In this experiment, I will use a wooden pencil as a resistor. This experiment will help me understand how the length of the resistor (being the pencil) will over all affect the amount of current flowing through a circuit. The end result will be the brightness or darkness of the bulb.

* The purpose of this experiment is to show the effect a resistor has on a circuit.
*The size (length) of a resistor, which in this experiment will be the pencil will/should affect the output from a circuit.

* The materials needed to complete this experiment include:
Pencils (#2 pencil recommended), clips (alligator clip set insulated recommended), a 9-volt battery with connector (a negative and positive), a 9-volt light bulb (small recommended) with mount/holder, measuring tool (a ruler recommended), a pencil sharpener (manual or automatic), a Popsicle stick and a cutting utensil (saw recommended by Science Buddies, I did not have one so I used a pocket knife).

* Over all this experiment will create a simple circuit that varies in electrical power. How the electrical power will vary will be depending on the pencil length.

* Dependent, independent, and controlled variables

* Dependent 1. The amount of ohms each resistor produces. 2. How bright/dim the light will become.

* Independent 1. The length of the pencil resistor. 2. The connectivity of test equipment.

* Controlled Variables 1. The voltage of the power source (battery). 2. Using the same testing procedures for all of the resistors. 3. Temperature of the pencil lead.

* Threat reduction to internal validity:

* I will be experimenting with this idea of limited flow of electricity and by adhering to all of the variables listed above and with clear accurate quantitative data this will greatly reduce the threat to internal validity. I will also be photographing the experiment as it progresses for visual observation so that there is no doubt of the data collected.

* Hypothesis

* As I test the various length of the pencil lead (graphite), I predict that there will be an increases the resistance and will increase accordingly and the light will dim. Why I believe this to be so: is the longer the resistor is (the length of the pencil or the graphite) the further the distance the energy has to travel along the pencil lead (graphite).

* A good analogy to illustrate my prediction and how my grandfather described it best to me would be, “a man walking along a narrow hall. As it is packed with people, he is more likely to bump into them. This takes up more movement (kinetic) energy, and means that he becomes more tired than if the hall was empty and he didn’t hit anyone. It also means that he moves more slowly as well. In a relatively empty hall, because there are fewer people, he is less likely to hit them, and the net loss of kinetic energy is lower than that of the man in the packed hall.” We he the explained that, “therefore the length is proportional to the resistance.” I could not find the exact person who quoted this, though it does talk about it at I was unable to pull up because it was a paid for web site. This must be a quote a lot of electrical engineers use, because it is popular to be said and read. Many people have used it as a tool when it comes to experiments with electricity or physics.

* Experiment Materials 1. 3, #2 pencils. 2. 3, insulated alligator clip sets 3. 9 Volt battery 4. 9 Volt battery connector 5. A rated 9 Volt bulb: Small light bulb is what used and recommended on Science Buddies 6. Holder/mount for the light bulb 7. Measuring tool: I used a ruler 8. Pencil sharpener: manual or automatic will work 9. Popsicle stick 10. Bare strand of electrical wire (6 inches in length) 11. Saw Digital 12. Multi-meter Below is a picture of all the tools needed for the experiment, most of them I borrowed from my grandpa or boyfriend to complete the experiment. But if you would like to try this experiment yourself you can find the necessary tools at: Radio Shack, Home Depot, Lowes, or most hardware stores. The resistors you test can be anything found in or around the house.

