Premium Essay

Notes on Pain

In: Science

Submitted By ermag2
Words 618
Pages 3
NOTES: PAIN:
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:
• Neuroanatomical pathway: o Originates from either or both CNS and PNS o Nociceptors = from PNS to CNS
 Located in skin, connective tissue, muscle, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic viscera.
 Stimulated by either trauma or chemicals released from damaged tissue
 PNS to CNS:
• A-delta fibres: myelinated, large diameter => rapid transmission. Localised, short-term, sharp.
• C fibres: unmyleinated, small diameter. Diffuse, burning, aching, constant pain. Perisist after the initial injury. o Nociception:
 How noxious stimuli are typically perceived as pain.
 4 phases:
• Transduction: from PNS to spinal cord: injury => chemical release: substance P, histamine, prostaglandins, serotonin, bradykinin = NTs that propagate message; second set of NTs: S.P., glutamate, ATP.
• Transmission: from spinal cord to brain
• Perception: conscious awareness of a painful sensation.
• Modulation: pain message inhibited. Descending pathways from brain => 3rd set of NTs => slow down pain impulse => analgesic effect. o Sources of pain:
 Visceral pain:
• Large interior organs
• Stretching, trauma.
• Eg. Ureteral colic, appendicitis, cholecystitis, ulcer pain
• Transmitted by ascending nerve fibres + ANS fibres => presentation of autonomic responses: o Vomiting, nausea, pallor, diaphoresis.
 Deep somatic pain:
• Result of pressure, trauma, ischaemia to BVs, joints, tendons, muscle, bone.
 Cutaneous somatic pain:
• Skin surface or subcutaneous tissue injury.
 Referred pain:
• Felt at site A but originates from site B
• Both nerve sites are innervated by the sme spinal nerve, and it is difficult for the brain to differentiate a point of origin. o Neurogenic sources of pain: disturbance in PNS or CNS: produce pain without nociceptor stimulation.
 Neuropathic pain:
• Abnormal processing of pain message. The most difficult…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Growing Pains

...Growing Pains by Robert D. Nicoson “I’m challenged and motivated where I am, and I like the company. You know that. But I’ve got to say I’m interested in the opportunity you’re describing because of the money and the equity position. For those reasons alone, it’s tough to pass by. Let me think about it some more and call you in the morning. Thanks, Les.” That was the extent of the conversation Cyrus Maher, CEO of Waterway Industries, overheard when he came around the corner just outside of Lee Carter’s office. She must have been talking with Les Finch, Maher thought. Here’s trouble. Of course, it didn’t necessarily mean any- thing, Maher told himself as he passed the of- fice, waving to Carter. Finch, a well-connected marketing consultant, had been the match- maker between Carter and Waterway Indus- tries to begin with. With the company in the fourth quarter of its best year ever, he certainly wouldn’t be encouraging her to leave. Would he? Maher got a cup of coffee in the company’s first floor kitchenette and deliberately took the long way back to his office, through the design room. As always, the atmosphere was upbeat, but these days he also thought he could detect a sense of purpose that had never before been a part of Waterway’s organization. Founded in 1963 in Lake Placid, New York, Waterway had started out as a small, high- quality canoe maker. Over the years, it had built a good reputation all through the North- east and had acquired a base of customers in the...

Words: 8434 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Pain

... Quotes about pain from QuotationsBook.com Who, except the gods, can live time through forever without any pain? - Aeschylus The injuries we do and the injuries we suffer are seldom weighed on the same scales. - Aesop The greatest evil is physical pain. - Augustine, St. The moment an ill can be patiently handled, it is disarmed of its poison, though not of its pain. - Beecher, Henry Ward And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be nor more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain. [Revelation] - Bible To banish cares, scare away sorrow and soothe pain is the business of the poet and singer. - Bodenstedt 1 There has never been a great athlete who died not knowing what pain is. - Bradley, Bill Pain dies quickly, and lets her weary prisoners go; the fiercest agonies have shortest reign. - Bryant, William C. The great art of life is sensation, to feel that we exist, even in pain. - Byron, Lord It is easier to find men who will volunteer to die, than to find those who are willing to endure pain with patience. - Caesar, Julius All pain is either severe or slight, if slight, it is easily endured; if severe, it will without doubt be brief. - Cicero, Marcus T. The injuries that befall us unexpectedly are less severe than those which are deliberately anticipated. - Cicero, Marcus T. 2 After great pain, a formal feeling comes. The Nerves sit ceremonious, like......

