Free Essay

Maths Essay by Seth

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sethgibson
Words 5638
Pages 23
Topic Area | Detail & Examples | Date Reviewed | Investigations | Variables, hypothesis, graphing, conclusions | | | Physical properties | Solubility, magnetism, boiling & melting points, | | | Mixtures | Easily reversed, not chemically changed, no new sunstance, properties of componenets remain | | | Solutions | Solute, solvent, saturated solution | | | Separation techniques | | | | Chromatography | Solvent & solubility | | | Filtration | Size, dissolved substances | | | Distillation | Evaporation, boiling points, condensation | | | Classification | K,P,C,O,F,G,S – Species and scientific names | | | Dichotomous keys | Classification using characteristics | | | Adaptations | How adaptations benefit species living in their environment | | | Food chains / webs | Producers, Consumers, decomposers, energy | | | Ecology and human impact | Effect of human activity on species | | | Food pyramids (of numbers) | Pyramids of numbers only | | |

Q1. Gravy powder contains:
• a brown substance to make the gravy brown;
• cornflour to make the gravy thick. Dan mixed some gravy powder with cold water in a beaker.
An hour later, the contents of the beaker looked like this:

(a) Use the words in the list below to fill the gaps in the following sentences. solvent solution soluble insoluble The brown substance dissolves in water to form a brown …………………… . The cornflour settles at the bottom of the beaker because it is ……………………… in water. Water is the ……………………… in this experiment.
3 marks

(b) Dan wanted to separate the brown liquid from the white solid.
What could he do to separate them?
………..…………………………………….……………………………………….
1 mark (c) Dan put a little of the brown liquid in a dish. The next day there was only a brown solid left in the dish. What had happened to the water?
………..…………………………………….……………………………………….
………..…………………………………….……………………………………….
1 mark (d) Dan wanted to get pure water from the rest of the brown liquid.
He set up the apparatus shown below.

Water vapour from the brown liquid changed into drops of pure water which were collected in the beaker. What process caused the drops of water to form from the vapour? Tick the correct box. boiling condensing dissolving melting
1 mark
Maximum 6 marks

Q2. Neera and Tom dissolved different masses of salt in 500 ml of water.
They measured the temperature at which each salt solution boiled.

(a) They wrote down the variables that might affect the investigation.

(i) What is the independent variable (the variable they changed) in their investigation? ...............................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) What is the dependent variable (the variable they measured) in their investigation? ...............................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Which variable above would affect the experiment the least?
...............................................................................................................
1 mark

(b) Neera and Tom plotted their results and drew the graphs shown below.

(i) How can you tell from the graphs that Neera and Tom started with pure water? ...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) Why is Tom’s line of best fit better than Neera’s line of best fit?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark maximum 5 marks
Q3. The drawing shows a fish called a cod.

(a) (i) Name one part of the fish which it uses to move through the water.
.............................................................................................................
1 mark

(ii) The fish has gills. What are the gills for?
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Look at the shape of the fish. How does the shape help the fish to move easily through the water?
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark The pie chart shows the food eaten by a cod.

(b) What is the main food eaten by a cod? .........................................................
1 mark (c) A food chain which ends with cod is: tiny plant tiny animal small fish cod Which is the producer in this food chain?
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (d) A cod eats other animals which live in the sea.
What is the name for an animal which catches and eats other animals?
Tick the correct box. herbivore predator prey producer
1 mark
Maximum 6 marks

Q4. The drawing shows eight living things. Give the letters of: (a) one living thing which uses gills to take in oxygen; 1 mark (b) one living thing which produces seeds; 1 mark (c) one living thing which uses lungs to breathe; 1 mark (d) two living things which lay eggs in water; ......................… and ...................... 2 marks (e) two living things which are covered in scales. ......................… and ...................... 2 marks
Maximum 7 marks
Q5. The drawings show four different mammals.

