Free Essay

Mediterranean Climate

In: Other Topics

Submitted By fcabalo
Words 2328
Pages 10
-------------------------------------------------
Mediterranean climate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the influence of Mediterranean climates on viticulture, see Mediterranean climate (wine).

Areas with a Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of the lands in theMediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate. The lands around the Mediterranean Sea form the largest area where this climate type is found, but it also prevails in much of California, in parts of Western andSouth Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia, and in parts of central coastal Chile. Contents [hide] * 1 Köppen climate classification * 2 Precipitation * 3 Temperature * 4 Mediterranean Biome * 4.1 Natural vegetation * 5 Hot-summer Mediterranean climate * 6 Warm-summer Mediterranean climate * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links |
-------------------------------------------------
Köppen climate classification[edit]
Under the Köppen climate classification, "dry-summer subtropical" climates (classified as Csa and Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen-Geiger system, "C" zones have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and an average in the coldest between 18 to −3 °C (64 to 27 °F) (or, in some applications, between 20 to 0 °C (68 to 32 °F)). The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern: "s" represents dry summers: first, Köppen has defined a dry month as a month with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month, and with less than 30 mm of precipitation in a summer month. Some, however, use a 40 mm level.[1][2] The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), with at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F); "b", an average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C, and again with at least two months averaging above 10 °C.
Under this classification, dry-summer subtropical climates (Csa, Csb) usually occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones include areas normally associated with Oceanic climates, not Mediterranean, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, northern Portugal and north-western Spain.[3] Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, though they, too, are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands and the eastern part of the Azores.
Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of at least 10 °C, and the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 millimetres (35 in). Thus, under this system, many Csbzones (including the Pacific Northwest) become DO Oceanic.
-------------------------------------------------
Precipitation[edit] “ | It [Chile] has four months of winter, no more, and in them, except when there is a quarter moon, when it rains one or two days, all the other days have such beautiful suns... | ” | —Pedro de Valdivia to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor |
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity and making rainfall impossible or unlikely except for the occasional thunderstorm, while during winter the polar jet stream and associated periodic storms reach into the lower latitudes of the Mediterranean zones, bringing rain, with snow at higher elevations. As a result, areas with this climate receive almost all of their precipitation during their winter season, and may go anywhere from 4 to 6 months during the summer without having any significantprecipitation.
-------------------------------------------------
Temperature[edit]