* Experimental Procedure

1. First thing I did was set-up my circuit board, this will be how I test my resistors. What I needed to set-up my circuits: a. Three pieces of wire b. Insulated alligator clip’s c. Attach a alligator clip at the end of each piece of wire 2. I then took one piece of wire and attached it to my circuit board by using the alligator clip to one of the terminals of the battery. *You must make sure it is clipped securely to the terminal, because if it is not, then this could hinder the experiment. 3. I then taking the other end of that wire attached it to one of the light bulbs terminal holder (screw). *So, at this point I am making contact to the screw using the alligator clip. 4. Now grabbing the 2nd piece wire I will then repeat steps 1-3 5. Then I take my small light bulb and securely screw it in to the light bulb mount/holder. *Before I get started on my experiment, I’ll need to make sure my circuit board works. What you have created is similar to a car’s jumper cables. You will take the two empty ends of alligator clips (make sure to grab by the insulator sleeve) and touching/striking together to each other. *I tested to see how much of a shock you get from not grabbing the insulator sleeves, and it was definitely a shocking experience (though very minute). -If the light turns on, move on to the step 6. -If the light does not turn on; then go back to step 1 and start over again. The first thing I would check over your circuit board to see if everything is making a connection. I did various things to see if this could hinder the light, and it will. If the alligator clip even slightly touches the wood of the pencil, it will create the light not to light. 6. Next I will make my pencil resistors that I will test on the circuit board that I created in step 1. Which is what we checked in the last step. *The resistors will be of various sizes; the size of the resistor should affect the brightness of the blub. *How I will go about having resistors of various sizes will be by: cutting pencils into different lengths and then sharpening both ends of the pencil. Various sizes: large (6 inches), medium (4 inches), and small (2 inches), which Science buddies also recommended. *Almost anything sharp will cut through a pencil, I used a pocketknife, though Science Buddies does recommend using a saw. 7. After I cut each pencil to 2, 4, and 6 inches. I will then sharpen both ends of the pencil using my manual or automatic sharpener. *I used an automatic one, but any pencil sharpener will work. *Don't sharpen the pencils too much, but, just enough to expose the graphite so you can make a connection. *I did sharpen enough to where the alligator clip would not contact wood, because this will hinder the experiment.

8. After sharpening the pencil, you should then use measuring tool (a ruler or something similar) to measure each piece of pencil from what I call point A to B (Science buddies says “tip to tip”).
*This is done to make sure your measurements are still correct (which will help keep accuracy during the project).
*Why you would do so: is because after you sharpened the pencil lead, the length of the pencil may have changed.
*Please note that: if the over all length did change you must go back to step 6 and start over there to ensure the proper length for accuracy.
*Also keep in mind you want your pencil lengths to be in regular intervals: i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc. So if the sharpened pencils are still in regular intervals you should be able to continue the experiment.

9. I then placed each pencil resistor into the circuit one at a time by putting the resistor in between the alligator clips. So at this point your alligator clip will be connected to the resistor (pencil’s graphite). And did so very careful, so I didn’t chip the graphite with the alligator clip. Being careful also helped avoid human error.
* Make sure to place an alligator clip on both ends of the pencil, and always remember to grab by the insulated sleeve (because you never know when your going to get a shocking shocking experience).
*Always make sure the clips are not touching the wood of the #2 pencil (should be attached to the graphite), because as we all know wood is an insulator and the current will not flow through. Wood is not a conductive material like the graphite is.

10. You will repeat step 9 for each length of pencil/resistor. With every resistor I connect, I will look at the light. Each time one is connected I will see if there is a difference in brightness.
*Most observers when they do this experiment use a number scale to describe brightness. I will record of my observation the same way, and use a number scale to describe what I see. For example: I’ll use a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is dark and 5 is brightness.
*Science Buddies used a Brightness of Light scale using: off, low, medium, or high. But also recommends using a bright to darkness scale, like I will be using.

11. I will then use a multi-meter (I used a digital) to measure the voltage across each pencil, we will be looking for the drop in voltage. As was done in step 10, and also recommended by Science Buddies. I also recommend having someone there that knows how to read/work a multi-meter, this is where I got my boyfriends help to understand the functions of the multi-meter.
*I first set the multi-meter to read DC volts.
*Circuit will be connected, and the light bulb should be on.
The following is once again very similar to a car’s batteries and jumper cables:
-Touch positive: which is the red clip of the multi-meter and connect it on the side of the pencil connected to the positive terminal of the battery. Which on the battery will be (+)
-Touch the negative: which also known as the ground or the black clip of the multi-meter and connect it on the side of the pencil connected to the negative terminal of the battery. Which on a battery will be (-)
*Make sure to properly collect and repot the voltage reading.

12. Next, I measured the current/flow of electricity in the circuit. I did so by using the multi-meter.
*It should be connected in series: a. Using my pencil resistor b. My small 9 volt light bulb c. And my borrowed multi-meter that should be set once again to read DC current.
*Make sure to properly collect and report the data.

