Premium Essay

Magnetic Nanoparticle in Cancer Therapy

In: Science

Submitted By tperras05
Words 4452
Pages 18
Summary
Magnetic nanoparticles have allowed for many breakthroughs in cancer therapy. They are currently being implemented with cancer diagnostics, which allows healthcare professionals to image where cancerous areas reside in the body. For example, magnetic nanoparticle have been utilized in conjunction with MRI scans to greatly increase the image contrast, leading to the detection of small and otherwise undetectable prostate cancer metastases. Additionally, nanoparticles are being used as a physical means of destroying tumorous tissue by the use of Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia. This technology uses the power of magnets to oscillate iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles to create heat in the form of kinetic energy and has shown to drastically reduce the size of brain tumors when compared to patients who have no treatment at all. Beyond their use as diagnostics and physical tools to destroy cancerous tumors, magnetic nanoparticles are also used as a delivery agent for gene therapy. For example, magnetic nanoparticles have shown to increase the half life of the various biological matter such as DNA and RNA so that it can reach the intended target before the body’s immune response destroys the magnetic gene delivery system. In the future, research will be focused on pharmacokinetics of the nanoparticles, ensuring the nanoparticles can stay in the body for longer periods of time and that the body reacts in a positive manner to the magnetic nanoparticles.

Introduction

Nanotechnology has been an emerging field recently due to its widespread capabilities. Nanotechnology has been applied in many fields of biomedicine due to its potential in controlling the delivery of drugs, providing greater contrast in magnetic resonance imaging, cell and tissue targeting, and hyperthermia; all of which can be used in cancer therapy (Mulens, del Puerto Morales and…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Nanoparticles in Drug Targeting

...CONTENTS Title Page.no 1. Introduction To Nanoparticles (2) 2. Nanoparticulate systems For Targeting (13) 3. Drug Targeting (25) 4. Approaches To Drug Targeting (29) 5. Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Market (47) 6. Future Barriers And Challenges (48) 7. Various Nanopharmaceuticals And Their Case Studies (49) 8. NanoDrug Patenting (54) 9. Conclusion (57) 10. Bibliography (58) NANOPARTICLES IN DRUG TARGETING 1. INTRODUCTION NANOPARTICLES * Nanoparticles are in solid state and are either in amorphous or crystalline They include Nanocapsules and Nanospheres.They are able to adsorb or encapsulate a drug thus protecting it against chemical and enzymatic......

Words: 10751 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Cns Cancer

...CNS (Central Nervous System) Cancer I. Anatomy The central nervous system (CNS) is made up by the brain and spinal cord. This complex system controls both things that we intentionally think about and do, like walking and talking, and essential body functions that occur without specific thought on our part, such as breathing and digesting food. The CNS is also involved with the five senses of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling, as well as emotions, thoughts, and memory. The brain is a soft, spongy organ that is made up of nerve cells and tissue. It is divided into three major sections: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brainstem. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, and is divided into two halves, called the right and left hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. Each hemisphere is further divided into sections called lobes. There are four lobes in each hemisphere: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal, and each lobe is responsible for certain functions.  A brain tumor is a mass of abnormal cells that is growing in or around the brain. It develops when abnormal cells multiply for unknown reasons. Benign and malignant are terms used to describe brain tumors. Benign brain tumors are usually slow growing and have distinct borders and a normal appearance under a microscope. Malignant tumors are considered brain cancer. They tend to invade......

Words: 2352 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Osteosarcoma Cancer

...Osteosarcoma Cancer Definition of Disease Osteosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of malignant osteoid, bone, or cartilage formation. Epidemiology of Disease Osteosarcoma is an early cancerous growth that usually occurs to adolescences even though it may appear on the elderly in some cases. Basic bone malignancy seems to be the most common form of cancer that strikes the long bones. However, this may differ with the difference in age (Savage, & Mirabello, 2011). It is not easy to detect osteosarcoma until puberty, even though it may appear at childhood. The osteosarcoma risk is high at the youth period and declines as at the age of 25. There is a smaller peak at and after the age of 80. Reports over time indicate increased osteosarcoma cases in the United States and Europe. The reports also show that there is a reduction of the condition in the elderly. According to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, the prevalence of osteosarcoma vary by both age and race. For instance, in Asia the risk is high in children and adolescents. This is not the case with the Blacks as the risk is high between the ages of 25 and 59. The incidence is high at the age of 60 for Whites, and the childhood stage for Italians. The prevalence is higher in tall persons than the short ones (Savage, & Mirabello, 2011). In terms of gender, osteosarcoma affects males more often than females. However,...