Words: 1391 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Life Is a Pain

...Life is a pain. If anyone tells you differently, they are trying to sell you something. Life can drag you around, unfazed by your screams of agony and terror. But it has its pros. Every laughter, smile, lovely moment is worth living in this terrible, frustrating world. You just have to keep your head up, be positive. Because there are good things in this world, through all the demons and pain. You just have to accept that you will fall down, you will have your heartbroken, and you will like you can’t live through another day. But….you will also have butterflies in your stomach, snort milk out your nose because you were laughing so hard, and smile so big, it starts to hurt. Yes, life is a huge freaking pain, but it is totally worth it. Your friends. Your family. Even the people you just pass by. They are worth every breathe you take. Every blink you make, and please don’t ever think differently. We all are going to die one day. Have fun. Love the pain life gives you. I have never heard someone say they regretted living life, for ignoring all the negative things in their life and just going through the day with a smile on their face. Just keep laughing, keeping smiling, keep having lots fun, keep living, you most certainly won’t regret it as well. And please remember, Life is a big freaking pain. If anyone tells you differently, they are trying to sell you something....

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Notes

...Conversions Drugs and Dosage Formulas and Conversions Volume 60 minims = 1 dram = 5cc = 1tsp 4 drams = 0.5 ounces = 1tbsp 8 drams = 1 ounce 16 ounces = 1pt. 32 ounces = 1qt. Weight 60 grains = 1dram 8 drams = 1 ounce 12 ounces = 1 lb. (apothecaries') Household 1tsp = 1tsp = 3tsp = 1tbsp = Household 1tsp=5cc 3tsp=1tbsp 1tbsp=0.5oz or 15cc 2tbsp=1oz or 30cc 1pt.=16oz or 480cc 1qt=32oz or 960cc 1/60 grain=1mg 15 grains=1g 2.2 lbs.=1kg Apothecary 1 dram 60 gtts (drops) 0.5 ounce 0.5 ounce Metric 5cc=1tsp 15cc=1tbsp 30cc=2tbsp(1oz) 1cc=16minims Apothecary 1fl.dram=4cc 4drams=0.5oz 8drams=2tbsp(1oz) 16minims=1cc 500cc=0.5L or 1pt. 1000cc=1L or 1qt. Temp. Conversion C= F-32/1.8 F= 1.8*C-32 2 Darren & Jenny Nursing Study Guide NOTES CARDIOVASCULAR Arterial Ulcer – Pale, deep base, surrounded by tissue that is cool with trophic changes such as dry, soluble skin and loss of hair. Cause by ischemia from inadequate arterial blood supply of oxygen and nutrients . Venous stasis Ulcer – Dark, red base, surrounded by skin that is brown in color with edema. Caused by the accumulation of waste products of metabolism that are not cleared due to venous congestion. Stage I Ulcer – Reddened area with intact skin surface. Management of DVT – Bed rest, limb elevation , relief of discomfort with warm, moist, heat and analgesics (Tylenol, not narcotics) prn. Ambulation is contraindicated. Sclerotherapy – Injection of a sclerosing agent into a varicosity. The agent damages the......