13. It is time to measure the Ohms (which is how we will measure the resistance), by connecting in series with pencil resistor.
* But before I do so, I will have to remove the pencil resistor from the circuit and set the multi meter to Ohms and then record my answers

14. I wanted to test my experiment even further so: Science Buddies recommended testing wire, and Popsicle stick. So I will also test a piece of what my boyfriend called “bare strand of electrical wire” and a wooden Popsicle stick.
*These are will be my control groups. I’ll then go back to step 9 and continue through step 13; by placing them one by one into the circuit and collecting the data by using the same method and scale I used on the test with the pencils. Which Science Buddies puts it this way:
*Bare strand electrical wire is "positive control."
*Popsicle stick is called a "negative control."

* Set up should be similar to the pictures below*

I used white paper underneath my experiment so in the pictures the glow of the light could be seen. This will not affect the experiment!


* 2 Inch Pencil Resistor: first part is data collected, followed by a picture of the experiment. Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | DC Volts (V) | 6.27V | 6.35 V | 6.22 V | DC Amps (I) | 0.297 I | 0.286 I | 0.265 I | Ohms (R) | 7.6 R | 7.6 R | 7.5 R |

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | Brightness 1 Dark-5 Brightest | 4 | 4 | 4 |

* 4 Inch Pencil Resistor: first part is data collected, followed by the picture of the experiment. Which you will notice the light is getting dimmer, you can see so on the paper.

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | DC Volts (V) | 5.49 V | 5.42 V | 5.31 | DC Amps (I) | .082 I | .106 I | .099 I | Ohms (R) | 12.8 R | 12.7 R | 12.8 R |

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | Brightness 1 Dark-5 Brightest | 3 | 2 | 2 |

* 6 inch Pencil Resistor: first part is data collected, followed by the picture of the experiment.

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | DC Volts (V) | 4.96 V | 5.01 V | 4.92 V | DC Amps (I) | .036 I | .046 I | 0.42 I | Ohms (R) | 16.0 R | 16.1 R | 16.0 R |

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | Brightness 1 Dark-5 Brightest | 1 | 2 | 1 |

* Bare Wire: first part is data collected, followed by a picture of the experiment. Also, notice how bright the light is when its flowing through a metal resistor.

| 1 | 2 | 3 | DC Volts (V) | 8.47 V | 8.67 V | 8.54 V | DC Amps (I) | .279 I | .295 I | .284 I | Ohms (R) | 0.3 R | 0.3 R | 0.3 R |

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | Brightness 1 Dark-5 Brightest | 5 | 5 | 5 |

* Popsicle Stick: first part is data collected, followed by the picture of the experiment. Keep in mind on this one that wood is an insulator, so the results will be a lot different.

Attempts | 1 | 2 | 3 | DC Volts (V) | 0.00 V | 0.00 V | 0.00 V | DC Amps (I) | .000 I | .000 I | .000 I | Ohms (R) | OL | OL | OL |

*My boyfriend told me this is considered: OL establishes “Out of Limits” or the amount of resistance that can’t be measured by this instrument.

| 1 | 2 | 3 | Brightness 1 Dark-5 Brightest | 0 | 0 | 0 |

* Results

The bar graph illustrates that my hypothesis is fairly accurate. Looking at the graph you can see how the over all length of the pencil effects the circuit. As the size (length) of the resistor increases, I saw the resistance increases as well. So the longer the resistor, the dimmer the light will be. Also the data collected shows: that as the resistance increases the applied voltage and amperage decreases. The decrease in the electrical flow though the circuit is also visible though the brightness of the light. So as you look over the above picture’s it shows: the longer the pencil resistor the dimmer the light was illuminated, the shorter the resistor the brighter the light.

* Conclusion

* My data was relatively accurate, as far as what I wanted to conclude out of the experiment. However there might be some cases where factors take place that would create some inaccuracies: a. The ruler: numbers could be hard to read, and or battered. This creates and in-accurate reading. b. Crocodile clips: placing them to be reasonably in line was tedious and hard, and made equipment set up very difficult. c. Crocodile clips: if rusty this might increase the resistance. d. Connection error: like I said prior, making a connection to the graphite without chipping is almost impossible. The graphite is very easily manipulated, and chips away easily by the alligator clip. Which ultimately if the chip is large enough, it could have affected the results of the resistance. But overall, it holds true that the shorter the resistor the brighter the light, which you see in the picture of the 2 inch pencil. Then when you look at the picture of the 6 inch pencil, it shows the light is very dim. The length of the resistor does affect the flow of electricity. So the longer the resistor the dimmer the light will be. Also if you use an insulated object like the Popsicle stick, it proves how the electrons need that graphite or something similar to travel/flow through. Over all, this experiment was a success. Though took time to do it accurately, so there was no human error.

