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Mechanical Elbow Unit

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Submitted By dgautam
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Gautam M. Dobariya

“Working Model of Mechanical Elbow unit”
Submitted by

GAUTAM M. DOBARIYA -110210125040
In fulfillment for the award of the degree


Government Engineering College,

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

Page | 2




This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “WORKING
MODEL OF MECHENICAL ELBOW UNIT” has been carried out by GAUTAM M. DOBARIYA (110210125040) under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in






Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year

(Prof. C.D. DOKAL)
Department of Production Engineering,
Government Engineering College,
Bhavnagar, Gujarat-364002.

(Prof. A.G. KUNTE)
Department of Production Engineering,
Government Engineering College,
Bhavnagar, Gujarat-364002.

IDP/ UDP Project Statement Form

(This is a sample format and departments can modify it if they need as per required scenario and sector)





Production Engineering








Government Engineering College, Bhavnagar




Production Engineering

TEAM CODE ( to be given by the institute )






Page | 4




Topic Name

Page No.







2.1 Definition of Harness


2.2 Standard transhumreal harness











5.1 Principle


5.2 Working




6.1 Introduction


6.2 Working way of elbow unit






7.1 Aren’t interesting compare to other joints


7.2 Disadvantages






List of figures


Construction cable operated mechanical elbow

Page No.

1.1 unit


1.22 Mechanical elbow unit


2.1 Harness


2.2 Below elbow harness & cable control


3.1 Socket


4.1 Control cable


5.1 Working mechanism 1


5.2 Working mechanism 2


5.3 Gear locking mechanism


6.1 Image of real life application


Page | 6


I wish to express my sincere gratitude and regards to my project guide,
Prof. C. D. Dokal. His guidance and support throughout the program has been a major factor in the successful completion of the present work. This work would not have culminated into the present form without his invaluable suggestions and generous help.

I am especially thankful to Dr. C.M. Patel (manager at Rajkot branch,
Endolite India.) for providing their valuable suggestion for the project.

I am thankful to all faculties and friends at Government Engineering
College, Bhavnagar who not only provided valuable suggestions and constant help during my work but also made my stay at the college an enjoyable experience. Above all, I am forever thankful to my parents & sister for their love and encouragement. Yours faithfully,


It is mechanical elbow unit operated by cable. All body powered elbow operated by cable system. It is opened by shoulder depression, shoulder abduction and extension.

There are approximately 5000–10,000 major upper limb amputations per year, and they are most commonly caused by trauma. The most common group is males aged 15–
50 years. In the younger age group of 1–15 years old, congenital deficiency and cancers can also lead to upper limb amputation. The distribution of amputation is generally twothirds below the level of the elbow and one-third above.

The Mechanical Locking Elbow is a cable-operated elbow system with an alternating lock. The system is designed for rapid assembly, and the socket can be attached by either laminated or riveted construction.

It is very simple to maintain and operate.
A prosthetic elbow for an amputee. First and second connector parts are adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm and an artificial lower arm, respectively, for the amputee.The system mechanical efficiency is a key factor of the whole project.

A lock is used for selectively stopping the rotation between the first and second part.

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Mechanical elbow unit is prosthetics device operated by cable. The system is designed for rapid assembly, and the socket can be attached by either laminated or riveted construction.
The system has one principal element: the Elbow Mechanism. The elbow mechanism is controlled by an operating cable, which is activated by body movements. The user can lock and unlock the elbow mechanism by sequential operations of the control cable. The elbow module includes a humeral rotation unit, which is supplied with a positive lock.
While the prosthetic systems for hands amputation are fairly common, the active prostheses for the other joints of the upper limb are rarer. In addition to commercial reasons undoubtedly related to the low number of trans-humeral amputations than the hands amputations are crucial.


Internal elbow with rotating turn table allows limited rotation of forearm stimulating internal and external rotation of arm.

All body powered elbow operated by cable system. It is opened by shoulder depression, shoulder abduction and extension.

Flexion and extension of the elbow is either passive, with the help of the opposite hand, or active, through shoulder harness activation.

Inside-locking mechanical elbow units permit amputee to lock elbow in eleven positions of flexion



It is mechanical device. Which operated by cable. Elbow lock in 11 positions for achieving various positions.

