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INTRODUCCIÓN

Luego de más de 20 años de vigencia del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN o NAFTA), podemos tener una mejor información de los avances y resultados que los países suscriptores (Estados Unidos, México y Canadá) presentan.

A continuación se presenta una síntesis de aspectos históricos y resultados de avance que pueden comprobar fácilmente en fuentes de libre acceso, relacionados con los resultados de este tratado de agilización y facilitación comercial.

Deseo que esta información pueda ser útil para todas aquellas personas que estén interesadas con el tema.

CONTENIDO

1. Nombre del bloque

NAFTA o TLCAN son las siglas que responden al nombre del Tratado de Libre Comercio que existe entre Estados Unidos, Canadá y México.
North America Free-Trade Agreement (Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte -TLCAN)

2. Fecha de creación

El NAFTA entró en vigor el 1 de enero de 1,994

Proceso de creación:

* Canadá, Estados Unidos y México deciden firmar un tratado de libre comercio entre ellos el 10 de junio de 1,990. * Se da inicio a las negociaciones para firmar el tratado el 5 de febrero de 1,991. * La firma del tratado por parte de los líderes de cada uno de los países miembro se da el 17 de diciembre de 1,992. * Entra en vigor el NAFTA el 1 de enero de 1,994.

3. Países integrantes

Los países beneficiados del NAFTA son: * Estados Unidos * Canadá * México

4. Objetivos principales

El objetivo al entrar en vigor el NAFTA es el generar un sistema comercial que agilice y facilite el intercambio de bienes y mercancías, mediante la suscripción y evolución de normativas y tratos preferentes a los productores y consumidores de las tres naciones, por lo que las regulaciones se modificaron y abrieron caminos de mejora en las relaciones entre Estados Unidos, Canadá y México.

Así mismo, en el artículo 102 del TLCAN o NAFTA se establecen los siguientes objetivos:

* Eliminar obstáculos al comercio y facilitar la circulación transfronteriza de bienes y de servicios entre los territorios de los Estados partes; * Promover condiciones de competencia leal en la zona de libre comercio; * Aumentar sustancialmente las oportunidades de inversión en los territorios de los Estados partes; * Proteger y hacer valer, de manera adecuada y efectiva, los derechos de propiedad intelectual en territorio de cada uno de los Estados partes; * Crear procedimientos eficaces para la aplicación y cumplimiento del Tratado, para su administración conjunta y para la solución de controversias; y
Establecer lineamientos para la ulterior cooperación trilateral, regional y multilateral encaminada a ampliar y mejorar los beneficios del Tratado.

5. Ejes principales de acción (enfoque) Explicar bien cada uno.

* Acceso a mercado de bienes * Eliminar los aranceles de los bienes y servicios que atraviesan las fronteras de América del Norte. * Reducciones arancelarias para productos del sector agropecuario, automotriz, bienes textiles y del vestuario. * Derechos para proveedores y usuarios del NAFTA en varios sectores. * Compromisos especiales para las telecomunicaciones y servicios financieros. * Procesos formales para solucionar situaciones que se generen en la interpretación y aplicación de los términos del NAFTA.

* Protección a la inversión extranjera * Trato equitativo para los inversionistas en el país receptor en relación al trato que se la da a los inversionistas de ese país. * Dar a los inversionistas del NAFTA el mejor trato posible. * Resolver las controversias que se presenten de una forma transparente.

* Protección a la propiedad intelectual * Garantizar que los derechos relacionados con la propiedad intelectual (patentes, marcas, derechos de autor, etc.) no sean una barrera para el comercio.

* Facilitación de acceso para visitantes de negocios * Que sea fácil el acceso al país para cualquier persona en donde su viaje sea por motivo de negocio.

* Acceso a compras del sector público * Que se pueda acceder a realizar compras en el sector público a nivel federal en cualquiera de los países miembros del NAFTA.

* Reglas de origen * Estas son utilizadas para poder decidir si el producto llena todos los requisitos para que se le otorgue un trato preferencial en base a las disposiciones del NAFTA.