Reference/Literature Review

1. Glover, David. 1993. Batteries, Bulbs, and Wire. New York, NY. Kingfisher. *This book was a recommendation on Science Buddies 2. Berger, Melvin. 1989. Switch On, Switch Off. New York, NY. Harper Trophy. *This book was a recommendation on Science Buddies 3. Cole, Joanna and Degen, Bruce. 1997. The Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip. New York, NY. Scholastic Books. *This book was a recommendation on Science Buddies 4.

5. Scince Buddies, Pencil Resistor * Agee, Sarah, Ph. D. (Last edit date: 2009-03-15). Science Buddies. Pencil Resistor. Retrieved November 01, 2012, from 6. Surf this website for kids by the First Energy Corporation. Find out about electricity, history, efficiency and safety while having fun too! They also provide an excellent glossary: 
2005. "Electric Avenue." First Energy Corp. Akron, OH. [12/13/05] * First Energy Corporation. (2005). Electirc Avenue. Retrieved 12/11/12, from 7. Thelwell, Andy, 2005. "The Blobz Guide to Electrical Circuits." Staffordshire University, UK. [12/13/05] * Thelwell, Andy. (2005). The Blobz Guide to Electrical Circuits. Retrieved 12/11/12, from 8. The best place to buy the electronic parts/tools for exploring and playing with electricity is Radio Shack. Find all of your supplies on the online catalog: 
2012. "Radio Shack: Cables, Parts & Connectors". Radio Shack Corp. Fort Worth, TX. [12/13/05] * Radio Shack. (2012). Radio Shack Cables, Parts and Connectors. Retrieved 12/11/12, from .…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Rh Bill

...INFORMAL PROPOSAL A Sample Informal Proposal Below you will find a sample proposal asking for new pencil sharpeners for a small private grade school.  After each section, we'll provide a commentary to explain how what has been written works as part of a proposal.     The Header To: Rev. Mark Smith From: Nicole Johnson Date: March 10, 2011   Subject: A proposal to purchase new pencil sharpeners for the classrooms of St. Mary’s School  Purpose I write this letter to propose a solution to a recurring problem at St. Mary’s School.  The problem is that the pencil sharpeners in the classrooms are very old and do not work effectively anymore.  Students and teachers continually become frustrated because it is difficult to sharpen a pencil with the current sharpeners, and pencils that are sharp are crucial for effective learning. I suggest that we order new pencil sharpeners for each classroom so that the students will have pencils that work well and will therefore be able to write without the frustration of worn down pencil points. * Commentary On the Purpose: Because the audience is the pastor of a church that has a grade school, and because the pastor is not using the classrooms in the school every day, he may not know how bad the pencil sharpeners are.  Thus, the problem is stated clearly at the beginning in the purpose section of the proposal Problem of Ineffective Pencil Sharpeners There are 217 students enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade at St.......

Words: 2517 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Eco Pencil

...INTRODUCTION Pencil is a writing or drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of pigment (usually graphite, but can also be colored pigment or charcoal) and clay, usually encased in a thin wood cylinder, though paper and plastic sheaths are also used, ferrules and end-plugs. These days, typical yellow writing pencils and children’s coloring pencils are generally considered to be a commodity. The wood cased pencils produced by pencil manufacturers are the most common type of pencils. The industry has long been characterized by a high degree of international trade, particularly in the supply of base raw materials or component parts needed to produce pencils. It is said to have been difficult to transport for it came from different parts of the world. The wood-casing pencils are generally the most expensive raw material component of a finished pencil. While pencil manufacturers strive to minimize the cost of producing the pencils and to sell all for more than the cost in order to achieve a profit, there can be alternative raw materials that can maintain the desired quality level and quantity of production of these pencils. And in connection with this, the proponents want to make use of used papers in substitute for the major component of pencil which is the cedar wood. Eco pencils are said to be environmental friendly because we will have no trees to chop, no wood slates to grind and no hexagonal shape to cut by grinding wood. Each is made from one page of recycled paper...

