Premium Essay

Making It Possible

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By RenzNoche
Words 5537
Pages 23
Ethics, Moral Dilemmas, and Tough Decisions:
The Many Challenges on Working on IT

I. Introduction
Information technology in combination with changes in organizational structures and methods of working has led to an increasing amount of information and also to totally new forms of information and in the creation of records. Much of the information previously produced on paper is now being produced in electronic form, for example as e-mail and in databases. The Dutch archive theoretician Eric Ketelaar [1999] has invented the word “archivalisation” to describe the phenomenon where more and more material is deemed to be worthy of documenting and archiving. This means that a considerably larger amount of information requires handling. Electronically generated and stored information is also exposed to change and manipulation in quite a different way to that involved with paper-bound information. The e-government services, where the whole idea is to exchange information electronically, will radically redirect paperbound information and documents towards electronically generated and managed information and documents.
A 10-year period is a long time when dealing with the preservation of electronic records. This is of course due to the rapid technological development, and includes, for example, the problems associated with obsolete software and file formats. Goldstein [2004]0 stresses the need for a quick solution to the problem of archiving electronic information for the future. Furthermore, he states that the major threat to archived material today is not the fire hazard but the rapid development of different file formats for documents, sound and images.
Vital functions in society such as social insurance and national registration have to be accessible for long periods of time. Without authentic, accessible, searchable, and reliable records these functions in society…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...Topic 7: Decision Making a) Explain with examples the TWO (2) types of decision making. b) Explain the steps in decision making. Introduction Definition of Decision Making * The thought process of selecting a logical choice from the available options * Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. * Decision making is a process by DEFINING which a course of action is selected as away to deal with a specific problem. It is the selection of one alternative from among two or more alternatives * It is the process by which managers respond to the opportunities and threats that confront them by analyzing the options and making determinations about specific organizational goals and courses of action Answer: a) TWO (2) types of decision making Decision making is the selection of one alternative from among two or more alternatives. In other words, decision making is defined as the process by which a course of action is selected as the best way to deal with specific problem. There are two types of decision making are Programmed Decision and Non-Programmed Decision. 1. Programmed Decision Marking Programmed decision making is a repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...Guide Queensland Health Guide to Informed Decision-making in Healthcare Disclaimer The information within the Guide to Informed Decision-making in Healthcare is intended as a guide to good clinical practice. The law and service delivery environment is constantly evolving, so while every attempt has been made to ensure the content is accurate, it cannot be guaranteed. The information within this document should not be relied upon as a substitute for other professional or legal advice. ISBN 9781921707391 ©State of Queensland (Queensland Health) 2011 First edition February 2012 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 2.5 Australian license. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/au/ In essence, you are free to copy, communicate and adapt the work for non-commercial purposes, as long as you attribute the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Service, Queensland Health and abide by the license terms. For further information, contact: Informed Consent Program Manager Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Service Centre for Healthcare Improvement, Queensland Health PO Box 152 Herston Queensland 4029 tel (+61) (07) 3646 9715 psq@health.qld.gov.au www.health.qld.gov.au/chi/psq/ For permission beyond the scope of this license contact: Intellectual property Officer Queensland Health GPO Box 48 Brisbane Queensland 4001 tel (+61) (07) 3234 1479......

Words: 37773 - Pages: 152

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...BUSINESS DECISION MAKING Introduction: Decision making is a daily activity for any human being. There is no exception about that. When it comes to business organizations, decision making is a habit and a process as well. Effective and successful decisions make profit to the company and unsuccessful ones make losses. Therefore, corporate decision making process is the most critical process in any organization. In the decision making process, we choose one course of action from a few possible alternatives. In the process of decision making, we may use many tools, techniques, and perceptions. In addition, we may make our own private decision or may prefer a collective decision. Usually, decision-making is hard. Majority of corporate decisions involve some level of dissatisfaction or conflict with another party. Let us have a look at the decision making process in detail. Steps of Decision Making Process: Following are the important steps of the decision making process. Each step maybe supported by different tools and techniques. Step 1: Identification of the purpose of the decision: In this step, the problem is thoroughly analyzed. There are a couple of questions one should ask when it comes to identifying the purpose of the decision. What exactly is the problem? Why the problem should be solved? Who are the affected parties of the problem? Does the problem have a deadline or a specific......