(a) Look at the mammals shown in the drawings.
(i) Write the name of one of these mammals which is adapted for swimming.
............................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) Write the name of one of these mammals which is adapted for living in very cold places.
............................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Write the name of one of these mammals whose hair is adapted to protect it from predators.
............................................................................................................
1 mark (b) There are many different kinds of mammals.
Tick the boxes by three sentences which best describe mammals. Female mammals produce milk to feed their young | | Mammals sleep at night | | Mammals eat meat | | Mammals walk on two legs | | Young mammals develop inside the mother’s body | | Mammals have hair on their bodies | |

3 marks
Maximum 6 marks

Q6. The five main groups of vertebrate animals are: fish amphibians reptiles birds mammals
(a) Which sentence is true?
Tick the correct box. All vertebrates breathe with lungs. | | All vertebrates have four legs. | | All vertebrates have a backbone. | | All vertebrates live on land. | |

1 mark (b) Megatherium was a large mammal. It is now extinct.
The drawing shows what scientists think Megatherium looked like.

(i) How can you tell, from the drawing, that Megatherium was a mammal?
.............................................................................................................
1 mark
(ii) Give one other way that mammals are different from other vertebrate animals.
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (c) The drawing below shows a frog.

(i) To which group of vertebrates does the frog belong?
.............................................................................................................
1 mark

(ii) Give one way the frog is adapted for jumping.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Give one way the frog is adapted for moving about in water.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (d) The drawing below shows some frog’s eggs. The female frog lays her eggs in water.

Give one reason why the eggs must be laid in water.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark
Maximum 7 marks Q7. The drawing below shows an alligator.

(a) Alligators are carnivores.
What does the word carnivore mean?
.........................................................................................................................
1 mark

(b) Alligators lay eggs in nests made from plant material.
The eggs have tough shells containing calcium carbonate.
(i) How does the eggshell help the developing alligator to survive before it hatches? ...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) Rotting plant material in the nest is acidic.
When the acid comes into contact with calcium carbonate in the eggshell it makes the shell weaker. Why does the acid weaken the eggshell?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Suggest one reason why it is helpful to the developing alligator in the egg if the eggshell becomes weaker.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark (c) The table below shows the percentage of female and male alligators that hatch from the eggs when the eggs are kept at different temperatures. temperature
(°C) | % eggs hatching as females | % eggs hatching as males | 26 | 100 | 0 | 28 | 100 | 0 | 30 | 100 | 0 | 32 | 86 | 14 | 34 | 0 | 100 | 36 | 0 | 100 | (i) Use the table to suggest how a zookeeper could make sure only females hatch from the eggs.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
1 mark

(ii) Between which two temperatures are 50% of the eggs likely to hatch as females? Tick the correct box. between 26°C and 30°C between 30°C and 32°C between 32°C and 34°C between 34°C and 36°C
1 mark maximum 6 marks
Q8. The diagrams below represent what happens to the energy in the food eaten by a herbivore and a carnivore. The width of each pathway indicates the amount of energy gained or used in a particular way.

(a) (i) What percentage of the total energy, taken in by a herbivore, is stored in its tissues? Use the diagram to help you answer.
................ %
1 mark (ii) The energy stored in an animal’s tissues is passed on to the next animal in the food chain.
Use information in the diagrams above to explain why there are usually no more than four or five stages in a food chain.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (b) Respiration takes place in cells, in structures called mitochondria. Why do muscle cells contain large numbers of mitochondria?
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) Cows eat plants, but cannot digest the cellulose cell walls.
Micro-organisms in the cow’s stomach are able to digest the plant cell walls.
Suggest why cows cannot digest the cell walls but micro-organisms can.
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
1 mark (d) The diagram below shows cells from the inner lining of a mammal’s intestine.