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pop: Pencils of Promise

...Melissa Eder 4/1/2013 Persuasive Speech “Pencils of Promise: Take action for PoP” On December 2012, Sophia Bush came to Panama to spend her holiday break. While she was here in Panama some friends saw her and took photos with her and posted them on instagram and as I checked Sophia Bush’s instagram profile, I saw a lot of photos and ads supporting the “Pencils of Promise” organization. That’s when I realized that the main reason she came here, to Panama, was to give poor children presents and food, and to see how schools are here, in order to build new schools or improve the ones we already have through the “Pencils of Promise” organization. That same day I did some online research to see what was this “Pencils of Promise” organization is. Pencils of Promise believes every child should have access to quality education. They create schools, programs, and global communities around the common goal of education for all. This organization was founded in 2008 by Adam Braun, a college student who was backpacking across the globe. “It began with a question. A small boy begging in the streets of India. “What do you want most in the world” I asked. The answer: A pencil.” Pencils of Promise focuses on building strong structures and sustainable education programs. By forming long-lasting, collaborative relationships with communities. They increase access to quality education and positively impact students and parents in high-need communities. At......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

My Work

...Bags/1 Box Quart Zip-Lock **NO PENCIL BOXES ** PLEASE LABEL ALL ITEMS WITH NAME THIRD GRADE 4 Spiral Notebooks with Wide Ruled paper (70 sheets) 2 Marble Composition Books 2 Pkgs. Wide-Ruled Notebook Paper 24 #2 Pencils 1 Pkg. Pencil Tip Erasers 1 Box of 24 Crayons 15 Glue Sticks 1 Pair of Safety Scissors (prefer Fiskars) 5 Pocket Folder (1 each: Red, Blue, Yellow, Green, Orange) 2 Boxes of Tissue 1 Ruler (cm and inches) NOT SEE-THROUGH 1 Package Red Pens 1 Pkg. 4 Expo Markers (low odor) 1 Pkg. Sticky Notes 1 Zippered Pencil Pouch Boys - Zip Lock Sandwich Bags (1 box) Girls – Zip Lock Jumbo Bags (1 box) **NO PENCIL BOXES** DO NOT LABEL ANY ITEMS WITH NAME FIRST GRADE 1 Box of 24 Crayons 1 Pair of Safety Scissors (prefer Fiskars) 3 7 oz Bottles of White Elmer’s All-Purpose Glue 5 Jumbo Glue Sticks 1 Small Pencil Box for Supplies 5” x 8” 3 Boxes of Tissues 1 Old T-Shirt for Art 2 Bar Erasers 2 Folders with Pockets 12 #2 Yellow Pencils 5 Marble Composition Books 1 Set of iPad Headphones (Freeman & Heckman Only) 1 Box Baby Wipes 1 Pump Bottle Hand Sanitizer – 8 oz. or larger 1 Box Quart Zip-Lock 1 Box of Gallon Ziploc Bags FOURTH GRADE 2 Boxes Twistable Colored Pencils 1 Pair Sharp Point Scissors (prefer Fiskars) 2 Packages of Wide-Ruled Loose Leaf Notebook Paper 12 #2 Pencils 2 Boxes of Tissues 10 Glue Sticks (small) 6 Pocket Folders with Prongs 4 Spiral Notebooks w/ Plastic Cover 100 pages each 1 Pkg. 4 Expo Markers (low odor) 1 Hand-held Pencil Sharpener with Lid 2......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...when I wake. pencil I am a little pencil That made of wood and lead My head is long and pointed My body is smooth and red I once was long and handsome But now I soon must die? I like to write quite nicely But master does not try He treats me very badly And often shaves my head He cut's me so unkindly That I must soon be dead? He sucks me too I hate it And put me in the ink Have I no cause to grumble Just tell me what you think Pencil My drawing teacher said: Look, think, make a mark. Look, I told myself. And waited to be marked. Clouds are white but they darken with rain. Even a child blurs them back to little woolies on a hillside, little bundles without legs. Look, my teacher would surely tell me, they’re nothing like that. Like that: the lie. Like that: the poem. She said: Respond to the heaviest part of the figure first. Density is form. That I keep hearing destiny is not a mark of character. Like pilgrimage once morphed to mirage in a noisy room, someone so earnest at my ear. Then marriage slid. Mir-aage, Mir-aage, I heard the famous poet let loose awry into her microphone, triumphant. The figure to be drawn — not even half my age. She’s completely emptied her face for this job of standing still an hour. Look. Okay. But the little dream in there, inside the think that comes next. A pencil in my hand, its secret life is charcoal, the wood already burnt, a sacrifice. A pencil......