Mediterranean Climate Distribution in the Americas
The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. However winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the case of winters for instance, Lisbon experiences very mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snow practically unknown, whereas Madrid has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. In the case of summers for instance, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in the summer (48 °C (118 °F) has been measured in nearby Eleusina). In contrast, San Francisco has mild summers due to the upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast producing regular summer fog that does not reach far inland.
Because most regions with a Mediterranean climate are near large bodies of water, temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperature during the summer is large due to dry and clear conditions, except along the immediate coasts). Temperatures during winter only occasionally fall below the freezing point and snow is generally seldom seen. In the summer, the temperatures range from mild to very hot, depending on distance from a large body of water, elevation, and latitude. Even in the warmest locations with a Mediterranean-type climate, however, temperatures usually do not reach the highest readings found in adjacent desert regions because of cooling from water bodies, although strong winds from inland desert regions can sometimes boost summer temperatures, quickly increasing the risk of wildfires.
As in every climatologic domain, the highland locations of the Mediterranean domain can present cooler temperatures in winter than the lowland areas, temperatures which can sometimes prohibit the growth of typical Mediterranean plants. Some Spanish authors opt to use the term "Continental Mediterranean climate" for some regions with lower temperature in winter than the coastal areas[4] (direct translation from Clima Mediterráneo Continentalizado), but most climate classifications (including Köppen's Cs zones) show no distinction.
Additionally, the temperature and rainfall pattern for a Csa or even a Csb climate can exist as a microclimate in some high-altitude locations adjacent to a rare tropicalAs (summer-drought tropical climate, typically in a rainshadow region).
-------------------------------------------------
Mediterranean Biome[edit]
The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate zones. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyllshrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, chaparral in California, matorral in Chile, fynbos in South Africa, and mallee and kwongan shrublands in Australia. Aquatic communities in Mediterranean climate regions are adapted to a yearly cycle in which abiotic (environmental) controls of stream populations and community structure dominate during floods, Biotic component (e.g. competition and predation) controls become increasingly important as the discharge declines, and environmental controls regain dominance as environmental conditions become very harsh (i.e. hot and dry); as a result, these communities are well suited to recover from droughts, floods, and fires.[5]
Natural vegetation[edit]
The native vegetation of Mediterranean climate lands must be adapted to survive long, hot summer droughts and prolonged wet periods in winter. Mediterranean vegetation examples include the following:[6] * Evergreen trees: such as Pines, Cypresses, and Oaks * Deciduous trees: such as Sycamores, Oaks, and Buckeyes * Fruit trees such as Olives, Figs, Citrus, Walnuts and Grapes * Shrubs: Bay laurel, ericas, banksias, and Chamise * Sub-shrubs: such as Sages, Artemisias, and Sagebrush * Grasses: Grassland types, Themeda triandra, Bunchgrasses; Sedges, and Rushes * Herbs: such as fragrant Rosemary, Thyme, and Lavender.
Much native vegetation in Mediterranean climate area valleys have been cleared for agriculture. In places such as the Sacramento Valley and Oxnard Plain inCalifornia, draining marshes and estuaries combined with supplemental irrigation has led to a century of intensive agriculture. Much of the Overberg in the southern Cape of South Africa, once covered with renosterveld, has likewise been largely converted to agriculture, mainly wheat. In hillside and mountainous areas, away fromurban sprawl, ecosystems and habitats of native vegetation are more sustained.
The fynbos vegetation in the South-western Cape in South Africa is famed for its high floral diversity, and includes such plant types as members of the Restionaceae,Ericas (Heaths) and Proteas. Representatives of the Proteaceae also grow in Australia, such as Banksias. The palette of California native plants is also renowned for its species and cultivar diversity.
-------------------------------------------------
Hot-summer Mediterranean climate[edit]

Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa)
This subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csa) is the most common form of the Mediterranean climate, therefore it is also known as a “typical Mediterranean climate”. As stated earlier, regions with this form of a Mediterranean climate experience average monthly temperatures in excess of 22.0 °C (71.6 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 to −3 °C (64 to 27 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 to 0 °C (64 to 32 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C(50 °F). Regions with this form of the Mediterranean climate typically experience hot, sometimes very hot and dry summers and mild, wet winters. In a number of instances, summers here can closely resemble summers seen in arid and semiarid climates. However, high temperatures during summers are generally not quite as high as those seen in arid or semiarid climates due to the presence of a large body of water. All areas with this subtype have wet winters. However, some areas with a hot Mediterranean subtype can actually experience very chilly winters, complete with occasional snowfall. Precipitation is heavier during the colder months. However, there are a number of clear, sunny days during the wetter months.
Csa climates are mainly found around the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia, southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia and in the interior of California. Southern California's coasts also experience hot summers due to the shielding effect of the Channel Islands. Rome | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 103 123 | 99 134 | 68 155 | 65 188 | 48 2311 | 34 2715 | 23 3017 | 33 3018 | 68 2715 | 94 2211 | 130 167 | 111 134 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: [7] | | [show]Imperial conversion | |

Los Angeles | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 85 209 | 94 2110 | 80 2111 | 21 2312 | 7.9 2414 | 1.5 2616 | 0.3 2918 | 3.3 2919 | 8.1 2918 | 9.4 2616 | 27 2311 | 49 209 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: NOAA | | [show]Imperial conversion | |

Perth | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 9.5 3118 | 13 3118 | 19 3016 | 44 2614 | 118 2211 | 177 199 | 170 188 | 134 198 | 81 2010 | 52 2311 | 22 2614 | 13 2916 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: BoM[8] | | [show]Imperial conversion | |
-------------------------------------------------
Warm-summer Mediterranean climate[edit]

Warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb)
Occasionally also termed “Cool-summer Mediterranean climate”, this subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csb) is the less common form of the Mediterranean climate. As stated earlier, regions with this subtype of the Mediterranean climate experience warm (but not hot) and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 22.0 °C(71.6 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 to −3 °C (64 to 27 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 to 0 °C (64 to 32 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C (50 °F). Winters are rainy and can be mild to chilly. In a few instances, snow can fall on these areas. Precipitation is heavier during the colder months, but there are a number of clear sunny days even during the wetter seasons.
As stated earlier, in some instances, regions with this subtype of the Mediterranean climate closely resemble an Oceanic climate. Unlike typical Mediterranean climates, for the majority of the year, these regions experience generally cloudier and damper conditions. However, sunshine duration remains higher than in the Cfb areas, and during the summer months, these regions experience sunny, dry and warm conditions, where almost no rain falls. There is the legitimate threat of forest fires in these areas, in regions such as Galicia[9] and the Pacific Northwest.[10] Despite the fact that these climates are technically Csb climates, a number of scientists (and others) do not consider the climate “Mediterranean”, primarily because of the predominantly oceanic characteristics that these places exhibit. They are instead categorized as a form ofoceanic climate.
Csb climates are found in northwestern Iberia, coastal California and parts of the Pacific Northwest, central Chile, parts of southern Australia and sections of southwestern South Africa. Porto | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 158 145 | 140 156 | 90 177 | 116 189 | 98 2011 | 46 2314 | 18 2516 | 27 2515 | 71 2415 | 138 2012 | 158 178 | 195 157 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: Instituto de Meteorologia[11] | | [show]Imperial conversion | |

San Francisco | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 120 158 | 105 169 | 86 1710 | 32 1810 | 14 1911 | 3.3 2012 | 1 2012 | 2.3 2113 | 7.1 2213 | 30 2113 | 84 1810 | 81 158 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: NOAA[12] | | [show]Imperial conversion | |

Cape Town | Climate chart (explanation) | J | F | M | A | M | J | J | A | S | O | N | D | 15 2616 | 17 2716 | 20 2514 | 41 2312 | 69 209 | 93 188 | 82 187 | 77 188 | 40 199 | 30 2111 | 14 2413 | 17 2515 | Average max. and min. temperatures in °C | Precipitation totals in mm | Source: WMO[13] | | [show]Imperial conversion | |
-------------------------------------------------
See also
Wine regions with Mediterranean climates[edit] * Tuscany and most other Italian wine regions * Most Greek wine regions * Most Israeli wine regions * Most Lebanese wine regions * Most Montenegrin wine regions * Southern Rhone Valley * Catalonia * Languedoc * Provence * Coastal Portuguese wine region * Primorska Slovenian wine region * Coastal Croatian wine regions * Napa Valley and other coastal California wine regions * Texas Hill Country and Texas High Plains * Western Australia and South Australia wine regions * Chilean Central Valley * Coastal South African wine regions * Western coastal Turkish wine regions…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Climate Change

...Climate Change Climate change is a long-term alteration in the statistical distribution of weather pattern over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. The world is currently experiencing drastic change in temperature. This change can be felt in the tropical climate areas where the weather is getting hotter and hotter every day. The change in global temperatures and precipitation over time is due to natural variability or to human activity. It is also caused by accumulation of greenhouse effects (Arrhenius, 1896). Should we as humans let this problem worsen? Climate change will affect everything including humans, flora and fauna, and the environment. One of the effects of climate change is how it will affect the people. Climate change will have a huge impact on the people’s health. The health of the people will be affected mostly by air pollution and respiratory problems will have the greatest risk of health effects. Increases in moulds and pollens due to warmer temperatures could also cause respiratory problems such as asthma for some people. Should the effects of climate change get any worse than what it is now, people around the world will have to face some serious problems. Food security will be affected and thus diseases can easily get transmitted. Food or waterborne diseases are acquired through eating or drinking. For example, Hepatitis A is a viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver. It can be spread through consumption of food or......

