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Mosquito Trap

In: Science

Submitted By rockjosh
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Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education
Region V (Bicol)
Schools Division of Albay
Bacacay East District
Tanagan Elementary School
Bacacay

[pic]

Science Investigatory Project presented to the Panel of Judges of 2015 Division Science Fair
September 17, 2015
Camalig North Central School
Camalig, Albay

Presented by:

ALEX BENDO
Researcher

ROCKY RABINO
Research Adviser

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Abstract

Purpose One of the best ways to keep a yard clear of biting mosquitoes is to use a mosquito trap. When set up properly, just one or two of these ingenious devices can kill thousands of mosquitoes and all but wipe out a local population. The style of trap varies by brand, but generally they range from indoor units the size of air purifiers to large units that resemble barbecue grills. Some run on electricity, while others are powered by propane tanks. You can easily reduce the number of mosquitoes on your property with a plastic bottle trap that will attract and kill the mosquitoes. The liquid in each trap will last about two weeks, and then, it can be easily replaced. For increased effectiveness, place multiple traps around your house or property.

Procedure Used Get a large 2 liter Coke/Pepsi/Fanta, etc plastic soda bottle. This is the kind that takes a couple of hands to hold onto. Empty the bottle by drinking or draining. Take the cap off and throw away. Just below the point where the neck of the bottle straightens out onto the body of the bottle, cut it across. So now you have a funnel and a cylinder. Invert the funnel into the cylinder. It should fit snugly. A piece of tape will seal it, but may not be necessary. Fill about 1/3 of the cylinder part with a mixture of dry yeast, warm water, and honey (or sugar). Use about 1 Tablespoon of yeast (This is about 1 package of yeast bought at the local grocery and often used to make bread or rolls). Make the water just at the temperature where it is only warm to your soft skin, like babies milk. Use about 1/3 or so Cup of sugar or honey. Mix all together and pour into the funnel/cylinder. Wrap a piece of black paper around this to make a nice warm comfy place for mosquitoes to hide. The trap works by creating CO2 with the sugar/yeast mixture. This gas escapes and is seen by the bugs as attractive. They will fly into the trap and then get stuck to the sugar coated sides or just wear themselves out trying to find an exit. Change the yeast/sugar/water mixture about every two weeks or so.

Results
[pic]
After two (2) weeks of trial, it shows that mosquitoes are attracted as the days increased because of the carbon dioxide produced by the water with sugar and yeasts. Based on the studies conducted the odor of the water attracted the mosquitoes to be trapped on the device.

Conclusion The mosquito trap showed a significantly better or similar performance compared to the other traps or repellent with regard to trapping efficacy for most common mosquito species in school, including diversity of mosquito species and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, the mosquito trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes.

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Acknowledgment

Having a successful investigatory project is really a great pleasure to us. Yet all these will not have been possible if not for hard work, persistence and cooperation among the researcher and science teachers. We would like to extend our sincerest appreciation to the following people who helped accomplish the Investigatory project. They are the people who contributed much for the success of this endeavor. First of all, we would like to thank our parents and benefactors who have shown their unending support and provided us with necessary materials we needed. Second, We would like to thank our Investigatory Project instructor and science teacher, Mr. Rocky Rabino for teaching us the fundamental research and investigatory writing and for showing a great deal of patience through the time. Above all, we would like to thank God for giving us the gift of wisdom and understanding and for answering our prayers.

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Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Acknowledgment 3
Table of Contents 4
Introduction 5 Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitations Review of Related Literature
Methodology 10 Materials Treatment/General Procedure
Results and Discussions 12 Findings Analyses of Data
Conclusions 14
Recommendations 15
Bibliography 15