A prosthetic elbow for an amputee. First and second connector parts are adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm and an artificial lower arm, respectively, for the amputee.
The second connector part is rotatable mounted on the first connector part.

A gear assembly having an outer gear part with gear teeth therein; a hub separate from and for the gear part; means rigidly connecting the hub to one of the connector parts; a resilient member connected to the gear part and hub and providing there between a resilient mounting; A locking member; means for movably mounting the locking member on the other of the connector parts so as to enable selective engagement between the locking member and gear teeth to thereby stop relative rotation, through the resilient means, of the first and second connector parts.
The locking member is selectively moved into and out of engagement with the gear teeth. Page | 10

and second connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial lower arm for the amputee.

11 | P a g e

1. Construction
Cable operated mechanical elbow unit following main parts.

Slotted gear with shaft, Harness.

Locking mechanism, Control cable, Cable housing.

Shoulder unit, hexagonal thread bolt.

1.1 Fig. mechanical elbow unit
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 Gear: A Half slotted gear use for locking mechanism. It is made of metal material like stainless steel.

 Shaft: A shaft of 8 mm dia. Use for rotationally movement. A gear is mounted on shaft.  Cable housing: The cable housing is an integral part of the Trans radial singlecontrol system. In effect, the housing maintains a constant length of the control cable regardless of the angular attitude of the anatomic elbow joint

 Locking unit: It consist various elements like hexagonal bar for lock the position, spring, etc.

 Friction wrist: It consist elements like friction ring, protective ring. Friction wrist adapter plate and friction housing.

 Conduit for cable: It is a hollow part in which cable are pass.
 Other part use like;
 Spring
 Button screw
 Slotted screw
 Elbow dome
 Spacer etc.

13 | P a g e

1.2 Cable operated mechanical elbow unit

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2. Harness

2.1 Fig. Harness

2.1 Harness
Harness is a component made by supporting belts, hooks, pin for attachment of elbow unit to the body. Made out of strong and durable webbing material with buckles for adjustment to ensure proper fitting. It is washable.
To obtain maximum efficiency in functioning, the harness kit must be used with corresponding control cable system
Harness loops around the axilla on the sound side. This anchors the harness and provides the counterforce for suspension and control-cable forces. On the prosthetic side, the anterior (superior) strap carries the major suspending forces to the prosthesis by attaching directly to the socket in a Trans humeral prosthesis or indirectly to a Trans radial socket through an intermediate Y-strap and triceps cuff.
The posterior (inferior) strap on the prosthetic side attaches to the control cable. For heavier lifting or as an alternative to the harness, a shoulder saddle with a chest-strap suspension can be used with a Trans radial prosthesis. A chest strap alone is sometimes used
15 | P a g e

to suspend a Trans humeral prosthesis. Self-suspending and suction sockets are capable of

2.2 Fig. below elbow harness and control system

providing adequate prosthetic suspension without the use of a harness. However, either design can also be used with a harness suspension to provide for a more secure suspension of the prosthesis.


Full operation of the terminal device of a Trans radial prosthesis requires only 5 cm (2 in.) of cable excursion. More than twice that amount of excursion is required for full elbow and terminal device operation of a trans-humeral prosthesis.

Page | 16

Consequently, much greater attention must be paid to the details of fitting the transhumeral harness. Precision in the location of the harness and control system components is essential for achieving satisfactory comfort and function.
Like the standard Trans radial harness, the Trans humeral harness consists of a system of interconnected elastic straps. The common elements of the standard trans-humeral harness are the axilla loop, anterior support strap, lateral support strap, control attachment strap, and elbow lock control strap.
The axilla loop acts as the fixed anchor from which other harness components originate. Some of the straps originating at the axilla loop serve to suspend the prosthesis on the residual limb, while others provide the amputee with volitional control of the prosthetic components. A second function of the anterior support strap is to help prevent rotation of the prosthetic socket on the residual limb during prosthetic usage.
The Trans humeral amputee uses glen humeral flexion on the amputated side to flex the prosthetic elbow and/or operate the terminal device. Since the proximal control cable housing is attached on the poster lateral surface of the humeral section of the prosthesis, glen humeral flexion tends to cause the socket to externally rotate on the residual limb.
The anterior support strap running downward mediolaterally resists external rotation of the socket.
With the control attachment strap firmly fixed at its proximal end by the axilla loop, it is easy to visualize how shoulder flexion on the amputated side creates both the cable tension and cable excursion required for elbow flexion and terminal device operation.
The proper location of the control attachment strap as it passes from the axilla loop to the elbow flexion/terminal device control cable is important. If the control attachment strap lies too high on the amputee's back, shoulder flexion will not produce sufficient cable excursion for full operation of the mechanical elbow and terminal device. Too low a strap position requires the amputee to use unnecessarily forceful shoulder flexion for full operation. 17 | P a g e

