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Loose connective (areolar) tissue
Origin: mesenchyme
Location: filling between apposed body parts, beneath the epithelia, external wrapping for vessels, nerves, muscles and fasciae.

ground substance

Function: permission of diffusion of oxygen and nutrients between the microvasculature and adjacent tissue.
Location: between cells and fibers.
Composition: tissue (extracellular) fluid, amorphous component: proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, heparin, keratan sulfate).

connective tissue fibers

Location: extracellular, in the ground substance • Collagen fibers
Function: flexible, high tensile strength.
Composition: type I collagen • Reticular (argyrophilic) fibers
Function: supporting framework for cells.
Composition: type III collagen.
Location: stroma in hemopoietic and lymphatic (but not the thymus) organs, basement membranes. • Elastic fibers
Function: limitation of distensibility, prevention of tearing from excessive stretching.
Composition: elastin, fibrillin.

Connective tissue cells

Fixed cell population • Fibroblasts
Function: synthesis of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers, and complex carbohydrates of the ground substance. • Macrophages (histiocytes)
Function: phagocytosis (defence activity and cleanup operation), immune reactions by presenting lymphocytes with antigens. • Mast cells (tissue basophils, mastocytes)
Function: synthesis and release of histamine, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis, eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, heparin, immune and inflammatory reactions. • Adipose cells (adipocytes)
Function: accumulation of neutral fat • Adventitial cells (perivascular cells, pericytes)
Function: undifferentiated cells, source of fibroblasts and blood vessels in repair (wounds healing).
Location: around capillaries and venules. • Plasma cells (plasmacytes)
Function: antibody-producing cells derived from B lymphocytes
Transient cell population • Lymphocytes • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Monocytes

Basement membrane (basal lamina)

Function: structural attachment, filtration, compartmentalization (separation and isolation of the connective tissue from epithelia, nerve, muscle tissue), barrier.
Composition: type IV collagen, proteoglycans, laminin, reticular fibers.

Dense connective tissue

Origin: mesenchyme


Location: dermis of skin.
Origin: mesoderm: somites.
Composition: relatively little ground substance, sparse cell population - fibroblasts, high proportion of collagenous fibers arranged in bundles oriented in various directions


Location: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses.
Composition: abundant fibers are arranged in a very orderly manner between which are rows of fibroblasts, sparse ground substance.

Adipose tissue

Origin: mesenhyme, adventitial cells
Composition: ground substance, connective fibers, adipose cells.

White (unilocular) adipose

Location: hypodermis (panniculus adiposus under the skin), omentum, mesentery, retroperitoneal space, around the kidneys, breast.
Function: energy and water storage, insulation, cushioning of vital organs.

Brown (multilocular) adipose

Location: hibernating animals, newborn humans.
Function: source of heat and lipid, thermoregulation
Function: support, protection, storage site of calcium and phosphate.
Origin: mesoderm: somites, mesenhyme.

Mature: compact (dense) and spongy (cancellous)

Location: skeletal system: long, short, flat and irregular bones.

Ground substance

Composition: proteoglicans, noncollagenous glycoproteins, hydroxyapatite crystals (calcium phosphate)

Collagen fibers

Location: parallel orientation in lamellar bone: osteons (Haversian system), interstitional lamellar, circumferential lamellar.
Composition: mineralised.


• Osteoprogenitor (periosteal, endosteal, bone-lining) cells
Function: proliferation and differentiation into osteoblasts, nutritional support of the osteocytes, bone repair.
Location: innermost layer of periosteum and endosteum in marrow cavities, osteonal (Haversian) canals and perforating (Volkmann's) canals • Osteoblasts
Function: secretion and mineralization of extracellular matrix: ground substance and collagen fibers, physiological and repair regeneration.
Location: initial nonmineralized bone - osteoid, periosteum, endosteum. • Osteocytes
Function: mature bone cells, differentiated osteoblasts, maintenance of bone matrix by secretion and resorption.
Location: lacunae in extracellular matrix. • Osteoclasts
Function: bone resorption, phagocytosis, bone remodelling.
Location: bone surface.
Origin: mesenhyme, bone marrow, blood monocytes, mononuclear phagocytic system.

Immature (nonlamellar, bundle, woven)

Function: support, protection, and storage site of calcium and phosphate.
Location: skeleton of the developing fetus
Composition: ground substance, thick collagen fibers in interlacing arrangement, randomly arranged abundant cells.


Function: support, protection, weight-bearing at points of movement.
Origin: mesoderm: somites, mesenhyme.

Hyaline cartilage

Location: initial skeleton of the fetus, epiphyseal growth plate (epiphyseal discs) in bones, articular cartilages of joints, trachea, bronchi, larynx, nose, the ends of the ribs.

Ground substance

Composition: water, glycosaminoglycans: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate.

Collagen fibers

Composition: predominantly type II collagen


• Prechondroblasts
Function: proliferation and differentiation into chondroblasts.
Location: inner cellular layer of perichondrium. • Chondroblasts
Function: secretion of extracellular matrix: ground substance and collagen fibers • Chondrocytes
Function: differentiated chondroblasts.
Location: cell clasters (isogenous groups) of inner part of cartilage.

Elastic cartilage

Location: external ear, walls of the auditory (Eustachian) tube, epiglottis, and larynx.
Composition: ground substance, elastic fibers and lamellae, cells.


Location: intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, articular discs of the sternoclavicular and temporomandibular joints, menisci of the knee joint.
Composition: ground substance, collagen fibers as dense regular connective tissue , cells.

Hemopoietic tissue

Function: blood cell production.
Location: bone marrow

Reticular tissue

Function: support for the developing blood cells, production of reticular fibers, secretion of several Colony-Stimulating Factors.
Composition: ground substance, reticular fibers, reticular (adventitial) cells.

