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Mediterranean Society

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Submitted By akaxannie
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History 110a MWF 10-10:50AM
Chapter 11- Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase
The Romans created a centralized government, legal system and means of bureaucracy starting with the Etruscans that dominated Italy from the 8th to 5th century B.C.E. The Roman republic had elected representatives and a general republic constitutions of two consuls: civil and military. Consuls were elected by an assembly, dominated by the patricians (civilians). The senate usually advised the consuls and ratified major decisions. Both senate and consul represented the interests of these patricians.
However, the Roman empire shifted from a Republic government to an empire shortly after their republican reign because of imperial expansion and domestic problems. Many military commanders recruited rural and poor civilians who also happened to be intensely loyal to their commanders and the civil war cause. Furthermore, the expansion of the republic prompted Rome to become a preeminent power in the East and West Mediterranean. This led up to the Conflict with Carthage and Hellenistic realms.
Fortunately, the Roman empire still had a successful expansion. The Roman empire had a very stoic, disciplined and trained legion of men. Roman empire also featured a good agricultural economy which was capable of feeding a large population; this allowed the Roman population to grow. Generally, the Roman government was lenient and flexible and very tolerant of different beliefs and cultures. Roman leaders even made citizens out of some conquered elites with many treaties and alliances with other neighboring elites. Furthermore, the Roman empire was the first people to use concrete; they were highly skilled in engineering and construction of various buildings and projects.
Julius Caesar was a very population social reformer and conqueror who eventually centralized control in Rome in 49 B.C.E. Julius…...

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