3. Socket
The socket of upper extremity prosthesis typically has a dual-wall design fabricated from lightweight plastic or graphite composite materials. In this design, a rigid inner socket is fabricated to fit the patient's residual limb and the second, outer wall is added, designed to be the same length and contour as the opposite, sound limb. Comfort and function are directly tied to the fit of the inner socket.
An alternative approach parallels the rigid frame, flexible liner approach sometimes used in lower extremity socket fabrication. The inner socket is fabricated from flexible plastic materials to provide appropriate contact and fit.
Surrounding the flexible liner, a rigid frame is utilized for structural support and for attaching the necessary cables and joints as needed

3.1 Fig. socket

The windows in the outer socket allow movement, permit relief over bony prominences, and enhance comfort.
Page | 18

4. Control cable mechanism

Ready-made Control Cable systems for both, Below Elbow and Above Elbow prosthetic fitting for operation of elbow joint and terminal device are marketed independently. Supplied with prefabricated metallic components with special attachments for hook and hand functional systems.
Easy for quick changeover of terminal devices. Special grade monofilament nylon cable, ensures trouble free and reliable services for a long period

4.1 Fig. control cable
Body-powered prosthetic limbs use cables to link movements of one part of the body to the prosthesis in order to control a prosthetic function.
This usually is a movement of the humerus, shoulder, or chest, which is transferred via a Bowden cable (a single cable passing through a single housing) to activate the terminal device of the prosthesis.
A control cable used to activate a single prosthetic component or function is called a single-control cable, or Bowden cable system.
A dual–control-cable system uses the same cable to control 2 prosthetic functions
(such as flexion of the elbow and, when the elbow is locked, activation of the terminal device). This latter control cable setup is accomplished with a single cable passing through two separate cable.
19 | P a g e

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5. Principle & working
The Mechanical elbow unit lock works on an alternator principle: pull and release to lock, pull and release to unlock. In short it works on lock –unlock-lock-unlock.

5.1 Fig. Working mechanism

21 | P a g e

The proximal end of the elbow lock control cable originates at the anterior suspension strap. Passing down the anteromedial surface of the humeral section of the prosthesis, the distal end of the cable engages the elbow locking mechanism. The elbow lock works on an alternator principle: pull and release to lock, pull and release to unlock. An excursion of 1.3 cm (½ in.) and a force of approximately 0.9 kg are necessary to cycle the elbow unit.

5.2 Fig. working mechanism
Page | 22

5.3 Fig. Gear lock

When the desired angle of elbow flexion is achieved, the rapid sequential application and release of tension on the elbow lock control cable locks the elbow; and when the elbow locked, the reapplication of tension on the elbow flexion/terminal device control cable permits operation of the terminal device.
To either lock or unlock the prosthetic elbow the amputee must first apply tension and then, in rapid sequence, relax tension on the elbow lock control cable. Although the cable excursion requirement for prosthetic elbow operation is small, approximately 1.3 cm (½ in.), the body motion is somewhat complex. The amputee applies tension to the elbow lock control strap and cable by slight extension and abduction of the gle-nohumeral joint combined with equally slight shoulder depression on the amputated side. This motion, in addition to exerting tension on the elbow lock control strap and cable, also stretches the elastic portion of the anterior support strap. With the rapid return of the prosthesis to the starting position, the elastic tension of the anterior support strap serves to complete the lock/unlock cycle.