Words: 1424 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Climate

...Introduction The purpose of any classification system is to obtain an efficient arrangement of information in a simplified and generalized form. Thus climatic statistics can be organized in order to describe and delimit the major types of climate is quantitative terms. Obviously no single classification can serve more than a limited number of purposes of satisfactory and many different schemes have therefore been developed. Some schemes merely provide a convenient nomenclature system, whereas others are an essential primarily further study. Many climatic classifications, for instance are concerned with the relationship between climate and vegetation or soils but surprisingly few attempts have been made to base a classification on the direct effects of climate on man. General classification related to plant growth / vegetation. Numerous schemes have been suggested d for relating climatic limits to plant growth or vegetation growth rely basically or two basic criteria the degree of aridity and warmth. Aridity is not simply a matter of low precipitation but of the effective precipitation i.e. precipitation minus evaporation. The ratio of rainfall/temperature has been used as such an index of precipitation effectiveness or the ground that higher temperatures in cease evaporation. W. KOPPEN CLASSFICATION A prime example of this type of classification is W. Koppen published between 1900 and 1936. The key features of Koppen’s final classifications are temperature criteria......

Words: 3093 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Climate

... Most of the scientists agree that this climate change is threatening our earth; human beings can be extinct probably in the near future. The cause and effects of this phenomenon has been studied which is greenhouse effect. The whole world is getting involved in this issue and looking for solutions. Greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that increases temperature of the earth’s surface (Australian government). However, according to the investigations, human activities enhanced the greenhouse activities, making it worse. So our climate change is due to the increasing human activities, global industrialization which ejects huge amount of carbon emissions. Human activities enhance greenhouse effect that causes widespread heave rainfalls in the northern Hemisphere during the last 50 years (Minetal, as cited in Allan, 2011).The rising temperature is disrupting every aspect in our life and the whole ecosystem. This climate change affects atmospheric and ocean circulations and brings many hazards to the earth, such as widespread drought, flood and tsunami. As we considered climate change, we need consider the common good for all the humans on the earth. The common good refers to the total living conditions which can enable individuals to get the achievement which enables people to achieve humanity (google), whereas climate change is a serious issue that is eliminating human living resouces in many aspects. As we mentioned above, climate change can cause many negative......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Climate

...Climate Scare Is all the hype about man made climate change going to destroy the human race. In The 11th Hour by Leonardo DiCaprio, we hear and see the perceived effects man-made climate change is having on our planet. Flooding, hurricanes, and drought, all caused by man’s use of fossil fuels, our only chance of survival, eliminate our use of fossil fuels. Bill McKibben agrees with this theory, in “350 Science” he informs us the current level of carbon dioxide (CO2), 392 parts per million, is much too high. His suggestion is that carbon sequestering is necessary to prevent our destruction. Patrick Moore reiterates this theory in “An Inconvenient Fact”. He contradicts DiCaprio’s belief of curtailing forestry and encourages improved forestry as a tool for carbon sequestering. While The 11th Hour suggests hurricanes, and flooding are caused by man, Scott Mandia tells us differently in “The Little Ice Age in Europe”. In it he describes conditions in Europe during ice age periods that mirror the conditions DiCaprio and others predict in The 11th Hour. We know that the CO2 levels are rising, but the dooms day predictions are false and misleading. All of their predictions have happened in recorded history, during times of colder temperatures and lower CO2 levels. Drought and horrible storms will occur no matter what level of CO2 is in the atmosphere or the average temperature is, we need to dedicate more resources to preparing for these disasters. Leonardo DiCaprio......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Mediterranean: Mare Nostrum of Earth Sciences

...nl ------------------------------------------------- Mare Nostrum A report looking into the geodynamics(1), THE PALEOENVIRONMENT(2) and volcanism & earthquakes(3) of the (eastern) mediterranean area Julian Swinkels 4119355 | j.r.a.swinkels@students.uu.nl ------------------------------------------------- Mare Nostrum A report looking into the geodynamics(1), THE PALEOENVIRONMENT(2) and volcanism & earthquakes(3) of the (eastern) mediterranean area Table of content Introduction 1 Geodynamics 2 Volcanism and Earthquakes 4 Paleoenvironment 6 References: 8 Introduction The Mediterranean Sea has been one of the most profound areas for geologists to study at. Amongst each other they also refer to the sea as ‘Mare Nostrum’ which is Latin for ‘our sea’. It is an area where many different types of tectonic plates come together, moving in different directions. It also has the perfect latitude to make it a sensitive area regarding astronomically induced oscillations. In the past it has been a fascinating area for geological research and further analysis of the area would contribute greatly of many geological process in an accurate time-frame. This report will first explain the geodynamics of the area focussing on the subduction processes in the eastern Mediterranean and how extension is possible in an overall compressive state. Secondly the volcanic activity and earthquake activity in the Aegean domain will be addressed, looking at how they are......