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Introduction
Mosquitoes are creating problems all over the world and people are dying from diseases transmitted by insects. Mosquitoes are carrying more diseases and becoming resilient to chemicals and repellents. The global problem is being tackled from many physical, chemical, cultural and biological fronts. Even during the hot months ahead, dengue may still be a potential threat. Health authorities in Bicol noted a rise in dengue cases in the first two months of 2015, compared to the same period last year. The Department of Health's Regional Epidemiology Surveillance unit recorded 177 cases (33% rise) so far this year, compared to 118 in January-February 2014. Camarines Sur had the most cases so far this year with 65, followed by 54 in Albay, 27 in Sorsogon and eight in Masbate. However, the dengue cases decreased by 50 percent in Catanduanes, and 13 percent in Camarines Norte. Health authorities in Albay are on heightened alert following the surge in Dengue cases by over 600 percent with one death reported during the past two months of the year. PHO surveillance team reported that 308 people fell ill of the mosquito borne disease from January to February 27 this year, 684 percent higher than the 45 cases reported during the same period last year. The first dengue casualty this year was a six-year-old girl from Tabaco City.
Provincial epidemiology data show that among the 15 towns and three cities in Albay, Ligao City had the highest number of cases with 112, followed by Legazpi City with 77 cases, Tabaco City 33, Daraga and Guinobatan towns with 24 each, and Camalig with 11;Oas 6, Polangui and Sto. Domingo with 5 each, Manito and Pio Duran with three each, while the towns of Bacacay, Jovellar Libon, Tiwi, and Rapu-Rapu with one each. Out of 15 towns and three cities in Albay
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only the towns of Malilipot and Malinao had no reported dengue cases. Last year, five people died due to dengue while 1,477 people fell ill after being bitten by the dengue-carrying mosquitoes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease with four variant viruses. Symptoms appear 3-14 days after the infectious bite. Dengue fever is a febrile illness that affects infants, young children, and adults. Symptoms range from a mild fever to incapacitating high fever, with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash. An enormous amount of consumer interest has been generated by the marketing of new devices designed to attract, then either trap or kill, mosquitoes. The general idea is to reduce the number of questing mosquitoes that would otherwise be afflicting the homeowner. Many products even claim to significantly reduce or even collapse local mosquito populations by decreasing the number of egg-laying females through their capture. In the data and information presented and gathered through research it is a must to think and make a project that will give solution on these rising numbers of patients and victims of dengue. The researcher is proposing and motivated to test and utilizes in school/s and barangay/s the project after series of experiments and studies of Mosquito Trap.

Objectives Have an alternative solution to prevent the different kind of diseases that mosquito brings especially dengue fever and not cause another problem. Make use of the natural resources of our country to solve common problems caused by mosquitoes, especially dengue.

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Statement of the Problem 1. Are there any effective results that there will be mosquitoes trapped? 2. Are there any significant differences between the experimental studies compared to the commercial ones?

Statement of the Hypothesis
Alternative
1. There are effective results that there will be mosquitoes trapped. 2. There are significant differences compared to the commercial ones.
Null
1. There are no effective results that there will be mosquitoes trapped. 2. There are no significant differences compared to the commercial ones.

Significance of the Project There are two key elements to a successful mosquito trap. First, the ability to attract mosquitoes to the trap. Second the ability to get the mosquitoes into the trap. If that happened it will benefit the following: Pupils- The main concern of the school is the welfare of the pupils. They will be protected in the bites of the mosquitoes and especially in the diseases carried by these insects. Parents-For them to give the best care and protection to their children using the said project at home

8 Teachers- Using the project is one way of showing that the school is the second home of the children. Most of the time the children stayed at school, teachers must see to it that there pupils are free from dengue and other diseases. Community- People of the community are free from disease caused by these insects. Less money to be spent in hospitalization because of the prevention made using the mosquito trap.

Future Researchers- This project will serve as their guide in making other related projects. Science Teachers- This project can be used in discussing lessons in Science especially in the topics about insects, recyclable materials, CO2, and other integrated lessons related to the study.

Scope and Limitations This project tackles on making a mosquito trap that is made up of natural ingredients that is not harmful to human health. Our project also tackles the protection of human beings against mosquito bites that cause diseases.

