Free Essay

Manager

In: Business and Management

Submitted By fendy
Words 1627
Pages 7
Tugas Personal 3

Pelajari kembali bahan-bahan kuliah di minggu ke tiga termasuk juga untuk materi tambahan yang sudah ditentukan.
TUGAS:
Berdasarkan jenis aplikasi dan kompleksitas teknologi yang digunakan, kita bisa mengelompokkan user ke dalam beberapa kategori, mulai dari home user, small user. sampai dengan power user. Pilihlah salah satu kategori, kemudian carilah bahan-bahan dari internet atau dari buku yang bisa menjelaskan lebih mendalam mengenai karakteristik user yang anda pilih tersebut, terutama dalam penggunaan aplikasi. Misal penjelasan contoh-contoh aplikasi yg digunakan dan apa manfaatnya.

Noted:
Tuliskan jawaban anda dalam bentuk dokumen (word) dan juga anda masukkan dalam Blog pribadi anda. Jangan lupa cantumkan daftar referensi/pustaka yang anda gunakan.

SELAMAT MENGERJAKAN

Tugas Personal 3

Berdasarkan jenis aplikasi dan kompleksitas teknologi yang digunakan, kita bisa mengelompokkan user ke dalam beberapa kategori, mulai dari home user, small user. sampai dengan power user.

Pada kesempatan ini saya akan mencoba membahas lebih dalam mengenai kategori home user, dimana pada kategori ini first time user termasuk kedalam home user, oleh karenanya menurut saya menarik untuk dibahas karena berbeda dengan small user maupun power user, pada kategori small user, apa yang diharapkan dari sebuah komputer lebih sederhana dan lebih tidak berorientasi pada bisnis maupun hal-hal lain yang lebih menjadikan sebuah komputer menjadi suatu ketergantungan dengan menggunakan spesifikasi yang tertinggi maupun aplikasi yang canggih dalam mendukung kegiatannya, seperti untuk perusahaan video editing, design grafik maupun para para peneliti/ research.

Pada penggunan home user, sebuah hardware yang dibutuhkan biasanya hanya berupa PDA, Smart Phone maupun desktop komputer dengan spesifikasi standard, tetapi beberapa diantaranya juga sudah menggunakan komputer dengan spesifikasi yang termasuk canggih, terutama pada grafik card, memory maupun kapasitas hardisk yang besar hingga prosesor yang digunakan. Dukungan seperti teknologi bluetooth maupun hdmi (High Definition Multimedia Interface) port juga sudah mulai menjadi salah satu yang diinginkan oleh home user untuk kepentingan entertainment, seperti mendengarkan lagu, menonton film melalui komputer baik secara langsung maupun dihubungkan melalui layar televisi sampai hanya sekedar untuk bermain game.

Umumnya pengguna komputer pada kategory home user ini menggunakan operating system : • Microsoft Windows, yang merupakan operating sistem paling populer yang dibuat dan dikembangkan oleh Microsoft, beberapa produk Micrsosoft yang sering digunakan pada sebuah komputer dari Windows 98, Windows ME (Millenium Edition), Windows 2000, Windows XP (Windows XPProfesional Edition, Home Edition, Media Center, Tablet Edition, Windows XP 64 bit Edition), Windows Vista, Windows 7 dan yang terakhir adalah Windows 8 dengan antar muka yang mampu digunakan pada layar sentuh selain menggunakan mouse dan keyboard.

• Unix/Linux , Unix pertama kali dikembangkan oleh Ken Thompson dan Dennis Ritchie dengan tujuan sistem operasi yang multi user dan multi tasking kemudian dilisensikan ke beberapa institusi salah satunya Universitas Berkeley California yang akhirnya menghasilkan MINIX yang telah dikembangkan oleh Profesor Andrew Tanenbaum dan kemudian di kembangkan oleh Linus Benedick Trovalds menjadi Linux pada 1991.Macam distro Linux diantaranya adalah : Debian GNU/Linux, Red Hat Linux, Fedora Slackware, Open S.u.S.E, Turbo Linux, Knoppix, Rimba Linux, Mandriva, Linux Mandrake, dan lainnya.

Dari ketiga operating system tersebut Microsoft windows menjadi yang paling banyak digunakan pada pengguna komputer dengan kategori home user.