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...Decision-Making Process "Life is filled with choices and decisions. Many of these are minor, but there are also times when we face difficult decisions. Good decision making is enormously important when we face significant decisions. It's also important to make good decisions all of the time" (Rich, Ed.D., MSW, DCSW, 1994-2012). In this paper it will identify a time in my life when I had to make a personal decision. The paper will also include the steps of my process, how my decision-making process is similar to the one in the text and how might my decision be different if I used the same steps in the text. Almost two years ago I made the personal decision to go back to school. What led me to this decision were all the mornings I would wake up to go to work and not be happy and feeling like I am not living life but just existing. Another reason I choose to go back to school was because while I was at work I was asked to train two interns. I believe these two interns had just graduated from college and was training them to become my boss. That thought made me stop playing around and sign up for school. The steps I made to get back in school was simply getting on the internet to look at different schools. After a few weeks I choose University of Phoenix and being to schedule appointments to get the ball rolling. Shortly after that I was sitting in my first and almost a year and a half later I am half way finish with my degree. In the text "The ideal decision-making......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Possible Ways

...Possible ways to enhance employee involvement and why they would be effective Positive Reinforcement is a powerful motivational tool that increases the likelihood of good performance. Take time each day to determine if anyone exerted extra effort deserving of recognition. If so, select an appropriate reinforcer, set a time and deliver it! Ask About Questions, Problems and Concerns is a means of gathering important information to head off problem situations. Set aside some concentrated time to speak (could be brief) with each employee to find out what roadblocks they face. Keep track of what they say and do what can be done to respond in helpful ways. This will forestall crisis management and demonstrate management support. Ask for Input Prior to Decision Making from people impacted by decisions. Obtaining input does not mean managers give up their authority to make decisions; it enables better decisions based on more complete information. Provide Information and Feedback in a Timely Manner makes for a more informed, loyal, and more involved workforce and builds a healthy sense of teamwork. Use of up-dated bulletin boards, timely memos, regular up-date meetings and face-to-face respectful meetings with individuals needing appropriate performance feedback intended to improve behavior. Don't Over or Under Manage Over Managing is a failure to give people adequate freedom to do their job. It is a waste of time to check up on or actually carry out the work of others,......

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...must adhere to the mission and vision statement of the organization to make a sound decision. “Importantly, organizational decision making should be aligned (decision should be in accordance) with the organization’s mission and vision statements and strategic planning-based goals and objectives” (James, 2009, p. 221). Decision making is an essential leadership skill. The president needs to make his decision in a timely and well considered decision. In the case study, the president needs to utilize the rational and decision-making model that uses the different kinds of methods in order to come up with a better solution. The operating room nurse that has allegedly contracted with HIV/AIDS should be afforded the right and the opportunity to be heard and tell her/his side of the story. There was no confirmation from the operating room nurse that he was indeed having contracted HIV/AIDS. It was just a presumption coming from the majority of the surgeons in the surgical department, and without any evidence being presented during the meeting between the chief of surgery and the medical center president; they want the nurse be removed from his duties in this department. The nurse should be given the due process which is accorded by law to everyone. According to James, “leaders and managers usually are taught to utilize the rational and decision-making model using analytical (quantitative) methods and when necessary, couple with group methods (qualitative) such as normal group......

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...Methodology * Analyses the working capital problems faced by the company and presents recommendation to the directors to improve the company’s position. * Evaluates the proposal that Ventura plc, the venture capitalist, should invest in CFT Ltd. * Evaluates four alternative sources of external finance. Financial analysis expresses the relationship among selected items of financial statement data. A ratio expresses the mathematical relationship between one quantity and another. The relationship is expressed in terms of a percentage, a rate, or a simple proportion. Now we are going to ratio analysis about CFT Ltd. Profitability The gross profit margin has fallen since the previous year by 0.75%. One of the possible reasons for this is selling price may have lowered or cost of goods sold may have increased. But 2011 and 2012 financial year business gross profit is not quit difference. Operation profit margin was quite good for 2012, the operation profit margin increased by 1.1% which shows the efficiency of operating (i.e. production and selling) activities of CFT Ltd. Return on capital employed (ROCE) has been improved by 16.5% to 18.1% in 2012. In this case, return on capital employed sourced from ordinary shareholders and it also sourced from all long-term supplier of capital. Against 2011 ROCE of CFT Ltd compares very good. On the other hand ROSF (Return on shareholders’) has gained by 3.4%, ROCF increased by 0.8% compare ROCE in 2012.......