Words: 2766 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Climate

...Climate Change There are so many researchers, scientists, and environmentalists that are expressing their concerns about all the changes in climate on earth. There are some that believe that there is a terrific amount of warming happening in the entire global climate. Researchers refer to the climate change as “global warming.” The research provided within this paper will conclude whether or not global warming is truly fact or fiction. The Oxford Reference Dictionary defines climate as the analysis of accumulated weather data for long term patterns and trends. Change is defined as, “To make or become different.” Combine those two words together the definition is “long-term weather patterns and trends becoming different over an extended period of time.” According to many researchers there has been a drastic change in climate temperatures. With their findings it is truthful that global warming is indeed happening before our eyes. Are these changes being caused by man? Ahrens C. Donald answers that question with, “changes in the climate can result from both natural events and human activities are causes of the warming. Examples of the natural causes of climate change are volcanic eruptions, variations in the earth’s orbit around the sun, and variations in solar output” (Ahrens, 485-491). There are also reasons for the climate change caused by humans. These examples include, industrial pollutants and fossil fuels (Rhodes, 116). After further ado, it is not solely......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mediterranean Society

...History 110a MWF 10-10:50AM Chapter 11- Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase The Romans created a centralized government, legal system and means of bureaucracy starting with the Etruscans that dominated Italy from the 8th to 5th century B.C.E. The Roman republic had elected representatives and a general republic constitutions of two consuls: civil and military. Consuls were elected by an assembly, dominated by the patricians (civilians). The senate usually advised the consuls and ratified major decisions. Both senate and consul represented the interests of these patricians. However, the Roman empire shifted from a Republic government to an empire shortly after their republican reign because of imperial expansion and domestic problems. Many military commanders recruited rural and poor civilians who also happened to be intensely loyal to their commanders and the civil war cause. Furthermore, the expansion of the republic prompted Rome to become a preeminent power in the East and West Mediterranean. This led up to the Conflict with Carthage and Hellenistic realms. Fortunately, the Roman empire still had a successful expansion. The Roman empire had a very stoic, disciplined and trained legion of men. Roman empire also featured a good agricultural economy which was capable of feeding a large population; this allowed the Roman population to grow. Generally, the Roman government was lenient and flexible and very tolerant of different beliefs and cultures. Roman leaders even......

Words: 605 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Three Effects of Climate Change

...Three Effects of Climate Change By: Nehanda Spencer Contents Introduction 2-4 Public Health 4-5 Water Crisis 6-7 Human Migration 7-8 Summary 9 Works Cited 10 Work Cited Pages 11-30 Introduction Well before the term climate change was used to describe the weather effects on the earth, I was informed about global warming. During high school when I was instructed to learn about global warming it was just a mere discussion based on the potential effects humans had on the climate. Approximately eight years later the suspected effects, of careless exertion of the earths resources among other influences, have drastically impacted the world and scientist have agreed that it is the cause of climate change. I was aware of climate change and I’ve witness many natural disasters over the years due to news broadcastings; such as hurricane Katrina, Washington’s mudslide and most recently Arkansas deadly tornado. However, I never truly grasp the importance of the earth’s current situation until I furthered my research in college. According to the ShowTime docu-series “Years of living dangerously” climate change is inevitable due to the amount of earth’s resources used verses those that are replenished. The documentary opened my eyes to the high tempatures that are spreading across the country and one of the biggest causes of climate change, which are green house gases. The tragic causes of these gases develop from the burning of fossil......