Review of Related Literature Mosquitoes have been around since the beginning of time and have survived years of changing conditions that humans could never withstand. Mosquito control is a major entomological concern worldwide, so why is it necessary to control mosquitoes? The two main reasons are, to prevent or reduce nuisance biting and preclude the spread of mosquito-borne
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diseases (Dwinell et al., 1998). The number of people worldwide affected by these diseases is staggering. Each year 300 to 500 million cases of malaria are reported, resulting in 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004). Malaria is not common in the United States, but recently the introduction and spread of West Nile Virus (WNV) has become a major concern. In 2003, 9,862 human cases and 5,181 equine cases were reported (Stark and Kazanis, 2003). The most serious consequence of WNV infection is fatal encephalitis in humans and horses, and mortality in certain domestic and wild birds. The state of Philippines has an active equine industry, where some of the top thoroughbreds in the nation are bred and trained. Since the mortality rate of horses infected with WNV is around 30%, the threat of this arbovirus is tremendous (Porter et al., 2003). Mosquitoes also pose a nuisance factor to equine and livestock industries, causing reduced feed conversion efficiency, weight gain reductions, and decreased milk yield (Steelman, 1979, and Byford et al., 1992). Philippines has been working since the early 1900s to control the threat of mosquito-borne diseases through surveillance and chemical spraying. These methods are still used today, but chemical control may be greatly restricted in the future due to environmental effects, insecticide resistance and health concerns (Kline and Mann, 1998). New trapping innovations have given mosquito control agencies and backyard enthusiasts a way to safely and effectively control the nuisance mosquitoes and possibly provide an accurate picture of local populations. Mosquito traps are becoming a popular merchandizing commodity, but their effectiveness could still be greatly enhanced in the future. Knowing the biology and natural behavior of the mosquito is essential to effectively controlling this pest. Extensive research involving humans and livestock animals concerning mosquito attraction has been conducted, but little has been done with horses. In Philippines, the equine
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industry is a multibillion dollar business, and mosquito control is essential. Evaluating and understanding natural behavior of mosquitoes as they interact with horses could provide valuable information about trapping and control. This chapter is a review of selected literature on the taxonomy, morphology, behavior, ecology, seasonality, public health importance, and potential control of mosquitoes.

Methodology
Materials

An empty, plastic 2 liter bottle A marker or pen A box cutter A tape measure 1/4 cup brown sugar 1-1 1/3 cup hot water 1 gram of yeast Measuring cup Tape (duct, scotch, or electrical are fine)

Procedure Gather your materials. You will all of the items below to make a plastic bottle mosquito trap. Every item is easily found at your local grocery and hardware store.
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Make a mark halfway down the plastic bottle. About 4 inches (10 cm) from the lid of the 2 liter bottle is about half of the bottle. You can use a ruler or measuring tape to find where 4 inches down the bottle is. Extend the tape measure 4 inches. Hold the end of the tape up to the end of the bottle’s lid. Using your pen, make a mark where the tape measure ends; this is 4 inches. Draw a circle around the bottle 4 inches from the lid. You will be cutting the plastic bottle in half. The measurements here do not need to be exact, but drawing a marked guide line will be helpful. Using the pen mark you just drew as a guide; draw a circle around the bottle 4 inches down from the lid. This will guide you in cutting the bottle in half. Cut the plastic bottle in half. Cut carefully along your marked guide line until the bottle is in two sections. Keep both parts of the bottle; you'll use them both to make the trap. Be careful of sharp plastic edges as you cut. The edges don’t have to be perfect, so don’t worry if you’re a bit off from the marked guide line. Measure 1/4 cup of brown sugar. Use your measuring cup to measure out 1/4 cup of brown sugar. Leave the sugar in the measuring cup; you will pour it into the bottle in the next step. Heat up 1-1 1/3 cup of hot water. You can heat up the water over the stove or in the microwave, whichever is more convenient. When the water begins to steam, it is hot enough for the trap. Pour the brown sugar into the lower half of the bottle. Carefully pour the brown sugar from the measuring cup into the lower half of the bottle. Try not to spill any over the edges. Set the measuring cup aside once you’ve emptied it.
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Pour the hot water into the lower half of the bottle. Pour the water slowly; since it is hot, you do not want to splash any water because it could burn you. Allow the mixture to cool. Set the bottle aside for however long it takes the hot water to cool. Twenty minutes should be long enough. Add 1 gram of yeast to the plastic bottle. You don’t have to stir the mixture together. The yeast will consume the sugar and produce carbon dioxide, which attracts the mosquitoes. Place the top half upside down inside the bottom part of the bottle. Push the top inside gently until the cut edges align. Ensure the top of the bottle is above the water line. • Adult mosquito should have enough room to fly in the bottle and down the lid. • If there is not enough room for them to fly in the bottle, empty a bit of the solution out. • Now, insects can fly into the trap and die from suffocation or starvation.