User pada kategory ini tidak membutuhkan aplikasi yang canggih, dan pada umumnya menggunakan komputer untuk keperluan pribadinya, komunikasi pribadi/bisnis, membuat suatu anggaran maupun manajemen, hiburan maupun melakukan akses pada web/browsing.Umumnya aplikasi yang digunakan adalah :

1. aplikasi word prosessing, merupakan aplikasi yang digunakan untuk produksi (termasuk penyusunan, penyuntingan, pemformatan, dan kadang percetakan) segala jenis bahan yang dapat dicetak (id.wikipiedia.org) contohnya Aplikasi ini biasa digunakan untuk membuat surat, melakukan pencatatan, membuat buku, laporan dan sebagainya dalam bentuk tulisan. a. Microsoft word b. Notepad , aplikasi yang tersedia pada Windows, berupa editor teks sederhana. c. Wordpad, hampir sama dengan notepad, merupakan aplikasi bawaan dari windows dengan kemampuan yang lebih lengkap, yaitu mempunyai menyisipkan tanggal, objek, memformat tulisan, meratakan paragraf, dan fungsi-fungsi dasar lainnya. d. Open Office writer adalah salah satu fungsi dari aplikasi Open Office yang merupakan sebuah aplikasi pengolah kata yang dikembangkan oleh komunitas OpenOffice.org yang didirikan oleh Sun Mycrosytem, merupakan aplikasi open source yang dapat digunakan tanpa harus membayar lisensi.

2. Aplikasi Spreadsheet, merupakan apalikasi untuk mengolah data dalam bentuk baris dan kolom, dapat pula berupa teks atau formula-formula perhitungan dalam suatu sel yang merupakan perpotongan antara baris dan kolom.Biasa dilakukan untuk melakukan perhitungan atau membuat jadwal atau banyak lainnya berupa kolom kolom. Aplikasi spreedsheet yang palimg umum digunakan adalah Microsoft Excel, sedangkan aplikasi alternatif lainnya adalah Open Office Calc, Gnumeric, Google Docs dan lainnya.

3. Personal Identification Manager, merupakan aplikasi untuk digunakan sebagai pengingat, pencatat, janji maaupun hal lain yang lebih bersifat pribadi sehingga lebih teorganisir.Aplikasi yang dapat digunakan antara lain Microsoft Outlook, Pnotes, Post it dan lainnya.

4. Web Browser, atau penjelajah web, adalah aplikasi yang berfungsi menampilkan dan melakukan interaksi dengan dokumen-dokumen yang ada di web server. Awalnya web browser hanya menampilkan tulisan, tetapi pada saat ini web browser sudah dapat menampilakan gambar multimedia, seperti video dan suara. Untuk melakukan penjelajan web melalui web browser ini, komputer harus terlebih dahulu mempunyai koneksi internet, umumnya koneksi internet yang digunakan oleh home user adalah koneksi dengan menggunakan teknologi ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) yaitu sebuah teknologi yang memungkinan data kecepatan tinggi dikirim melalui kabel telepon. memungkinkan untuk menerima data sampai kecepatan 1.5-9Mbps (kecepatan downstream) dan mengirim data pada kecepatan 16-640Kbps (kecepatan upstream) seperti Telkom Speedy, ada juga yang menggunakan teknlogi broadband seperti Fastnet, dan yang saat ini sedang marak adalah teknlogi Internet dengan menggunakan HSDPA, sebuah teknologi internet nirkable dengan layanan operator telp selular, seperti Telkomsel, Excelcom, Indosat dan lain lain.

5. Email, atau Elektronik Mail, adalah sarana untuk mengirim maupun menerima pesa digital melalui internet atau jaringan komputer lainnya.Penggunaan Email pada setiap orang berbeda beda, tetapi sebagian besar dapat dibedakan menjadi : a. Sebagai media korespodensi menggantikan surat konvensional b. Sebagai media untuk melakukan pemasaran dengan cara melakukan email blast untuk memberikan informasi mengenai produk maupun promo. c. Sebagai salah satu syarat sebagai bagian dari registrasi, pada situs-situs jejaring sosial seperti facebook maupun twitter ataupun pada Saat ini ada 3 jenis email yaitu : a. POP Mail, merupakan email yang disediakan oleh provider internet, umumnya email ini dikenakan biaya untuk penggunaanya, tetapi ada pula yang diberikan secara gratis kepada pelaggannya, contohnya Indonet, Biznet, CBN dan lainnya. Email jenis ini dapat dibaca secara offline, karena ketika terhubung pada server POP Mail maka, email yang ada akan otomatis di download, sehingga setelah itu tidak perlu terkoneksi lagi dengan internet. b. Web Bases Mail, merupakan email yang ditawarkan oleh berbagai situs/web, seperti Yahoo, maupun Google yang saat ini paling umum digunakan. Email jenis ini diberikan secara gratis dengan cara mengisi formulir secara online yang telah disediakan.Kelebihan email ini dapat diakses melalui perangkat apa saja yang terhubung melalui internet.