6. Análisis del Bloque: a. ¿Cuál es la principal ventaja del bloque? a. Crecimiento económico: este TLC ayuda a los países miembros a aumentar su producto interno bruto debido a la libre circulación de bienes y servicios entre ellos y a la apertura de un mercado más amplio.

b. Incremento de los niveles de inversión: aumenta la posibilidad de conseguir inversionistas extranjeros.

En el 2,008 la inversión para Canadá y EEUU por parte de la región del NAFTA fue de $469.8 mil millones; mientras que México recibió $156 mil millones entre los años de 1,993 y 2,008.

c. Generación de oportunidades de trabajo: porque el tratado va unido con convenios en donde se busca la libre circulación de personas entre los países miembros por lo que esto hace que aumente la posibilidad de las empresas de enviar a sus nacionales a otro país a trabajar (expatriados) y así mismo que si aumenta la demanda de los bienes y servicios va a aumentar la oferta agregada.

En EEUU el empleo creció 23% desde 1,993 lo que es igual a 39.7 millones de puestos de trabajo.

d. Mejores precios de bienes y servicios: la reducción de gravámenes arancelarios permite que los precios de los bienes y servicios disminuyan ya que no se paga ningún impuesto para poder importar el producto, logrando así reducir costos.

e. Avances en la tecnología: porque el TLC permite la libre circulación de información, bienes y servicios por lo que si uno de los países miembro desarrolla una tecnología es libre de compartirlo con los demás cumpliendo así los principios de:

i. Nación más favorecida: a quién se tiene que favorecer de todo el bloque que esta en una condición de desigualdad. ii. Reciprocidad: ambas partes reciben.

f. Apertura al mercado más grande a nivel mundial: este TLC permite la relación de México y Canadá con EEUU que es el mercado más grande a nivel mundial.

En base a resultados que se han visto desde que entró el vigor el NAFTA, se sabe que el comercio entre los países miembro creció un 128% con lo cual se pasó de tener $297,000 millones (1,994) a $676,000 millones (2,000) por lo que los países llegan a comerciar diariamente $1,800 millones.

Por lo cual, es evidente que la principal ventaja de este tratado es el crecimiento económico de los países que lo conforman y la apertura al mercado más grande a nivel mundial (EEUU) ya que se logra el aumento en la libre circulación de bienes y servicios entre los países, lo cual al reducir las barreras arancelarias permite que los precios sean reducidos y la calidad de los productos aumente provocando así un aumento en la demanda y oferta de los bienes en cada uno de los países.

Todo esto ayuda a que cada uno de los países se vuelva más competitivo a nivel mundial.

b. Explique, ¿cómo este bloque mejora la comercialización entre países?

Como se mencionó anteriormente, el porcentaje de comercio entre los países ha ido en aumento desde que el NAFTA entró en vigor logrando así que Estados Unidos, Canadá y México sean más competitivos a nivel mundial y en Norteamérica.

En base a datos presentados en la Organización del TLCA, desde que existe el NAFTA: * Se ha triplicado el comercio de mercancías entre EEUU, México y Canadá llegando a $946.1 mil millones (2,008). * El comercio entre EEUU y Canadá se ha triplicado. * El comercio entre EEUU y México se ha cuadruplicado. * Entre EEUU, México y Canadá el intercambio diario de bienes es de $2.6 millones aproximadamente que es igual a $108 millones por hora. * En 1,993 el PIB de estos tres países combinado fue de $7.6 billones y en 2,007 llegó a $17 billones.

c. ¿Cuáles considera que han sido los principales desafíos para implementarlo?

* La falta de reciprocidad y del principio de nación más favorecida entre EEUU, México y Canadá debido a la gran diferencia que existe en el tamaño económico y peso político que tiene EEUU en comparación con los otros dos países, ya que esto provoca que sea un bloque hegemónico, en donde uno de los países miembros es el que domina. * La falta de un convenio entre los países para la libre circulación de personas ya que no existe ninguno firmado por lo que hay barreras migratorias y entrar a los países se vuelve más difícil. * La falta de tener una moneda en común ya que esto provoca que siempre exista una nación menos favorecida y se vea afectado su comercio.

c. ¿Qué podría hacerse para hacerlo más efectivo?