Hemopoietic cells

• Hemocytoblast (Colony-Forming Unit)
Function: pluripotential stem cell that give rise to all of the blood cell lines found in the bone marrow.


• Proerythroblast • Basophilic erythroblast • Polychromatophilic erythroblast • Normoblast • Polychromatohpilic erythrocyte • Erythrocyte


Function: development of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. • Myeloblast • Promyelocyte • Myelocyte o neutrophilic o eosinophilic o basophilic • Metamyelocyte o neutrophilic o eosinophilic o basophilic • Mature granulocytes o Band cell, Neutrophils o Eosinophils o Basophils

Monocyte development

• Monoblast • Promonocyte • Monocyte • Macrophage

Megakaryocyte development

• Megakarioblast • Promegakaryocyte • Megakaryocyte • Platelets


• Lymphopoietic stem cells
Function: leave the marrow and travel to the thymus where they become T lymphocytes. • Transitional cells • Lymphocytes

Lymphatic tissue

Function: immune response.
Location: thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic nodules, and diffuse lymphatic tissue

Supporting tissue

Function: fine supporting meshwork for lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells; secretion of ground substance and fibers; phagocytosis
Composition: ground substance, reticular fibers, reticular (adventitial) cells (except for the thymus), epithelioreticular cells (thymus).


Function: all stages of proliferation and differentiation of the immunocompetent cells. • Lymphocytes o T lymphocytes
Function: cell- mediated immunity o B lymphocytes
Function: humoral immunity and production of antibodies • plasma cells • macrophages

Embryonic connective tissue


Function: primitive connective tissue
• Ground substance • Sparse collagen fibers, reticular fibers • Mesenchyme cells
Function: secretion of ground substance, fibers, proliferation and differentiation into different connective tissue cell types, smooth muscle cells, blood cells, et al.

Mucous connective tissue

Function: high turgor to resist compression.
Location: umbilical cord
• Ground substance rich in hialuronic acid • Collagen fibers • Mucocytes (fibroblasts)
Function: secretion of ground substance, fibers.


Function: convey nutrients, oxygen to cells, carrying wastes, carbon dioxide away from the cells, carrying hormones and other regulatory agents, homeostatic role based on its thermoregulatory and buffering capacity, protection from infections, foreign cells and proteins.
Location: cardiovascular system.
Origin: mesenhyme


Function: convey nutrients, carrying wastes, carrying hormones and other regulatory agents, homeostatic role based on its thermoregulatory and buffering capacity, protection from infections, foreign cells and proteins.
Location: cardiovascular system.
Composition: water 91-92%, proteins (fibrinogens, globulins, albumin) 7-8%, other solutes 1-2%, electrolytes, nonprotein nitrogen substances (urea, uric acid, creatin...), nutrients (glucose, lipids, amino acids), blood gasses (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen), regulatory substances (hormones, enzymes)

Formed elements (blood cells and cellular elements)

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Function: within the bloodstream, binding oxygen and, in exchange, binding carbon dioxide.
Composition: hemoglobin: polypeptide chains with iron-containing heme group, degradation in spleen and liver.

White blood cells (leukocytes)

Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Function: transients within the blood, leave the blood through the walls of vessels to enter the specific sites of activity in the connective tissue • Neutrophils (polimorphonuclear neutrophils)
Function: phagocytosis of some bacteria, early phases of acute inflammation (pus).
Composition: bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal agents (lysozyme), alkaline phosphatases in specific granules, peroxidase and lysosomal enzymes in azurophilic granules. • Eosinophils
Function: phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergic reactions.
Composition: major basic protein, arylsulfatase, histaminase, peroxidase and other hydrolytic enzymes in granules. • Basophils
Function: bind the antibody (IgE), release the vasoactive agents from the granules in association with hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis.
Composition: hydrolytic enzymes, heparan sulfate, histamine and slow-reacting substance (SRS) of anaphylaxis in granules. • Band (stab) cells
Function: immature neutrophils • Lymphocytes
Function: recirculating immunocompitent cells; precursors of plasma cells, of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (killer, helper, supressor), of memory cells; hemopoietic stem cells (megakaryocyte); natural killer cells; immune reactions, late phases of acute inflammation, chronic inflammation. • Monocytes
Function: precursors of various phagocytes of the mononuclear phagocytic system: connective tissue macrophages, osteoclasts, alveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells in liver, macrophages of lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow. • Platelets
Function: clot formation, retraction and, presumably, dissolution.
Composition: serotonin and thromboplastin in very dense granules; lysosomal enzymes in α −lysosomal granules.
Origin: bone marrow, megakaryocytes.…...

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...Purpose of accounting P1 - Record Transactions – This means that the business must record all of the payments that have gone in and out of the business because if they don’t do that then things could go wrong with payments and could lead to losing money. So it is important for them to record all the payments in the business so it is stable. Also recording the transactions is good because it ensures the business is organised and up to date with everything that has gone in and out of the business. For example if Tesco didn’t do this then it might lead to their tax payments being wrong. This would mean that they would be in trouble with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). - Monitor Activity – This means that you have to keep close eye on the business and how it is running. This will look at things like how the business is doing in terms of the sales, receiving payments from other company’s and paying employees, paying the expenses and other things like that. With this the owner of the business for example Tesco would know if something was wrong as he would know what’s been going in and out. - Control – This means that the business is being controlled and looked at constantly. This has the ability to control the business and its accounts. If accurate records of transactions are maintained and activity closely monitored, then actions can be taken to control the balance between money flowing in and out of the business. If it appeared that Tesco’s expenses were creeping up but......

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