The cell membranes in contact with the food are folded.
Explain why it is an advantage that these cells are adapted in this way.
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
2 marks
Maximum 6 marks Q9. Two groups of pupils investigated the factors affecting the time taken for an indigestion tablet to dissolve in 100 ml of water.
Group 1 recorded their results in the table below. results of group 1 tablet | time taken to dissolve (s) | whole tablet | 34 | broken tablet | 28 | finely crushed tablet | 22 |

(a) What factor did group 1 change as they carried out their investigation?
......................................................................................................................
1 mark
(b) Before the investigation, group 1 made a hypothesis.
They found this prediction was supported by the results in the table. What prediction did group 1 make?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) Group 2 investigated how the temperature of the water affects the time taken for a whole tablet to dissolve. Here are their results. results of group 2 temperature of water (ºC) | time taken to dissolve (s) | 65 | 24 | 40 | 35 | 15 | 90 | 5 | 100 |

What factor did group 2 change as they carried out their investigation?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (d) What is the pattern shown by the results recorded by group 2?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (e) Look at the results presented by group 1 and group 2. Both groups used the same type of tablet. Estimate the temperature of water used by group 1.
............°C
1 mark maximum 5 marks

Q10. Tarzara and Christian investigated the effect of temperature on the solubility of copper sulphate. They dissolved copper sulphate crystals in the same volume of water until no more would dissolve. This means the solution was saturated.
They measured the mass of copper sulphate needed to make a saturated solution using water at different temperatures. They plotted their results on a grid.

(a) (i) One of the mass readings appears to be wrong (anomalous).
Circle the anomalous result on the graph. 1 mark

(ii) Draw a smooth curve of best fit on the graph. 1 mark

(iii) Use the graph to predict a more likely measurement of mass for the anomalous result.
..................... g 1 mark

(b) Suggest one mistake Tarzara might have made to produce this anomalous result.
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
1 mark
Maximum 4 marks
Q11. The drawings show four living things.

Frogs eat slugs. Slugs eat lettuce leaves. Crows eat frogs.
(a) Write down the food chain which has crows, frogs, lettuce and slugs in it.
............................ → ............................ → ............................ → ...........................
1 mark (b) Which living thing is the producer in the food chain?
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) From the living things shown above, give the name of a predator and its prey. predator ........................................................................................................ prey ...............................................................................................................
2 marks
Maximum 4 marks
Q12. The chart shows a way to group living things.

To which group, A, B, C or D, do the following living things belong? Each letter may be used once, more than once or not at all. earthworm .................................. rabbit .................................. rose bush .................................. human ..................................
4 marks

Q13. The table below shows the number of boats used for catching herring fish in the
Norwegian Sea between 1963 and 1967. year | number of fishing boats | 1963 | 16 | 1965 | 284 | 1967 | 326 | The bar chart below shows the total mass of herring caught in the Norwegian Sea between 1963 and 1967. year year
Mass of herring caught (thousands of tonnes)
Mass of herring caught (thousands of tonnes)

Use the information above to help you answer parts (a) (i), (ii) and (iii). (a) (i) Why did the mass of herring caught increase between 1963 and 1965?
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) Suggest why the mass of herring caught decreased between 1965 and
1967.
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (iii) Herring cannot breed until they are four years old.
Fishing for herring was banned in the Norwegian Sea from 1972 to 1976.
Suggest one reason why fishing for herring was banned for this period.
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (b) The diagram below shows a food web in the Norwegian Sea. herring herring

(i) How could a decrease in the number of herring cause a decrease in the number of sand eels?
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) How could a decrease in the number of herring cause an increase in the number of sand eels?
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark maximum 5 marks

Q14. The food chain below shows the feeding relationships between some organisms living in the Arctic. plants → deer → wolves
(a) Which organism in the food chain is a predator?
..............................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark In one area of the Arctic the number of deer were counted every five years between 1940 and 1990. The graph shows the number of deer.

(b) Suggest a reason why the deer population changed between 1975 and 1990.
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) The population of wolves in the area also changed.
(i) What is likely to have happened to the number of wolves between 1980 and 1990?
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) The number of deer in 1946 was about the same as in 1960. Suggest why the number of wolves was probably higher in 1960 than in 1946.
......................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................
1 mark maximum 4 marks
Q15. A pupil studied the organisms in a pond. From her observations she drew this simple food web.