Words: 2446 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Climate

...and unsettling. These feelings tell you the kind of climate that you are in. By learning to express yourself in a supportive rather than a defensive way, you open the door to improving the communication climate in all of your relationships. Dr. Jack Gibb examined characteristics of communication climates in order to determine what factors made situations either positive or negative. His research shows that supportive and defensive climates can be broken down into six elements each of effective communication. Under supportive climates, the elements of communication make for a better overall experience; one that is positive. According to Gibb, the elements of a supportive climate are description, problem orientation, spontaneity, empathy, equality, and provisionalism. Description refers to messages that express your feelings, your reactions, and your needs to others. Problem orientation is a point of view you share with another that says we have a problem, and we can find a solution. Spontaneity refers to a sincere, natural way of communicating with honesty and openness. Empathy communicates respect, understanding, and acceptance to another. It involves your ability to put yourself in someone else’s “shoes”. Provisionalism refers to an open-minded view of new ideas, trying new behaviors, and seeking new solutions. Equality shares a sense of value and mutual respect regardless of power, status, or position. Defensive climates, on the other hand, make for a more negative......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Climate

...issued by the DENR/EMB after a positive review of an ECC application, certifying that based on the representations of the proponent, the proposed project or undertaking will not cause significant negative environmental impact. The ECC also certifies that the proponent has complied with all the requirements of the EIS System and has committed to implement its approved Environmental Management Plan. 2 Republic Act (RA) 8749: Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1999 Provides for a comprehensive air quality management policy and program which aims to achieve and maintain healthy air for all Filipinos. The DENR Secretary, upon recommendation of the EMB, will divide the country into different airsheds. Airsheds are to be designated based on climate, weather, meteorology, and topology, which affect the mixture and diffusion of pollutants in the air, share common interests or face similar development problems. These will be managed by multi-sectoral Governing Boards chaired by the DENR Secretary with representatives from concerned government agencies, the private sector, NGOs and LGUs. The Clean Air Act covers allpotential sources of air pollution, to wit: (1) Mobile Sources (eg. motor vehicles); (2) Point or Stationary Sources (eg. industrial plants); and (3) Area Sources (eg. wood or coal burning) Smoke belching vehicles on the road will undergo emission testing. Violators will be subject to the following fines/penalties: 1st Offense 2nd Offense 3rd Offense P......

Words: 1778 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Nacient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Literature

...Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Literature * Literature comes from the Latin word meaning letter there for Oral literature is contractual. * People used oral literature long before written literature in the ways of storytelling, poems and song. * We think good story telling is neatly organized and original. Clichés are a make of bad writing. * But per literature societies tend to love stock phrase, tradition sayings and proverbs. Helped them to remember the story. * Per literature societies didn’t have an author instead they have poets, singers and storytellers to echo old tales. * Of course most oral stories were lost due to not having been written down or recoded in some fashion there for can’t be collected in any anthology records. * As one can expert written literature didn’t take hold all at ones, it was used for inventory, commercial, admin., political and legal form mostly at first. * Plato s Phaedrus gives us some induction of Athenians enormous cultural change with the invention of writing. * By the time of early Roman Empire poets started to emulate oral literature. * Mesopotamia was where writing was first developed around 3300 to 2990 b.c.e. * Writings at this time where done with clay tablets left in the sun to dry. Pictographic used list livestock, food etc * By 2800 b.c.e began to use wedged -shape end sticks to make marks rather than shape ended sticks to draw pictographic. * Known as cuneiform......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mediterranean Scrub Biome Paper

...MEDITERRANEAN SCRUB Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, as defined by the World Wildlife Federation, is known for dry summers and rainy winters. Summers are typically hot in low-lying inland locations but can be cool near colder seas and oceans. Winters are typically mild to cool in low-lying locations but can be cold in inland and higher locations. The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome occurs in the world's five Mediterranean climate zones, on the west coast of continents in the mid-latitudes, the Mediterranean Basin, Chilean Mattoral,  California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California and the Baja California Peninsula, Western Cape of South Africa, and last but not least the Southwest Australia corner area. These regions are home to a great amount diversity of habbitats and species. Vegetation types range from forests to woodlands, savannas, shrublands, and grasslands; landscapes are common, where differing vegetation types are interleaved with one another in complicated patterns created by modifications in soil, exposure to wind and sun, and fire history. Much of the woody vegetation in Mediterranean-climate regions is sclerophyll, which means 'hard-leaved' in Greek. Sclerophyll vegetation generally has small, dark leaves covered with a waxy outer skin to retain moisture in the dry summer months. All these ecoregions are extremely distinctive, harboring 10% of the Earth's plant species. This is equivalent to about 40% of...