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


... Advise Joe. Question 2 Prac & co pencils manufacture and sells pencils. To market their products Prac & co fax over 100 local businesses promoting their pencils and prices. Tony runs a local business and receives a fax. He telephones prac & co and asks whether they can do a special deal if tony purchases 400 pencils. The salesperson at prac & co, Jack, replies “it depends what price you want”. Tony tells jack that he does not want to pay more than 15 cents a pencil. Jack replies: ‘I will have to check with my boss”. Two days later jack leaves a message on tony’s answering machine saying “our best price is 20 cents a pencil, please let me know by the end of the week if you still want 400 pencils”. Tony hears the message but does not telephone jack until nine days later. Whn jack answers the telephone, tony tells him “I would like those 400 pencils delivered this week”. Jack replies “sorry, we didn’t hold any for you and we ran out of stock this morning”. Tony meets his friend, lionel and complains to lionel about the poor customer service at prac & co. lionel tells him “I’ll make you a counter offer to anything prac & co promised and sell you 400 pencils at 10 cents each”. Two days later on Monday, lionel leaves tony a note under his door which reads “sorry, only have 80 pencils to sell”. Tony does not see the note and phones lionel on Tuesday saying “lets meet so I can pay you and collect those pencils”. Advise tony of his legal position in......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Business Can Change Your World

...Name __________________________ Date ________________________ Mrs. Lee Grade 3 Math Worksheet #24: Solving Word Problems Strategy: Read the problem. Find the key word or words to help you decide what operation to use. Write out the equation and solve it. Problem 1: On Valentine’s Day, Katie received 12 cards, 16 pieces of chocolates and 4 coupons for ice cream. How many things are in Katie’s Valentine’s Day bag all together? 1. Find the key word or words. _____________________ 2. What operation should you use? Addition or subtraction? ___________________ 3. Write out the equation and solve: ______________________________ Problem 2: Jimmy bought a package of 40 pencils, he gave a pencil to each of his 21 classmates. How many pencils does Jimmy have left? 1. Find the key word or words. _____________________ 2. What operation should you use? Addition or subtraction? ___________________ 3. Write out the equation and solve: ______________________________ Problem 3: For the museum field trip, Clara’s class will bring 44 juice packs, Jake’s class will bring 12 bags of cookies, and Max’s class will bring 23 boxes of fruit rollups. How many snacks will there be in total? 1. Find the key word or words. _____________________ 2. What operation should you use? Addition or subtraction? ___________________ 3. Write out the equation and solve: ______________________________ Bonus: In Cal’s family there are two adults and three children. Cal’s Dad is 41 and his Mom......

Words: 5501 - Pages: 23

Free Essay


...The art of sharpening pencils BY MATTHEW JAMES TAYLOR ON 8 OCTOBER 2007 Welcome to the world of pencil sharpening - this may sound like a dull topic but there is actually a lot more to it than you think. There are a number of different sharpening styles and methods; all good artists should know them. The trick is using the right one at the right time. Sharpening styles There are four main points to select from; the one you choose will depend on the type of pencil you use, and the style of your drawing. The standard point Everyone knows about this one, its trademark conical point is the most common and the most versatile of sharpening styles. If you're looking for a good all-rounder for most types of pencils then this is the best. Plus if you don't have a sharpening knife then you probably don't have a choice. There are a couple of drawbacks with this style however. The standard point can get blunt quickly, particularly if you are using softer pencils such as charcoal. On larger drawings you will find yourself constantly sharpening the damn thing. Often lower quality pencils will contain a smaller diameter core of graphite; if this is slightly off-centre you will find the wood comes so close to the point on one side that it's almost unusable. This can very be frustrating. . The chisel point This is a rarely seen style where the end of the pencil is cut with a knife into a chisel shape. The main benefit of the chisel is its ability to draw two types of marks on......