(a) Use only the information in the food web to answer the following.
(i) Write down one food chain from this food web. There should be four organisms in the food chain.
.......................... → .......................... → .......................... → ...........................
1 mark
(ii) Write down the producer in the food web.
..............................................................................................................
1 mark

(b) Disease suddenly kills all the small fish. Complete the sentence to explain what is likely to happen to the number of water boatmen. The number of water boatmen is likely to ..................................................... because ........................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
2 marks
Maximum 4 marks
Q16. The drawings show five different lichens which grow on rocks or trees.

1. The lichens grow on tree bark............... Go to 2
The lichens grow on rocks ................... Go to 4
2. They grow flat against the surface ....... Parmelia subrudecta
They have branches which grow away from the surface.................. Go to 3
3. They have long dangling branches ...... Usnea
They have short branches ................... Evernia
4. They are bright orange ........................ Xanthoria
They are pale grey-green .................... Parmelia saxatilis The name of Lichen A is ...................................................................... The name of Lichen C is ...................................................................... The name of Lichen D is ......................................................................
Maximum 3 marks
Q17. Copper and arsenic are present in the soil near copper mines.
When earthworms eat this soil they change from brown to bright yellow.
The copper and arsenic are not poisonous to earthworms.
(a) Earthworms are part of the food chain shown below.

(i) Use the food chain to suggest how copper and arsenic get into the body of a sparrowhawk.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (ii) Mary suggested that blackbirds are more likely to catch bright yellow earthworms than brown earthworms. Give one reason why this might be true.
.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
1 mark (b) Mary wanted to count the bright yellow earthworms and the brown earthworms in the soil at different distances from the mines. What important information about the soil could she get from her results?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) The drawings below show an earthworm and three other worms.

The ragworm belongs to the same group as the earthworm. How can you tell this from the drawings?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (d) The roundworm and some flatworms are parasites. What does this mean?
Tick the correct box. They feed only on insects. | | They live in a burrow. | | They feed on other living things and harm them. | | They live in the sea. | |

1 mark maximum 5 marks
Q18. The drawings show part of a farmland food chain.

(a) A pyramid of numbers represents the number of organisms at each stage in a food chain. On each line by the pyramid of numbers below, write the name of the correct organism from the food chain above.

1 mark (b) Partridges feed mainly on insects and wild plants (weeds). Some farmers spray their crops with chemicals to kill insects and weeds. How would this affect the number of foxes?
.........................................................................................................................
Explain your answer.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
1 mark (c) Partridges build their nests on the ground among plants.
They lay up to 18 eggs in the nest. Suggest why partridges need to lay so many eggs.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
1 mark (d) Some farmers leave a strip of land around the edge of each field which they do not spray with chemicals. Suggest two reasons why this will lead to an increase in the number of partridges on these farms.
1 ......................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
2 ......................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
2 marks maximum 5 marks

Q19. The diagram below shows part of a grassland food web.

(a) One year the snail population increased in the grassland area.
How could an increase in the number of snails cause the caterpillar population to increase?
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1 mark (b) Snail poison can be used to control the number of snails. After some time, each owl contains more poison than each snail.
Explain why each owl contains more poison than each snail.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
2 marks

(c) A scientist wants to record the number of dandelion plants in the grassland area.
Describe how they could use a 1m2 quadrat to estimate the number of dandelions growing in the grassland area.
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
2 marks (d) The table below shows the population numbers for one food chain from the food web. organism | number | dandelions | 200 | rabbits | 20 | foxes | 4 |

Complete the pyramid of numbers on the graph paper below to represent this food chain. Label the pyramid to show each animal.

