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Patho 1 Case Study

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After reading E.O’s chief complaint, we can deduce from the past medical history of bee string allergies and asthma that E.O responds to particular allergens with a undesirable hyperactive immune response. This oversensitivity is called type I hypersensitivity and is mediated by immunoglobulin E. (2)
E.O visited the physician complaining of a throat inflammation/infection. The physician prescribed her penicillin but being aware of her undesirable cascade of immune responses, he is wary of another allergic reaction that is indeed worsened in patients with asthma. (7) The release of IgE results in binding to immune cells such as mast cells, lymphocytes, basophils..etc. (1) The bindings of IgE to these cells in high risk (asthmatic) patients are at increased risk for anaphylactic shock than those without pre-existing conditions. (4)(7) Unfortunately, penicillin is notorious for reactions such as anaphylactic shock and if the patient is taking it for the first time, symptoms may not show up until the body has formed antibodies and once exposed the second time, attack commences and unforeseen systemic symptoms occur. (6)
IgE is one type of antibody produced by B cells and plasma cells that can be found binding tightly to mast cell receptors in the mucosal tissues where it acts as a receptor.(7) Once allergen or antigen has entered the patients system, IgE isotypes make plenty of IgE antibodies on the first exposure and these antibodies will bind to their designated mast cells once circulated. (7) Consequently, on second encounter, IgE-mast cell complex in tissue interacts with the allergen, which cascades into an inflammatory sequestration of mast cell degranulation. (3) Mast cell degranulation can release granules containing cytokines, histamine and other response that cause sneezing, bronchiole constriction, hives, anaphylactic shock and even death. (1)(4)(5) E.O is…...

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