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Noble Gases

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Periodic Table
4/28/14

The properties of nonmetals vary more than metals. Most nonmetals are gases, molecular, or network solids at room temperature. Nonmetals are delicate in solids. Nonmetal solids surfaces are dull. Nonmetals have high ionization energy and high electronegativity values. They are bad at making heat and electricity. Nonmetals gain electrons becoming negative ions with larger radii than the atoms. They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2. The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases. Noble gases do not have all the properties of nonmetals because they react chemically. A few compounds that have noble gases have been created. Each element has filled an outer energy level of electrons. The level of helium is filled with two electrons, but the rest of noble gases have eight electrons. Group 18 was originally called inert gas group because it was thought that elements could not produce stable compounds. Also because their valence levels are full and normally noble gases do not add more electrons. Fluorine can have a high attraction to electrons that it attracts electrons from some noble gases and causes them to have a positive oxidation state. Only some reactivity is seen. Argon and xenon are the only ones to produce stable compounds. Neon has been wheedled into reactions under bead conditions of temperature and pressure. Helium has not shown an activity. Noble gases are nonpolar and that means they hold in the liquid and solid phases by van der Waals forces. Helium with the fewest electrons has the lowest boiling point. In this group, the boiling point increases from top to bottom. Helium was discovered by Janssen in 1868. Helium’s atomic number is 2. Its symbol is He. Also, it has a weight of 4.002602. Helium is a light, colorless gas. Helium has one of the lowest melting point. It’s the only liquid that cannot be made into a solid by lowing the temperatures. It stays a liquid to zero at normal pressures, but can be made into a solid by the pressure rising. The helium heat is high. The density of helium at the boiling point is high. Helium valence is zero; it is not likely to mix with other elements. Helium is used in the production and behavior of materials because its boiling point is near zero. A mixture of helium and oxygen is used as an atmosphere for workers using pressure. Helium is also used for filling balloons and blimps. Neon was discovered by Sir William Ramsey, M.W. Travers in 1889. Neon’s atomic number is 10. Its symbol is Ne and it weights 20.1797. Neon is a colorless, odorless gas. Neon is a mix of three isotopes. There are also five other isotopes known neons. The melting point of neon is -248.67°C, boiling point is -246.048°C, density of gas is 0.89990 g/l, density of liquid at boiling point is 1.207 g/cm3, and valence is 0.
(http://chemistry.about.com) Neon is very immobile, but it forms compounds such as fluorine. Neon forms an unsafe hydrate. Neon’s plasma is reddish orange. The release of neon is very intense. Neon is used to make neon signs. Neon and helium are used to make gas lasers. Neon is used as high voltage indicators. Argon was discovered by Sir William Ramsey, Baron Rayleigh in 1894. Argon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless noble gas. Its atomic number is 18. Its symbol is Ar and it weights 39.948. Argon has a freezing point of -189.2°C, boiling point of -185.7°C, and density of 1.7837 g/l. (http://chemistry.about.com) Argon is a noble gas and does not from chemical compounds. Argon is used for electric lights. It is used for fluorescent tubes, phototubes, glow tubes, and for lasers. Argon is also used as a gas for cutting. Krypton was discovered by Sir Willian Ramsey, M.W. Travers in 1898. Krypton is a dense, colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. Its atomic number is 36. Its symbol is Kr and it weights 83.80. There are thirty know isotopes of Krypton known. There are 6 stable isotopes: Kr-78, Kr-, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, and Kr-86. It melting point is 116.6K and its boiling point is 120.85K. Xenon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, M. W. Travers in 1898. Its atomic number is 54. Its symbol is Xe and it weights 131.29. Xenon is a heavy, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. Xenon forms compounds. Xenon is not harmful, but its compounds are very dangerous due to oxidizing characteristics. Metallic xenon are produced. Excited xenon in vacuum tubes glow blue. Xenon a heavy gas; one liter of it weights 5.842 grams. Xenon gas is used in lamps. Xenon is used in appliances that need a heavy weight of gas. Radon was discovered by Fredrich Ernst Dorn in 1898 or 1900. Its atomic number is 86. Its symblr is Rn and it weights 222.0176. Radon has a melting point of -71°C, boiling point of -61.8 °C, gas density of 9.73 g/l, with a valence of 0. (http://chemistry.about.com) Radon is a colorless gas at regular temperatures. It is one of the heavier gases. Ununoctium was discovered at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research on October 9, 2006. Its symbol is Uuo and its atomic number is 118. Ununoctium is a noble gas. It is also more reactive than the gas radon. Noble gases are usually nonreactive because they have a valence. They are likely to either lose or gain electrons. The noble gases have low boiling points, they are also gases at room temperature.

Work Cited

About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014. <http://chemistry.about.com/library/ weekly/blgroups.htm>.

Chemical Elements.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014. <http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/noblegases.html>.

Kavanah, Patrick. Chemistry: The Physical Setting. N.p.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.…...

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