* Generar procesos de facilitación de trabajadores y profesionales, por períodos determinados, teniendo como base las zonas de crecimiento en los Estados Unidos, México y Canadá. * Propiciar el uso de una moneda única en la región del NAFTA. * Priorizar el libre tránsito de mercancías por los tres países, eliminando trámites arancelarios en los puertos arancelarios.

d. ¿Cuáles son los países miembros que más impacto positivo han tenido luego de integrarse? ¿Por qué?

El país que ha tenido un mayor impacto positivo al integrase con Estados Unidos y Canadá es México, por estar en constante crecimiento y acceso al mercado de consumo más grande del mundo (EEUU).

CONCLUSIONES

* El tratado entre Estados Unidos, México y Canadá, se encuentra en plena vigencia y respeto, después de 21 años del inicio de su vigencia.

* El país más favorecido en cuanto a su crecimiento comercial es México, lo cual descarta las teorías que al inicio (1,994) generaron la resistencia a la aplicación de este tratado en esa nación.

* Las tres naciones que conforman este acuerdo comercial deben buscar los mejores caminos para continuar mejorando la eficiencia y eficacia del NAFTA.

* Todavía existen retos pendientes de alcanzar, especialmente en materia de trabajadores y profesionales migrantes y mejora de acciones de medio ambiente.

* El futuro de este tratado está más que asegurado, por lo cual se considera que las tres naciones lo seguirán fortaleciendo y garantizando su cumplimiento.

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

Anónimo. Glosario. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.direcon.gob.cl/glosario/#n

Anónimo. TLCAN. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.tlcanhoy.org/faq_es.asp#faq-1

Anónimo. TLCAN. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.tlcanhoy.org/agreement/default_es.asp

Anónimo. Ventajas TLCAN. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.tlcan.com.mx/VENTAJAS

BORJA, Rodrígo. Enciclopedia de la política. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.enciclopediadelapolitica.org/Default.aspx?i=&por=b&idind=129&termino=

GUZMÁN, Verónica. TLCAN. Localizado en Internet en: http://es.slideshare.net/VeronicaGuzman6/tratado-de-libre-comercio-de-amrica-del-norte-tlcan

GRATIUS, Susanne. Mercosur y NAFTA. Dos modelos diferentes de integración. Localizado en Internet en: http://www.ojosdepapel.com/Index.aspx?article=2882

Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (NAFTA). Localizado en Internet en: http://www.upf.edu/integracionenamerica/nafta/#principaleshitos

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Dirección General de Relaciones Económicas Internacionales (Gobierno de Chile), 2015.
[ 2 ]. Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2015.
[ 3 ]. Datos obtenidos de: http://www.tlcanhoy.org/results/default_es.asp
[ 4 ]. Datos obtenidos de: http://www.tlcanhoy.org/results/default_es.asp
[ 5 ]. Datos obtenidos de: http://www.tlcan.com.mx/VENTAJAS
[ 6 ]. Datos obtenidos de: Datos obtenidos de: http://www.tlcanhoy.org/results/default_es.asp…...

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...the automotive industry constitutes more than 40% of North American trade, NAFTA saves the automotive industry immense amounts of money. The North America Free Trade Agreement is a trilateral agreement that encourages free trade between Mexico, Canada, and United States. The NAFTA agreement has affected the automotive industry by increasing the amount of U.S. automotive imports. It has also increased the amount of U.S. automotive exports to NAFTA partners and it has caused outsourcing in the automotive industry. The North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect on January 1, 1994. The president of Mexico, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the prime minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney, and the president of the U.S., George H. W. Bush, signed NAFTA in 1992, which then required the legislatures of the three countries to approve it before it went into effect. After the legislatures passed the NAFTA agreement, it became in effect on January 1, 1994. Under NAFTA, the partnering countries agreed to eliminate and reduce most barriers to trade freely between the countries. Most of the United States automotive trade is done with Mexico. This is because the United States and Canada were already highly integrated following the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement and a U.S.-Canada Auto Pact in 1965. Before the NAFTA agreement, Mexico had strict automotive decrees on foreign automotive production in Mexico. After NAFTA was signed, those strict rules went away. Mexican tariffs on all......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6