2 marks maximum 7 marks

ANSWERS
M1. a) solution insoluble solvent

b) filter
c) evaporated
d) condensing
M9. (a) any one from
• size of pieces of tablet accept ‘size of tablet’ accept ‘whether the tablet is whole or crushed’
• surface area of the tablet accept ‘form of the tablet’ accept ‘particle size’ accept ‘mass of each piece’ accept ‘number of pieces’ do not accept ‘mass of tablet’
1 (L5)

(b) any one from
• crushed tablets will dissolve more quickly than whole tablets
• a whole tablet will take longer to dissolve accept ‘the finer the tablet the quicker it dissolves’ accept ‘the smaller the pieces the faster it dissolves’
• the bigger the surface or area the faster it dissolves answers must include a comparison award a mark for an answer in the past tense if a comparison is included
1 (L5)

(c) temperature of the water accept ‘temperature’
1 (L5)

(d) any one from
• the higher the temperature the quicker the tablet dissolves
• the lower the temperature the longer it takes to dissolve answers must include a comparison
‘at the lowest temperature it takes a long time to dissolve’ is insufficient
‘at the highest temperature it dissolves quickly’ is insufficient
1 (L5)

(e) 40 accept a temperature from 38 to 44
1 (L6)
[5]

M10. (a) (i) the point at ( 60,33) circled
1 (L6)

(ii) a smooth curve touching all points except the anomalous point at 60 °C

accept a reasonable smooth curve the curve must be near to or touching all points except the anomalous point do not accept a dot to dot drawing do not accept lines which are thicker than the points if the points are not visible the lines are too thick
1 (L6)

(iii) 38 accept answers from 37 to 39
1 (L6)

(b) any one from
• they measured mass or temperature inaccurately
• they failed to make sure the solution was saturated
• the solution had cooled accept ‘they counted the mass wrong’ accept ‘not enough time to dissolve’ accept ‘they did not stir the solution properly’ accept ‘they did not use enough water’ do not accept ‘carelessness’ or ‘measured it wrong’ do not accept ‘it was not a fair test’ do not accept ‘they measured in wrong units’ do not accept ‘they wrote it down wrong’
1 (L6)
[4]
M2. (a) (i) • mass of salt dissolved in water accept ‘the mass or amount of salt’
‘salt’ is insufficient do not accept ‘the type of salt used’
1 (L7)
(ii) • boiling point of salt solution accept ‘boiling point’
1 (L7)

(iii) any one from
• starting temperature of the water
• temperature of the laboratory
‘temperature’ is insufficient
1 (L7)

(b) (i) • the boiling point with no salt or at the start was 100°C accept ‘the water’s boiling point was 100°C’ accept ‘the boiling point of water is 100°C’ accept ‘it boiled at 100°C’ answers must refer to the boiling point
‘0 g of salt added’ is insufficient
‘the graph starts at 100°C’ is insufficient
1 (L7)

(ii) any one from
• there is only one point above the line in Neera’s graph accept ‘most points are below the line in Neera’s graph’
• there should be a similar number of points above and below the line accept ‘Tom’s goes near more points’ or ‘Tom’s points are nearer to the line’ accept ‘Neera just joined the first and last points’
1 (L7)
[5]

M3. (a) (i) fins or tail accept ‘muscles’
1 (L3)
(ii) for breathing accept ‘they take in oxygen or air’
1 (L3)

(iii) the answer must imply an aspect of streamlined shape, but not describe the way the fish moves through the water.
• It is streamlined or hydrodynamic accept ‘long and thin’ or ‘pointed head’ or ‘smooth’ or ‘aerodynamic’ or ‘thin’ do not accept ‘flat’ or ‘long’ or ‘straight’ or ‘it has fins’
1 (L3)

(b) small fish accept ‘fish’
1 (L3)
(c) tiny plant accept ‘plants’
1 (L4)
(d) predator if more than one box is ticked, award no mark
1 (L4)
[6]

M11. (a) lettuce → slugs → frogs → crows organisms must be in the correct order all four organisms are required for the mark accept the singular of the names of the organisms accept ‘lettuce leaves’ for lettuce
1 (L3)