Words: 7141 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Pain of Animals

...In “The Pain of Animals,” (originally published in 1989) David Suzuki’s subject is the pain humans inflict on animals by using them in scientific experiments, hunting them, and keeping them in zoos. Suzuki’s thesis is that we use animals for these purposes because their bodies, nervous systems, and responses are much like ours. This similarity between humans and animals means, however, that animals feel fear and pain just as we do. Suzuki’s main purpose is to convince us that it is immoral to inflict pain on animals. Suzuki develops this argument first by telling a story about his own changing attitudes towards animals. The “piercing shriek of terror and anguish” (p. 269) of the squirrel he hit with a slingshot convinced him as a teenager that animals feel pain just as we do. His experiences with fishing made him realize that humans, as predators, use animals without thinking of their pain. He began to question our right to use animals without considering their “pain and fear” (p. 270). Suzuki then gives a series of examples of how we inflict pain on animals in zoos and in scientific experiments the most controversial of these involves the treatment of animals that that are most like us: the chimpanzees. He cites from the experience of Jane Goodall and other experts on primates, to suggest that humans seem to think these animals are expendable: that they can be sacrificed for our selfish goals. The details about a film on the......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pain

...Patient, Population, Problem - Hospice patient receiving medication as standard. The medication is noted to reduce respirations. I - Intervention - Collaborate with hospice nurses to order morphine as a individualized medication and not automatically used for protocol C - Comparison with other interventions, if applicable Research to be done to do comparison, O - Outcomes that include metrics for evaluation - The outcome of hospice staff coordinating care with staff personnel. 7. Initial EBP question? How best can staff nurses and hospice nurses collaborate on the administration of morphine 8. List possible search terms, database to search, and search strategies? Hospice Morphine Euthanasia Palliative Care Pain 9. What evidence must be gathered? Literature search Standards Guidelines Expert opinion Patient/Family preference Clinical expertise Organizational data...

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pain

...From Pain to Pleasure: Three Steps to Quality Writing On the list of fun things to do, many students rank writing an essay somewhere between getting a root canal and studying for finals.  But why does writing get such a bum rap?  Perhaps it is because students frequently get back marked up papers with lower-than-expected grades and, therefore, cringe whenever the next essay comes along.  This experience, however, is completely avoidable.  By learning to master essay organization, idea development, and basic formatting guidelines, most students can take the three biggest steps toward more successful writing.   In the typical five-paragraph essay (like this one), the writer organizes his or her work around a thesis statement and three body paragraphs.  Look how this essay starts with a sentence designed to generate some interest and to engage the reader.  By the end of that introduction paragraph, the writer gets to his thesis statement: the best one- or two-sentence summary of the essay as a whole.  Because this thesis statement mentions that there are three main steps to improving writing (organization, development, and formatting), the reader should expect one body paragraph for each of those three main ideas.  Likewise, please note that this paragraph is solely about organization—the first of those three ideas mentioned. While organization is crucial, the element that really separates excellent writing from decent writing is development.  Good writers do not just......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chronic Pain

...Introduction Chronic pain is one of the most frequent diagnosis and the most common problem for which elderly patients in the clinical setting seek help. Chronic pain refers to an unpleasant, distressful and uncomfortable feeling. Studies have shown that chronic pain is often undertreated even when the prevalence rates and syndromes are well understood. The means of relief are within practitioners’ capabilities to provide care. With careful assessment and a comprehensive plan of care that addresses the various aspects of the patients needs; chronic pain can be controlled in the vast majority of cases. Thus, awareness and provision of basic and specialized interventions can ensure comfort and improve quality of life. However, chronic pain left untreated or undertreated may cause suffering. This will also cause disease-mediated symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, fatigue, and loss of mobility. Needless to say, there are accompanying emotional states such as depression, anxiety, and a sense of uselessness. This paper will explore the under treatment of chronic pain among the elderly, its defining attributes, the use of an analysis model and its relationship to the concept. Identify a nursing theoretical framework used to analyze and resolve the problem. Also, an attempt will be made to identify an evidence based practice and research to support strategies for the resolution of the problem. Problem Under treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly However, most often......