Results and Discussions
[pic]
After two (2) weeks of trial, it shows that mosquitoes are attracted as the days increased because of the carbon dioxide produced by the water with sugar and yeasts. Based on the studies conducted the odor of the water attracted the mosquitoes to be trapped on the device.
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If there is a room or area where mosquitoes have infested, place the trap there. A steady surface is optimal, such as a desk, counter, or the floor. Keep the trap out of people’s way so it won’t get knocked over. Eventually, many mosquitoes will die in the bottle, and you will have to clean the trap for it to be effective again. Even if there are not many mosquitoes, the liquid in the trap eventually loses its effectiveness because all the yeast has finished eating the sugar and no longer attracts mosquitoes; many sources say this takes two weeks. Use a calendar to keep track of when you will need to change the liquid. Change the liquid when the bottle is full of insects, even if two weeks have not passed. Luckily, this mosquito trap is reusable! Disassemble the trap by removing the tape. Then, wash both halves of the trap by rinsing it with water. Next, fill it up with more of the mosquito trap liquid. The project attracts mosquitoes that are their job. They attract the females (which are the biters), and thus there is a cumulative impact on decreasing the mosquito population as successive crops of females are wiped out. The researcher use CO2 traps and live on the water at the back of the classrooms. After two weeks it can attest to their efficacy.
The key knows how to use it. Never put them near your outdoor seating areas, they attract mosquitoes. Seems self-evident, but people who complain about traps usually have them too close to their areas. About 30 feet away, preferably upwind, seems to work best for us. Nonetheless, this device will trap and kill measurable numbers of mosquitoes. Whether this will produce a noticeable reduction in the mosquito population in each case will depend upon a number of factors, e.g. individual tolerance level, absolute mosquito population size,
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proximity, size and type of breeding habitat producing re-infestation, wind velocity and direction, and species of mosquito present, and others. Depending upon their placement, wind direction, and inherent trapping efficiency, traps may actually draw more mosquitoes into an area than they can possibly catch. Thus, the homeowner must still use repellents and practice source reduction methods as adjuncts to realize any measure of relief. Based on the results of research and discussions that have been described previously, obtained some conclusions, namely: • CO2 and water vapor give positive impact as mosquito attractant. • UV light also can attract mosquito into the device. • Heat spectrum which is produce by recombination process plays significant role than CO2 and water vapor or UV light in attracting mosquitoes. • If the device put in room contain with indoor air pollutant, the effectivity for this device will increase by the production of CO2 and water vapor.

Conclusions Tests made by researcher that the homemade mosquito trap catch more mosquitoes because of carbon dioxide. It is also outperformed like the commercial one. Many are happy with the trap and they should give relief in many situations. However, this trap must not be considered as magic bullet that destroys all biting mosquitoes. The mosquito trap showed a significantly better or similar performance compared to the other traps or repellent with regard to trapping efficacy for most common mosquito species in school, including diversity of mosquito species

15 and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, the mosquito trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes.

Recommendations The researcher therefore recommended that used bottles can also be useful if they were given importance and value. It is further recommended that proper care and management are to be employed and faithfully observed throughout the period of the study to ensure safety since the samples were producing bad odor as the days arises. The researcher recommends further research on the project especially on the content of yeast and sugar that helped to attract mosquitoes.

Bibliography
Division Memorandum # 82 s. 2015
A Homemade Mosquito Trap that Really Works! April 19, 2013 By M.D. Creekmore
Plastic Bottle Mosquito Trap by Darthorso
How to Make a Plastic Bottle Mosquito Trap http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Plastic-Bottle-Mosquito-Trap
Low-Cost, Homemade Mosquito Trap By Cheryl Long June/July 2012…...

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