Words: 1683 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...government restrictions. Dixon Ticonderoga Company being one of the oldest public companies in the United States is known predominantly for its No. 2 yellow pencil which was introduced in 1913. They were recognized as the second largest pencil manufacturer in the country at that time with annual revenues amounting to a little over $100 million dollars. ( Within the 1990’s, Dixon was threatened with foreign competition where the Chinese began dumping pencils on the U.S market. Eventually, antidumping duties were placed on Chinese pencils, raising their prices in the process. This tactic by the American government proved futile as the Chinese produced a better product which continued to flood the US market. Trading has become much easier as barriers keep falling and businesses are now finding more opportunities internationally with the shift towards globalization. The Dixon Ticonderoga Company realized that this venture was going to improve sales and open new avenues for their slowly declining business. The company lost over $200 million dollars worth of business between the period of 1991 and 1999 leading them to explore cheaper ways in which to produce pencils, lower costs and eventually improve overall business. Steps included finding wood for production of pencils at a cheaper purchase price, making pencils out of recycled paper cases, purchasing erasers from a Korean supplier and lastly establishing a manufacturing operation in Mexico. An entirely......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Art Education

...---Syllabus for primary classes (1-5) 2012-13 CLASS I Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Introduction of geometrical shapes ( free hand ). with colours / pasting of coloured paper. * Drawings / sketches based on above said shapes e.g * Introduction : Colours , Names , use of colours. * Free hand drawing / painting with own imagination. Class II Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketching using Geometrical shapes. * Paper folding ( Origami ) * Composition using two or more shapes / forms and colouring. * Colour paper cutting and parting or tearing , shapes like leaf, ball , cloud or Geometrical shapes Class III Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketches using Geometrical shapes. * Introduction of colours : Primary colours : Red , Blue , Yellow Secondary colours : Orange , Green, Violet * Composition / pictures of : 1. Domestic item : Cup plate , glass , jug , top pot etc. 2. Landscape( Simple ) 3. Cartoons 4. Paper cutting and folding Class IV Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketches using Geometrical......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

A Pencil and Paper Algorithm for Solving Soduku

...A Pencil-and-Paper Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles J. F. Crook T he puzzle Sudoku has become the passion of many people the world over in the past few years. The interesting fact about Sudoku is that it is a trivial puzzle to solve. The reason it is trivial to solve is that an algorithm exists for Sudoku solutions. The algorithm is a tree-based search algorithm based on backtracking in a tree until a solution is found. If all a person needs to do is sit down at their personal computer, punch in the numbers given in the puzzle, and then watch a computer program compute the solution, we can reasonably ask why a person would bother to struggle to solve Sudoku puzzles. The reason is that people enjoy struggling with pencil and paper to work out Sudoku solutions. Herzberg and Murty (2007, p. 716) give two reasons for the enjoyment of this struggle: First, it is sufficiently difficult to pose a serious mental challenge for anyone attempting to do the puzzle. Secondly, simply by scanning rows and columns, it is easy to enter the “missing colors”, and this gives the solver some encouragement to persist. This paper develops an algorithm for solving any Sudoku puzzle by pencil and paper, especially the ones classified as diabolical. down into nine 3 × 3 subboards that do not overlap. We call these subboards boxes and number them from 1 to 9 in typewriter order beginning in the upper left-hand corner of the board, as displayed in Figure 1. The......

Words: 4765 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...Samsung Galaxy S∏ 4 User Guide User Guide GH68-38773F Printed in USA Guía del Usuario A N D R O I D S M A R T P H O N E User Manual Please read this manual before operating your phone and keep it for future reference. GH68-38773F Printed in Korea Intellectual Property All Intellectual Property, as defined below, owned by or which is otherwise the property of Samsung or its respective suppliers relating to the SAMSUNG Phone, including but not limited to, accessories, parts, or software relating there to (the “Phone System”), is proprietary to Samsung and protected under federal laws, state laws, and international treaty provisions. Intellectual Property includes, but is not limited to, inventions (patentable or unpatentable), patents, trade secrets, copyrights, software, computer programs, and related documentation and other works of authorship. You may not infringe or otherwise violate the rights secured by the Intellectual Property. Moreover, you agree that you will not (and will not attempt to) modify, prepare derivative works of, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or otherwise attempt to create source code from the software. No title to or ownership in the Intellectual Property is transferred to you. All applicable rights of the Intellectual Property shall remain with SAMSUNG and its suppliers. Open Source Software Some software components of this product, including but not limited to 'PowerTOP' and 'e2fsprogs', incorporate......