(b) lettuce accept ‘lettuce leaves’
1 (L3)

(c) one mark is for the name of a predator and one mark is for the prey of that predator either
• predator: crow accept predator: ‘crow’
• prey: frog prey: ‘slug’ or
• predator: frog
• prey: slug
2 (L3)
[4]

M4. (a) E accept ‘fish’
1
(b) B or D or H accept ‘flower’ or ‘tree’ or ‘grass’
1
(c) A or C or F or G accept ‘bird’ or ‘boy ‘or’ frog’ or ‘snake’
1

(d) answers may be in either order
E
accept ‘fish’
1
F accept ‘frog’
1
(e) answers may be in either order
E
accept ‘fish’
1
G accept ‘snake’
1
[7]

M5. (a) (i) seal
1 (L3)
(ii) any one from
• musk ox
• seal
1 (L3)
(iii) hedgehog
1 (L3)

(b) Female mammals produce milk to feed their young.
1 (L3) Young mammals develop inside their mother’s body.
1 (L3) Mammals have hair on their bodies.
1 (L3) if more than three boxes are ticked, deduct one mark for each incorrectly ticked box minimum mark zero
[6]

M6. (a) All vertebrates have a backbone if more than one box is ticked, award no mark
1 (L3)

(b) (i) it had fur or hair accept ‘it has ears on the outside of its body’ do not accept ‘it has a coat’
1 (L3)

(ii) any one from
• they produce milk to feed the young accept ‘they suckle’ or ‘they feed ‘ their young with milk
• they give birth to live young accept ‘they give birth’ or ‘they do not lay eggs’
• they have mammary glands accept ‘they have teats’ accept ‘they have fur’ or ‘they have ears on the outside of their bodies’ if not given as the answer to part (b) (i) do not accept ‘they are warm blooded’
1 (L3)

(c) (i) amphibians
1 (L3)
(ii) it has strong or big or long legs
1 (L3)
(iii) any one from
• it has webbed feet accept ‘it has flippers’ or ‘it has big feet’
• it has strong back legs accept ‘it is smooth skinned’ or ‘it is streamlined’ do not accept ‘it has paddles’
1 (L3)

(d) any one from
• the eggs do not have a shell accept ‘they only have jelly around them’
• they would dry out on land accept ‘to keep the jelly wet’
• they are fertilised in water
• tadpoles can live only in water accept ‘tadpoles have gills’ do not accept ‘tadpoles hatch from the eggs’ or ‘tadpoles need water’ or ‘so tadpoles can live’ do not accept ‘to protect them from predators’
1 (L5)
[7]

M12. • D accept ‘animals without backbones’
1 (L4)
• C accept ‘animals with backbones’
1 (L4)
• A accept ‘plants which have flowers’
1 (L4)
• C accept ‘animals with backbones’
1 (L4)
[4]

M16. A Evernia accept spelling errors
1
C Usnea both words required
1
D Parmelia saxatillis accept ‘P saxatillis
1
[3]

M17. (a) (i) any one from
• blackbirds eat earthworms and sparrowhawks eat blackbirds accept ‘from their food or from blackbirds’
• it eats blackbirds which eat earthworms
• it is passed on through the food chain accept ‘it is passed on or up’
1 (L5)

(ii) any one from
• they are more easily seen accept ‘there are more yellow earthworms’
• brown earthworms are better camouflaged
1 (L5)

(b) the level of copper or arsenic or pollution accept ‘whether it contained arsenic or copper’ accept ‘where the copper or arsenic is’
1 (L6)

(c) it has segments accept ‘its body is split into sections’ award a mark for any appropriate description of segments such as ‘rings’ or ’lines’ or ‘creases’; ‘they look similar’ is insufficient ‘same texture’ or ‘body shape’ or ‘structure’ are insufficient
1 (L5)