23 | P a g e

6. Real life application
We lock an elbow unit in 11 different position for perform different real life application.

6.1 Image of Real life application

Page | 24

6.2 Working way process
 A first connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial upper arm for the amputee.  A second connector part adapted to be connected to an artificial lower arm for the amputee.  Means for rotatable mounting the second connector part on the first connector part.
 Means for locking the relative rotation of the first and second connector parts comprising.  A gear part having a convex, semi-circular periphery with gear teeth therein, resilient means,  Means for rigidly affixing said resilient means to said second connector part and to said gear part and providing there between a mounting,
 A locking member,
 Means for movably mounting the locking member on the first connector part so as to enable selective engagement between the locking member and the gear teeth to thereby stop rotation, through the resilient means, of the second connector part; and
 Means for moving the locking member into and out of engagement with the gear teeth. 25 | P a g e

7. Advantages and disadvantages
7.1 aren’t interesting it compare to other joints?

 Low cost
 Easy to operate
 Law cost for socket
 Long life
 No electricity or external power source
 Easy to maintain
 Very effective for Trans humeral patient
 Achieve 11 different positions
 High performance
 Maximum load capacity

7.2 Disadvantages compare to other joints

 Low efficiency compare to electric elbow unit
 Only achieving 11 different position compare to electric elbow unit.
 More weight compare to other joints
 Child can’t operate this type of elbow unit

Page | 26

8. Summery

The elbow mechanism is controlled by an operating cable, which is activated by body movements. The user can lock and unlock the elbow mechanism as per requirement by sequential operations of the control cable in different 11 positions. The elbow module includes a humeral rotation unit, which is supplied with a positive lock. So it is very useful for Trans humeral amputee. Its main advantage is minimum cost compare to electric elbow unit. 27 | P a g e

Page | 28


29 | P a g e…...

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...GTEE Expected Time of Sailing EXCLusive EX Works Free Alongside Fast As Can Free Alongside Ship Free CArrier Free Despatch Freight Demurrage Deadfreight Free DESPatch Free DIScharge Freight Deemed Earned Discountless & Non-Refundable Ship and Or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost Friday Holidays EXcluded. (Muslim Countries) Friday Holidays INCluded. (Muslim Countries) Fire Fighting Free In and Out Free In and Out Stowed and Trimmed Free In and Out Trimmed Free In Trimmed Free in Wagon FroM Federal Maritime Commission FathoMS Fixing Note For Orders Fuel Oil Free On Board For Our Guidance Free On Rail Free On Quay Free On Truck First Open Water Free On Wharf Fresh water FREE of any EXtra INSurance (Owners) Floating Production Storage and Offloading unit FiTted Fresh water Arrival Draft Fresh Water Departure Draft For Your Guidance For Your Information Grain (cargo capacity) General Average Good And Safe (Port) Both ENDs GDynia/GDansk GENeralS or general cargo GEOgraphical ROTation Germanischer Lloyd GearLESS Gas Oil German North Sea GRain Global Maritime Distress Safety System GeaRed GuaranTEE HA HDLTSBENDS HBF HDWTS HELDK HHDW HMS HO HR HRS HV HVFL HW IFO IMDG IU IMO ISM(C) IUHTAUTC KMC KN KTM I.W.L. LASH LAT LAYCAN LC LCR LDN LGT LNG LOA LOF Lo Ho LOI LOLO LOW LPG LPS LR LR L.S. LSD L.T. LT (LTONS) LW MB MDO (DO) MDWT MIN/MAX MO MODU MOLCHOP MOLOO MON MOT HAtch Half Despatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends Harmless Bulk Fertilizer Half Demurrage Weather Time Saved HELicopter DecK......

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Application of Chemical Sensors in Mechanical Engineering

...APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL SENSORS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A chemical sensor is a device that transforms chemical information, ranging from the concentration of a specific sample component to total composition analysis, into an analytically useful signal. The chemical information, mentioned above, may originate from a chemical reaction of the analyte or from a physical property of the system investigated. Chemical sensors its application in various fields of engineering like civil, environment, medical, biotechnology and mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design,manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It implements core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transportsystems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and more. There are a lot of potential areas where chemical sensors play a key role in innumerable processes concerning to functioning and safety in manufacturing plants , transport, aerospace, automobiles , combustion engines which are a few applications of mechanical engineering concepts. The monitoring and control of combustion-related emissions is a top priority in many Industries. The real challenge is not only to develop highly sensitive and selective sensors,......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7