Words: 55362 - Pages: 222

Free Essay

Dixon Ticonderoga Victim of Globalization

...barriers to cross-border trade and investment; by distance, time zones, and language; and by national differences in government regulation, culture, and business systems.”(Hill, 4). The company was founded in the 1870 by Joseph Dixon as The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company. He introduced the No. 2 yellow pencil to the United Sates, and came to be the world’s largest dealer, and consumer of graphite world wide What began as a small business in Salem, Massachusetts with the discovery of graphite as a stove polish and an additive in lubricants, foundry facing, brake linings, oilless bearings, and non corrosive paint and manufactured lubricants soon expanded nation wide with annual revenues of a hundred million dollars and more. In 1982 Joseph Dixon Crucible merged with Bryn Mawr Corporation forming the Dixon Ticonderoga Company ( However, in 1990 business was not as easy (refer to Appendix 2). The Company was faced with some foreign competition .Which could put the American pencil industry out of business. “The Chinese were dumping pencils on the U.S market” (Hill, 32). The American pencil industry felt threatened and heavy antidumping duties where placed on Chinese pencils which raised their price. However the Chinese still had a better product and continued to eat up the American market. The Dixon Ticonderoga Company had to realize that the economy was shifting more and more towards globalization. The global market place is where business now lies. Trading......

Words: 2286 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

I Pencil

...50th Anniversary Edition I, Pencil My Family Tree as Told to Leonard E. Read FOUNDATION FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION 30 South Broadway Irvington-on-Hudson New York 10533 1-800-960-4FEE • 914-591-7230 “I, Pencil” is a superb case study of free markets in action. Half of the world’s economic problems would vanish if everyone would read “I, Pencil.” Burton W. Folsom, Jr. Professor of History Hillsdale College b There is no better, more easily understood, and more fun explanation of the complexity of markets than Leonard Read’s “I, Pencil.” It ought to give considerable pause when we listen to the arrogance of politicians who tell us they can manage an economy better than millions, perhaps billions, of independent decision makers in pursuit of their own personal goals. Its message to would-be planners is to bug out! Walter E. Williams John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics George Mason University b The most valuable truths about economics and liberty can be found in a lowly lead pencil. When my children are old enough, I will read them a classic little essay by the late philosopher Leonard E. Read that turns a mundane writing instrument into an elementary lesson about free-market capitalism. Michelle Malkin Syndicated columnist b I, Pencil My Family Tree as Told to Leonard E. Read Introduction by Lawrence W. Reed Afterword by Milton Friedman This edition of “I, Pencil” is dedicated to our late esteemed colleague, Beth A. Hoffman,...

Words: 4221 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Why the Sky Is Blue

...Markers • (2) Spiral Notebooks • 1 Lg. Plastic or Cloth Pencil Pouch • 4 lg. Glue Sticks • 2 Lg. boxes of Tissue • 2 Rolls of Paper Towel • 1 pk. of Lg. Index Cards • 2 boxes of Baby Wipes • 2 Lg. bottles of Hand Sanitizer • 1 Disposable Camera • 1 Book Bag • 4 boxes of Lg. Crayons (8 Basic Colors) • 6 Large Pencils Label All School Supplies 1st Grade • (4 packs) 24 #2 Pencils • 1 pair of Fiskar Scissors • 3 Plain Folders (Red, blue, green) • 1 Character Folder for graded papers • 4 Lg. Glue Sticks • 2 pks. of Notebook Paper (wide-rule) • 4 Lg. Rectangular Erasers • 1st Grade - continued • 1 Lg. Plastic or Cloth Pencil Pouch • 2 Lg. Bottles of Hand Sanitizer • 1 Box of Ziploc Snack or Sandwich Bags • 2 Lg. boxes of Tissue • 1 pk. of Lg. Unlined Index Cards • 3 Lg. Bottles of Clorox Wipes • 1 Ruler (standard & metric) • 1 Stretchable Book Cover • 1 Lg. box of Baby Wipes • 1 Black Dry Erase Marker • 4 boxes of 24 Crayons (One box per quarter) • 1 Book Bag (No roller book-bags) • 3 Spiral Notebooks (Wide Rule) (Red, blue, green) Please put your child’s name on all school supplies 2nd Grade • 2 PKS. OF #2 Pencils • 2 boxes of 24 Crayons • 3 plain Pocket......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3