(d) They feed on other living things and harm them. if more than one box is ticked, award no mark
1 (L6)
[5]

M15. (a) (i) microscopic plants → tadpoles → water boatmen → perch or microscopic plants → water fleas → small fish → perch accept ‘plants’ or ‘microscopic’ for microscopic plants
1

(ii) microscopic plants accept ‘plants’
1

(b) decrease accept ‘go down’
1
any one from
• more of them are eaten by perch
• perch would have no small fish to eat accept ‘because the increased number of water fleas eat more plants, there is less food for tadpoles, therefore fewer tadpoles’
1
[4]

M13. (a) (i) • more fishing boats accept ‘more people were fishing’ accept ‘more fishing’ accept ‘more boats’
‘more being caught’ is insufficient
1 (L5)

(ii) any one from
• overfishing accept ‘too many fish were caught’
‘lots of fish were caught’ is insufficient accept ‘few fish or herring were left in the sea’ do not accept ‘no herring or fish left’ do not accept ‘too many boats’
• fish were caught before they could breed
• fish were not allowed time to breed accept ‘fish were smaller’
‘the herring are too young’ is insufficient
‘less being caught’ is insufficient
1 (L5)

(iii) any one from
• to allow numbers to recover or increase do not accept ‘they were becoming extinct’
• to allow more herring to breed accept ‘so the herring would be old
‘to allow herring to be born’ is insufficient
• to allow more herring to mature enough or mature enough to breed’ accept ‘it is the breeding time’
‘there were fewer herring left’ is insufficient
1 (L5)

(b) (i) any one from
• cod eat sand eels instead of herring
‘cod have to eat something else’ is insufficient
• cod eat more sand eels
‘cod eat sand eels’ is insufficient
• cod eat capelin instead of herring so there is less food for sand eels accept ‘cod would eat more capelin’ accept ‘cod would eat the sand eels’ food’
‘less food for sand eels’ is insufficient as it implies that sand eels eat herring
‘because the cod only had two choices’ is insufficient
1 (L6)

(ii) any one from
• there would be more animal plankton accept ‘more plankton’
‘they will have more to eat or more food’ is insufficient
• fewer cod
‘the animal plankton would get bigger’ is insufficient
‘less food for cod’ is insufficient
1 (L6)
[5]

M18. (a) • answers must be in the correct order all three answers are required for the mark
1 (L5)

(b) • fewer foxes or they decrease accept ‘there would be less’ accept ‘they would drop or go down’ both the answer and the correct explanation are required for the mark credit both correct answers written in the same space
‘foxes die’ is insufficient

any one from
• fewer partridges (for foxes to eat)
• the poison gets into the food chain
• they move elsewhere to find food accept ‘less food’ accept ‘partridges would be poisoned’ accept ‘some die of starvation’ do not accept ‘the chemicals poison the foxes’ do not accept ‘they all die of starvation’ do not accept ‘they have nothing to eat’
1 (L6)

(c) any one from
• greater chance of survival
• more would survive accept ‘the more eggs they lay the more partridges there will be’ accept ‘some eggs will be damaged or eaten’ accept ‘some eggs will not hatch’ accept ‘young partridges or chicks may be eaten or trampled on or die’ accept ‘so they will not become extinct or die out’
‘partridges will die’ is insufficient
1 (L6)

(d) any two from
• there would be a greater variety of plants
• more plants or weeds
• more insects
• more nesting places
• more cover
• the partridges are not poisoned accept ‘there would be plants to eat’ accept ‘there would be insects to eat’ accept ‘protection from predators’ accept ‘more food’ or ‘they would have food’ or ‘partridges will come to feed’ if none of the first three marking points are given do not accept ‘they had not been sprayed with chemicals’
2 (L5)
[5]

M7. (a) any one from
• it only eats other animals accept ‘predator’
• it only eats meat or fish or flesh accept ‘eats meat’
1 (L6)