Words: 2557 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Pain

...exams will be worth 65% of your final grade. In the event that the student is unable to attend a scheduled classroom exam, one calendar week is allowed in order to make up that exam. The student is responsible to contact the ATL lab assistant to arrange a make-up exam time and date within the established exam make-up dates and times available (See the Nursing Coffee Haus BlackBoard class for the make-up dates and times). Exams not completed within 1 calendar week will not earn credit. Students may be absent from the classroom exam one time during this course. Subsequent missed exams will be recorded as zero points. Only hospitalization of the student or a significant person to the student will excuse missing a second scheduled examination. Notes from physicians alone are not accepted as excuses for missed examinations. Students MUST achieve an 80% AVERAGE in the theory tests in order to meet the requirements of this course. This 80% theory testing criteria is calculated with the 7 theory exams and the final exam averaged as 8 exams, each with an equal weight. Each of the 8 total exams is weighted equally in determining the 80% theory requirement and the final grade, regardless of the number of questions per exam. An earned exam average of 79.5 will round up to an Nursing Health Alterations Syllabus3 80%. Therefore, an average exam score of 79.5 or higher constitutes a passing grade. An exam average of 79.49 or lower does not constitute a passing grade. Clinical......

Words: 3918 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Growing Pain

...Growing Pains at Groupon As an undergraduate music major at Northwestern University, Andrew Mason eagerly sought a version of rock music that would fuse punk with the Beatles and Cat Stevens. Little did he imagine that within ten years he would be the CEO of one of history’s fastest growing businesses. After Northwestern and faded dreams of rock stardom, Mason, a self-taught computer programmer, was hired to write code by the Chicago firm InnerWorkings. InnerWorkings was founded in 2001 by Eric Lefkofsky who had built several businesses around call centers and the Internet. In 2006, Lefkofsky became interested in an idea of Mason’s for a website that would act as a social media platform to bring people together with a common interest in some problem—most often some sort of social cause. Lefkofsky provided Mason with $1 million of capital to develop the concept that became known as “The Point.” Virtually no one associated with The Point initially envisioned commercial aspirations for the venture. In the fall of 2008, at the height of financial crisis, ventures with little or no commercial aspirations were in jeopardy. Lefkofsky and Mason faced a decision on how to proceed with The Point. Lefkofsky seized on an idea proposed by a group of users on The Point. This group attempted to identify a number of people who wanted to buy the same product, and then approach a seller for a group discount. Mason had originally mentioned group-buying as one application of The Point, and...

Words: 4394 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Pain Management

...Path physiology Of Pain Within this essay I plan to discuss: one current view of path physiology of pain, two ages appropriate pain tools for babies and toddlers and will also be exploring the nursing management of acute pain experience in babies and toddlers, including a strategy for ensuring the safe delivery of care. There have been a range of theories put forward in attempt to explain the path physiology of pain, one of these is the gate control theory (Fraser.L 1996) which states that a stimuli that enters the spinal cord can be manipulated through a process of opening and closing gates, which in turn determines if impulses proceed or not. The Gate control theory provides the most plausible explanation for the process involved in the perception of pain. As there are many factors to a person’s perception of pain. When the nerve impulses from the nociceptors (a free ending nerve which is present in almost all types of tissues which act to sense and transmit pain) reaches a critical level, the T cells in the substantia gelatinosa (which regulates impulses) is triggered, therefore the gate opens. This then in turn allows the transmission of impulses to proceed to the thalamus and cerebral cortex where the perception of pain is defined (Wall and Melzack 1989). However there are scenarios when the gate remains closed even though there are impulses from the nociceptors. For example if a......

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Pain

...Pain Assessment and Management G u i d e l i n e f o r Marlene Walden, PhD RNC NNP CCNS Sharyn Gibbins, PhD RN NNP P r a c t i c e , 2 n d E d i t i o n Pain Assessment and Management Guideline for Practice, 2nd Edition This guideline is an outline of the pain assessment and management practices that currently are accepted and documented by experts in the field of neonatal care. In addition, it summarizes and recommends pain assessment and management practices based on the best evidence for the nursing care of infants. This guideline does not preclude the use of manufacturers’ recommendations or other acceptable methods of assessing and managing pain in infants. The use of other practices known to improve the quality of neonatal care is encouraged and not restricted by this document. The National Association of Neonatal Nurses (NANN) developed this guideline in response to members’ requests. Broad in scope, it can provide a foundation for specific nursing protocols, policies, and procedures developed by individual institutions. Authors Marlene Walden, PhD RNC NNP CCNS Sharyn Gibbins, PhD RN NNP Reviewers Daniel Batton, MD, American Academy of Pediatrics Sandra Sundquist Beauman, MSN RNC Jim Couto, MA, American Academy of Pediatrics Mary Ann Gibbons, BSN RN Melinda Porter, RNC CNS NNP Ann Stark, MD FAAP, Chair of AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn Carol Wallman, RNC NNP MS, NANN/AWHONN Liaison to AAP Committee on Fetus......