6. Instant Messaging and Chat Room, adalah teknologi internet yang memungkinkan pengguna jaringan internet untuk mengirimkan pesan-pesan singkat secara langsung secara real time dengan menggunakan teks pada pengguna lainnya yang sedang terhubung ke internet.Instant messaging muncul pada tahun 1996 dengan nama ICQ, kemudian tahun 1997 muncul AOL dengan kemampuan untuk berkomunikasi melalui chatroom.Saat ini Instant messaging yang paling umum digunakan adalah Yahoo Messenger dan Google Talk yang merupakan suatu aplikasi yang diinstall pada komputer, dan dengan tambahan web cam, pengguna bisa melihat lawan bicaranya, dengan syarat menggunakan aplikasi instant messaging yang sama dan sama-sama menggunakan webcam.Sedangkan Chat room adalah sebuah tempat berkumpulnya orang-orang untuk melakukan chat yang memiliki ketertarikan pada topic yang sama.

7. Entertainment, fasilitas hiburan yang mampu diberikan oleh sebuah komputer dengan menerjemahkan sebuah file yang diterima/dimilikinya, seperti CD/DVD Room, USB Flash Disk, hardisk maupun dari internet.Dalam category home user ini fitur entertainmen lebih banyak digunakan untuk kegiatan mendengar lagu, menonton film, termasuk memainkan games komputer.Aplikasi yang umumnya digunakan adalah Windows Media Player, Winamp, Quik time dan lain sebagainya.

8. Educational, dalam kategori home user ini fungsi edukasi pada komputer sebagai perangkat multimedia antara lain adalah dengan cara : a. Dengan melalui ebook, yang merupakan sebuh buku dalam bentuk digital yang biasanya dalam format pdf maupun dalam format power point dalam bentuk presentasi. b. Melalui internet, kini internet sudah bisa dikatakan seperti guru yang serba tahu, apapun yang ingin diketahui tinggal di cari dalam mesin pencari seperti google maupun yahoo adalah mesin pencari yang saat ini paling sering digunakan. c. Melalui video atau film-film pendidikan, dengan tampilan audio visual, pendidikan dengan cara ini menjadi lebih efektif dan lebih menarik, seperti film-film documenter. d. Melalui games-games edukasi yang saat ini banyak dijual pada beberapa toko buku, maupun bisa didownload secara gratis maupun berbayar.Melalui games ini sebuah tujuan pendidikan dapat dilakukan lebih efektif dikarena ada interaksi antara pengguna dan aplikasi tersebut.

Salah satu yang menjadi kelemahan utama dalam category home user ini adalah pengetahuan tentang virus komputer yang rendah, umumnya mereka tidak mengetahui apakah bahayanya sebuah virus komputer, kemudian apa-apa saja yang harus dilakukan agar tidak terkena virus.Beberapa mungkin sudah menggunakan aplikasi antivirus didalamnya, tetapi mereka umumnya tidak pernah melakukan update pada anti virusnya, maupun melakukan scanning secara berkala. Kebebasan untuk melakukan menginstalasi aplikasi apapun maupun tidak adanya pembatasan situs-situs web yang dapat dikunjungi, menjadikan salah satu penyebab rentannya user pada category ini sangat rentan untuk terserang virus yang pada akhirnya akan menimbulkan kerusakan pada komputer itu sendiri.

Referensi :

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_Microsoft_Windows http://www.asal-usul.com/2009/02/sejarah-dan-seluk-beluk-surat_1428.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system http://haris-widodo.blogspot.com/2012/02/hallo-sobat-gibbs-semua.html http://www.klik-kanan.com/fokus/jenis_email.shtml http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instant_messaging http://eritristiyanto.wordpress.com/2010/02/14/sejarah-awal-instant-messaging-dan-perkembangannya/ http://sisteminformasi.wordpress.com/2007/01/23/sejarah-virus-komputer/ http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_komputer…...

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Manager

...planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Managers are required in all the activities of organizations: budgeting, designing, selling, creating, financing, accounting, and artistic presentation; the larger the organization, the more managers are needed. Everyone employed in an organization is affected by management principles, processes, policies, and practices as they are either a manager or a subordinate to a manager, and usually they are both. 1. The art of getting things done through the efforts of other people. 2. The means by which you actually manage, that is, get things done through others. Chapter 1 Introduction to Principles of Management Managers do not spend all their time managing. When choreographers are dancing a part, they are not managing, nor are office managers managing when they personally check out a customer’s credit. Some employees perform only part of the functions described as managerial—and to that extent, they are mostly managers in limited areas. For example, those who are assigned the preparation of plans in an advisory capacity to a manager, to that extent, are making management decisions by deciding which of several alternatives to present to the management. However, they have no participation in the functions of organizing, staffing, and supervising and no control over the implementation of the plan selected from those recommended. Even independent consultants are managers, since they get most things done......

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