Words: 1792 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Weather Climate

...most weather happens here. Temperature drops as you go higher. Wind speeds increase. Most unstable layer. End of the sphere is marked by the tropoPAUSE- an isothermal layer where temp remains constant. | Stratosphere | Steady increase in temperature. Marked by the STRATOPAUSE. Atmosphere is thinner here. | Mesosphere | Temperature decreases to -90. No water vapour or dust to absorb radiation. Very strong winds at 3000 km/hr. MESOPAUSE | Thermosphere | Increase in temperature from the absorption of UV radiation | Greatest amount of energy coming into the atmosphere is from insolation (short wave solar radiation). The amount of this energy from the sun is determined by: *Solar constant- varies slightly & affects longer term climate rather than short term *Distance from the sun- Earth’s orbit around sun can cause variation in distant *Altitude of the sun in the sky- equator receives more energy as rays are head on. At 60 degrees N or S its at an angle so there’s twice the area to heat up & more atmosphere to pass through *Length of the day & night Some radiation is absorbed by ozone, water vapour, co2, ice particles, and dust reduce the amount reaching Earth. & clouds also reflect radiation back! ALBEDO is the ratio between the amount of incoming and reflected radiation. (Usually at 4%) Short wave radiation is converted to heat and heats the surface of earth, while longer radiation (infrared) is radiated back into atmosphere. Longer wave......

Words: 6549 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Geopolitics in Euro-Mediterranean Area

...GEOPOLITICS IN EURO-MEDITERRANEAN AREA Introduction Since several centuries, The Euro-Mediterranean Area has always been the center of the world, geopolitically speaking, representing a major hub when it comes to political interactions, commercial alliances, diplomatic communication and socio-cultural connections. The appellation of United States of Europe can highlight the crucial importance of these nations and the impact of its cooperation and interactions at the international level. In July 13th 2008, Nicolas Sarkozy had triggered a process that led to the Union for the Mediterranean that became today a huge union between countries all around the world, over and above the Mediterranean Sea, attesting of the tremendous magnitude of its geopolitical power. To me, the major objective of this Union should be conducted by a real long-term geopolitical, economic and socio-cultural strategy aiming the promotion of the economical integration and democratic reforms among and between Euro-Mediterranean nations. Since this geopolitical area is highly characterized by an ambient heterogeneity, between North Nations and South Nations in one hand, between wealthy powers, and more underprivileged countries on the other hand, economical and socio-cultural disparities between different geopolitical regions seems to me that they represent the 1st major problem and geopolitical challenge. Indeed, this inevitable battle for a homogeneous united geopolitical area can be a capital......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Climate for Olive Trees

...“Climate Conditions for Growing Olive Trees” The olive tree is a type of evergreen tree that can grow to heights of fifty feet and has a remarkable life expectancy of 500 years. The tree bears the olive fruit, a green drupe that gradually turns blackish-purple as it ripens. Cultivated since antiquity, the olive remains one of the most sought-after agricultural commodities in the world. Olives are the source of olive oil, a common ingredient used in cooking, as well as in the production of certain cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Demand for olives has increased in recent years due to studies confirming that consumption of olive oil can help prevent heart disease and reduce the risk of some cancers. In response to the growing market for olives, “its cultivation area has tripled in the past 44 years, passing from 2.6 to 8.5 million of hectares” (Bartolini, 2005). Besides the valuable fruit the olive tree produces, the tree appeals to growers because it can withstand periods of drought, requires little maintenance, and is extremely resilient. Despite their tough exterior, however, olive trees require specific climate conditions to yield high-quality fruits and oils. Only a few locations in the world – the Mediterranean basin, Southern California, central Chile, southwestern South Africa, and southwestern Australia – possess the Mediterranean climate ideal for olive cultivation. The Mediterranean climate regions of the world typically experience cool, wet winters and mild-to-hot,...

Words: 996 - Pages: 4