Words: 13773 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Alternative to Pain

...I chose to review an article related to the treatment of chronic pain for a plethora of reasons. To begin with it will be on my first test, secondly it is one the reasons most people go to the emergency room and see their doctors. And finally in my opinion pain along with mental health illnesses may be the most often misunderstood and mistreated diagnosed in health care today; therefore as a nurse and patient advocate it is imperative that I attain a wide knowledge base on the subject of pain and its complimentary treatments. The article discussed a variety of complementary and alternative methods to manage and treat varying types of pain. The article was not inclusive of all CAMs, only the most common practices of complementary alternative medicine. Including on the list discussed was acupuncture, acupressure, homeopathy, naturopathy, and tai chi. These are the more common modalities of CAM, as well as other CAMs that were new to me such as Jin Shin Jyutsu, lymphatic therapy, myofascial therapy and craniosacral therapy. Also included were reviews and evidence base practice regarding some of these therapies. Though the article made mention of several research and clinical trials. For example, “In randomized clinical trials, qigong has been shown to be effective in significantly reducing pain when compared with the general pain care.” (Schulenburg, 2015, p. 322), it was not a research paper or clinical analysis. It is a journal article written by a registered nurse......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Pain of Animals

...David Suzuki "The Pain Of Animals" The Pain of Animals is an excellent article written by David Suzuki, which among other issues focuses on and raises questions about the pain animals feel and suffer for the benefit of human scientific research. Other views discussed are David's personal David talks about an experience he had growing up as a young boy hunting game in the wild with his BB gun and eventually, as a teenager moving up to a 22-caliber rifle. He saw an advertisement for a slingshot and decided to order it. After weeks of practice he felt ready to hunt live game with his new weapon and skills. He came across a squirrel, which as he puts it, "was doing whatever squirrels do” and began to pursue his prey. After cornering his hunt in a tree the squirrel began crying and sobbing. The sound of the squirrel being scared to death had such a strong effect on young David that he Fishing was the only form of animal catching David continued to perform. David had never fished for "sport”, nor did he believe in it. For David fishing for consumption was the only form of fishing he involved himself in, with the exception of one occasion, while taping a television report on "the science of fly fishing”. During the taping he was required to catch the fish and release them all back into the water. The sight of the markings on the mouths of the fish was so disturbing to him that he never considered the While spending a weekend on the Queen Charlotte......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pain

...Pain one Definitions of pain from medical perspective There are different definitions and descriptions of pain due to different perspectives From medical perspective, pain can be defined as a bothering sensory feeling or emotional experience and is variably described as irritating, sore, stinging, aching, throbbing, or unbearable feeling (Patel 2010). In medical terms there are two categories of pain, including nociceptive and neuropathic (Macintyre &Schug 2007). Medically, according to Macintyre and Schug (2007) the first category of pain is nociceptive pain—a common category reported in clinical settings. This type of pain occurs due to trauma, tissue damage or inflammation that stimulates sensory nerve endings called nociceptors. Intense peripheral nociceptive stimuli will increase excitability of the nervous spinal cord, leading to central sensitisation in the presence of subsequent pain stimuli, increased intensity and lower pain threshold. Macintyre and Schug (2007) also described two types of nociceptive pain: somatic and visceral pain. Somatic pain may be experienced as sharp, hot or stinging pain that is localised to the area of injury. Visceral pain is dull, cramping or colicky pain that is poorly localised. Visceral pain can also be referred to other areas, with associated symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. The second category is neuropathic pain. It results from serious injury such as in childbirth as stated by Wong (2004) or disease that affects the......

Words: 532 - Pages: 3