Words: 2819 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...analysis; radiation protection decisions; RODOS 1. INTRODUCTION Major nuclear accidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have focused attention on the need for coherent decision support decision making on countermeasures. I became involved in such matters during the International Chernobyl Project which was run during 1990-1991; see Section 2. The Project demonstrated that decisions on countermeasures are driven not just by the need to avert dose to the population and hence reduce radiation-related health effects, but also by the need to tackle population stress and to devise strategies that are acceptable to the public. The varied response to the Chernobyl accident both in and beyond the former Soviet Union led the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) to support a number of projects to further our understanding of the issues raised by such accidents and to build decision support systems (DSSs) and methodologies for use in the event of a future accident. One such is the RODOS Project beal time on-line decisiGn Support system) which is outlined in Section 3. The aim of this system is to support decision making from the moment that an accident threatens, when immediate precautionary countermeasures may be necessary, through to the longer-term decision making which may need to consider stress and public acceptability issues as CCC 1057-9214/96/010039-19 0 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd well as any radiation-related health effects. Later sections of......

Words: 10197 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Making Decisions

...Making Decisions Luis Batrez MGT 230 December 9, 2013 Claudio (Tony) Morales Making Decisions Decisions are part of our daily lives; people make decisions from what type of clothe to wear to making decisions at jobs. A decision made at a job was about going home because of bad weather or stay working through the weather because of the schedule of the construction job. The first thing that came to mind was people safety and what safety rules we needed to follow on company policy on bad weather. The second thing was to determine if the weather was going to get worse or in a few hours is it going to get better. Another thing that came to mind was how bad the project was going to fall behind if the workers went home for the day, or can we finish an important part of the project that needed to complete that day so that other trades would not fall behind. After considering the thought about the job, the most reasonable decision that was made was to work for half a day and concentrate on a specific part of the project and put workers to finish that part by the afternoon of that day. An explanation to the workers about the decision was made and strongly suggested that if the weather got to the point of where we could not work then the workers would go home regardless of the project falling behind. The workers agreed to work and not to forget about their safety during the bad weather. The workers were also told that they will still get paid for eight hours of work if we left......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Decision Making

...Group decision making There are several instances in an organisation when decision-making requires opinions and inputs from more than just one or two people. This is where group decisions come into the picture. Group decision making is a type of participatory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively, analyse problems or situations, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action, and select from among the alternatives a solution or solutions.  Some organisations operate with high emphasis on individual decision-making, while others focus on collaboration and group decision-making processes. Either approach can work however it is advisable to understand the pros and cons of each decision-making approach and how they relate to the organisation. The effectiveness of group decisionmaking can be affected by a variety of factors such as the increase demographic diversity in the workforce.  Due to this diversity the group may have to over-come social barriers and difficulties in the early stages of group formation and this may slow down the group. However, if the group is managed effectively,it tends to generate a wider variety and higher quality of decision alternatives. Moreover, by tapping the unique qualities of group members, it is possible that the group can generate a greater number of alternatives that are of higher quality than those of an individual. If a greater number of higher quality alternatives are generated, then it is likely that the...

Words: 473 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...DECISION MAKING Roger Corley University of Phoenix MGT 230 Management Theory & Practice Dr. Constance Townsend-Jordan On a daily basis we make hundreds of decisions without blinking an eye. Some of those decisions are usually easier to make than others but all are necessary. It comes a time when we all have to make life altering changes that require extensive research and soul searching. Around June of 2010 I was coming to a point in my life where I had to decide whether or not I was going to reenlist in the military for another term or move on with my life. This had to be by far one of the toughest decisions that I was going to make in my life because I understood the impact such decision was going to have on my families’ future. When I began to gather all the necessary information I had to prioritize what was my bottom line or the things I could not function without. I sat down and wrote a list of all my current expenses and future needs. While going through the process of writing this list I never knew exactly how many things were provided for me as a luxury due to the lifestyle I was living in the military that would be an added burden in the future. I also had to write down my pros and cons for both sides of my choices. All the reasons to separate the military were very clear cut for me and mostly based off of passion and desire. I wanted to be able to spend more time with my children without the fear of always going on deployments or spending so much......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making

... DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS 1. Explain the importance of decision making for managers at each of the three primary organisation levels, along with the associated decision characteristics. * Meaning of decision making * Decision making is a process of selecting the best among the different alternatives. It is the act of making a choice. There are so many alternatives found in the organization and departments. Decision making is defined as the selection of choice of one best alternative. Before making decisions all alternatives should be evaluated from which advantages and disadvantages are known. It helps to make the best decisions. It is also one of the important functions of management. Without other management functions such as planning, Organizing, directing, controlling, staffing can’t be conducted because in this managerial function decision is very important. According to Stephen P. Robbins, “decision making is defines as the selection of a preferred course of action from two or more alternatives.” * Importance of decision making * Implementation of managerial function: Without decision making different managerial function such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staffing can’t be conducted. In other words, when an employee does, s/he does the work through decision making function. Therefore, we can say that decision is important element to implement the managerial function. * Pervasiveness of decision making:  the decision......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making

...decision making steps, Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem, Generating alternative solutions, Evaluating alternatives, Making the choice, Implementing the decision and Evaluating the decision (Bateman & Snell, 2011). The first step, indentifying and diagnosing the problem, would be our concerns regarding my husband’s career and what would be the best possible avenue to take. Generating alternative solutions and evaluating the solutions are step two and three. We utilized these by doing research and picking apart other career options and avenues. The fourth step, making the choice to move, was pretty easy after our prior discussions. I was excited and sad at the same time. My parents were understandably upset, but my twin was very excited for me and my new adventure. I think we achieved the best possible balance among several goals, optimizing our decision (Bateman & Snell, 2011). We implemented our decision by packing up our entire apartment in a U-haul and driving to our new home in Scottsdale, AZ. where we lived for five years. Evaluating our decision is the final stage in the decision making process. I think there were both positive and negative situations regarding our decision to move, but feel that the move was successful and beneficial in many diverse ways. After all is said and done, the decision was a good one. It taught me a great deal about myself and had many positive effects on me. However, we have since moved back. In my decision making......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decuisin Making

...Decision Making Process Wilmar Smith MGT/230 March 22, 2012 Ralph Apuan Decision Making Process Making decisions is about choices and how to go about them. Making a choice is about being decisive and following through with a plan and pushing forward. But how does one make a decision? According to “Bateman & Snell (2011)“, there are six steps in making a decision; identify and diagnose the problem, generate alternative solutions, evaluate alternatives, make the choice, implement the decision, and evaluate the decision.” (Bateman & Snell, 2011) The first step in making a decision is said to identify and diagnose the problem. This allows you to understand that a problem exists and that a solution must be formulated. Understanding that a problem is there allows you to understand where you are and where you want to be. As stated in”Bateman & Snell (2011) “, “creating a structure hypothesis is the first step in understanding your problem, followed by prioritizes the hypotheses testing, test hypotheses then coming to a conclusion about the problem. Utilizing these steps in recognizing a problem and understanding it is a portion in being in the managing field. (Bateman & Snell, 2011; Powerful Problem Solving, 2012) Generating alternative solutions is the step that connects to the diagnosing the problem; once you have realized what the full status of the problem is it is time to begin molding your solution. According to “Bateman & Snell (2011) “, there are two directions......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Decition Making

...What is Decision Making? Some Definitions A good place to start is with some standard definitions of decision making. 1. Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that (1) has the highest probability of success or effectiveness and (2) best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on. The two important ideas here are that first, there must be some genuine alternatives to choose from among. Note that "Do it" or "Don't do it" does not qualify as a set of alternatives. Only "Do this" or "Do something else" really qualfies. Second, every decision must be made in the light of some standard of judgment. This standard usually gets expressed in the form of criteria, which reflect the values and preferences of the decision maker. These values and preferences are often influenced by corporate rules or culture, law, best practices, and so forth. 2. Decision making is the process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt about alternatives to allow a reasonable choice to be made from among them. This definition stresses the information-gathering function of decision making. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than eliminated. Very few decisions are made with......

Words: 2590 - Pages: 11