(b) (i) any one from
• it protects it accept ‘it stops it being eaten’
• it stops it being damaged accept ‘it keeps the contents in’
• it stops it drying out
• it prevents infection
• it keeps out disease organisms accept ‘it stops bacteria or viruses or germs getting in’ accept ‘it allows air or oxygen in or carbon dioxide out’ do not accept ‘it keeps it warm’
1 (L5)

(ii) it reacts with the carbonate accept ‘they react’ or ‘it reacts with it’ accept ‘acid reacts with the shell’ accept ‘it dissolves the shell’ accept ‘it erodes it’ or ‘wears it away’
1 (L6)

(iii) any one from
• makes it easier or quicker or easy to hatch or break out of the egg
‘easy or easier to break’ is insufficient
• makes the shell more porous accept ‘air or oxygen gets in easily’ or ‘more air gets in’ accept ‘carbon dioxide gets out more easily’
‘to allow for growth’ is insufficient
1 (L5)

(c) (i) any one from
• keep the eggs between 26°C and 30°C
‘make it cooler’ or ‘use lower temperatures’ are insufficient
• keep the temperature at or below 30°C
• keep the eggs at 26°C accept any temperature from 26°C to 30°C accept ‘use the three lower temperatures’ or ‘the lower temperatures in the table’
1 (L5)
(ii) between 32°C and 34°C if more than one box is ticked, award no mark
1 (L6)
[6]
M14. (a) wolf or wolves a relevant reason for a decrease in population should be given
1

(b) any one from
• not enough food
• deer hunting
• more types of predator
• more wolves
• disease
• migration
1

(c) (i) decreased or went down the answer is ‘increased’ if the answer to (b) is ‘more wolves’ answer should refer to deer or food
1

(ii) any one from
• more deer in previous years so more deer food for wolves accept ‘more deer in the late 50’s than in the early 40’s’
• wolves bred more when there was more to eat do not accept ‘more deer’ unless suitably qualified
1
[4]
M19.
(a) • blackbirds eat more snails so they eat fewer caterpillars accept ‘blackbirds eat snails instead of caterpillars’
‘blackbirds eat more snails’ is insufficient do not accept ‘blackbirds stop eating caterpillars’
1 (L6)

(b) • blackbirds eat the snails, owls eat the blackbirds accept ‘the owls eat many blackbirds’ accept ‘blackbirds eat many snails’
‘snails eat the poison’ is insufficient
1 (L7)
• the poison (passes up the food chain and) becomes more concentrated accept ‘bioaccumulation’ accept ‘the poison accumulates’ accept ‘animals do not excrete the poison’ accept ‘the poison persists (in the body)’
‘owls eat a large amount of poison that has been passed up the food chain’ is insufficient
‘owls are bigger’ is insufficient
1 (L7)

(c) any one from
• throw the quadrat (randomly) and count the number of dandelions
• take several readings and find an average for two marks, an answer must contain one of the first two marking points and an indication that the number will be multiplied by the area
1 (L7)
• multiply the number by the total (grassland) area
1 (L7)

(d) • a pyramid of numbers drawn to scale with dandelions on the bottom where: rabbits cover 50 small squares foxes cover 10 small squares

accept an otherwise correct response that is not aligned to the centre one mark for labelled boxes in the correct order as shown one mark for correctly sized bars (even if not labelled)
2 (L7)
[7]

M8. (a) (i) 10 accept answers from 7 to 13
1
(ii) any one from
• only some or 10% of the energy intake is passed on to the next level in the food chain
• only some or 10% of the energy is stored in tissues
• some energy is wasted at each stage
• less energy is passed on to the carnivore consequential marking applies accept the percentage given in part (a) (i)
1

(b) a lot of energy is needed for muscle contraction
1
(c) any one from
• a cow cannot produce the correct enzyme
• micro-organisms produce the correct enzyme or cellulase
1

(d) folds increase the surface area
1
any one from
• more absorption takes place
• absorption takes place more efficiently
• absorption takes place more quickly…...

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