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Alternative Cancer Therapies

...Alternative Cancer Therapies Table of Contents 714-X ABM Mushroom AHCC Aloe Vera Anticoagulants Antineoplastons Antioxidants Anvirzel Artemisinin Asparagus Berries Boluses Bovine Cartilage Cancell Cansema Carnivora Alternative Cancer Therapies Page 1 Updated 05/17/11 Bookmark this page...as we learn of more therapies throug Please report any broken links by contacting info@mnwelldir.org Perhaps we should call these "unproven therapies" since many of them are on the American Cancer Society's infamous black list. Simply because something is "unproven" does not mean that it has been "disproven." And if a therapy fits the following— 1. It works. Castor Oil Packs Cayenne Pepper Chaparral Chinese Bitter Melon Chiropractic Clodronate Coley's Toxins Contortrostatin C-Statin D-limonene DMSO Electrolyzed Water Ellagic Acid Enzyme Therapy Escharotics Essential Oils 2. It's inexpensive. 3. Few, if any, negative side effects. 4. It's not patentable. —odds are it will stay on the black list because no one is going to spend a dime to prove its effectiveness. Medicine is a business. Cancer is a business. The FDA is running a protection racket, protecting drug companies and the AMA from anyone with an inexpensive and effective treatment for money making diseases. The following therapies are not guaranteed to work, at least by us. They are presented to you for information purposes only. For many, their effectiveness has been shown in limited clinical trials, but each one, by itself, is......

Words: 12249 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Brain Cancer

...Cancer of the Brain Brain cancer is a rare disease effecting one out of every five-thousand people in the U.S. Eighty-five percent of cases occur in adults that are over the age forty and as for the other fifteen percent it is seen in children and young adults up to the age of twenty. Research has also found that more men are affected by brain cancer than women. There are two classifications of a brain tumor that are formed. One is called primary brain cancer. A primary brain tumor occurs when one type of cell changes it characteristics and multiplies in abnormal ways causing a tumor or mass to grow in the brain. The most common primary brain tumors are gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. These brain tumors are called primary because they start and form in the brain. The second type of brain tumor is called metastatic brain cancer. Metastatic brain tumors are caused by cancerous cells in a tumor elsewhere in the body. These cancerous cells spread to the brain from a cancerous tumor in the body causing a cancerous tumor in the brain. This process is called metastasis. This process occurs in about twenty-five percent of tumors found in the body. There are many types of brain tumors. Not all tumors found in the brain are cancer. Tumors can be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). A malignant tumor is a cancerous tumor that in some cases can spread to other parts of the......

Words: 1871 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Role of Antioxidants in Prophylaxis and Therapy: a Pharmaceutical Perspective

...Journal of Controlled Release 113 (2006) 189 – 207 www.elsevier.com/locate/jconrel Review Role of antioxidants in prophylaxis and therapy: A pharmaceutical perspective D. Venkat Ratnam, D.D. Ankola, V. Bhardwaj, D.K. Sahana, M.N.V. Ravi Kumar ⁎ Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Phase-X, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, India - 160062 Received 31 January 2006; accepted 26 April 2006 Available online 13 May 2006 Abstract Antioxidants are emerging as prophylactic and therapeutic agents. These are the agents, which scavenge free radicals otherwise reactive oxygen species and prevent the damage caused by them. Free radicals have been associated with pathogenesis of various disorders like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and are implicated in aging. Several antioxidants like SOD, CAT, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, lycopene, ellagic acid, coenzyme Q10, indole-3-carbinol, genistein, quercetin, vitamin C and vitamin E have been found to be pharmacologically active as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for above mentioned diseases. Antioxidants are part of diet but their bioavailability through dietary supplementation depends on several factors. This major drawback of dietary agents may be due to one or many of the several factors like poor solubility, inefficient permeability, instability due to storage of food, first pass effect and GI degradation.......

Words: 17169 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

Cancer Therapy

...Persuasive Speech The Gerson Therapy Specific Purpose: To convince my audience that The Gerson Therapy is by far a better alternative to cancer therapy and control than conventional treatments and therapies. Central Idea: The Gerson Therapy is a natural treatment for cancer and other diseases that activates the body’s extraordinary ability to heal itself through an organic, vegetarian diet as opposed to other conventional treatments that tend to deteriorate the body in hopes of reaching stability of disease. Organizational Pattern: Monroe’s Motivated sequence Introduction I. (Attention) Let me tell you a story about a 20 year old man. After he graduated high school at the age of 17 he was accepted to his dream university. In order to attend it he had to take on two jobs to pay his tuition and to help support his underprivileged family. Along the way this young man unexpectedly becomes a proud father of a beautiful baby boy. At the age of 20 this young man walks into the emergency department at my job complaining about a mild stomach ache he had for about 1 week. We routinely asses his medical history and perform necessary examinations, we send him on his way with some pain medication and tell him we will call him when the results are in. The next day he is called back in and he is asked to wait for our medical director. He is given the news that he has stage 4 pancreatic cancer and has anywhere from 6 to 12 months to live. His following weeks consisted of......

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Rectal Cancer

...Colon cancer develops in the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer develops in the rectum, which makes up the last several inches of your intestinal tract. Together, they're referred to as colorectal cancers. Rectal cancer begins as small clumps of cells called polyps. Although most polyps are noncancerous (benign), some become cancerous over time. Regular screening to find and remove precancerous polyps can prevent rectal cancer from developing. Changes in your diet and lifestyle — such as healthy eating and increasing your physical activity — can help prevent polyps from forming, greatly reducing your risk of rectal cancer. Colon cancerEmail this page to a friendShare on facebookShare on twitterBookmark & SharePrinter-friendly version Colon, or colorectal, cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon). Other types of cancer can affect the colon. These include lymphoma, carcinoid tumors, melanoma, and sarcomas. These are rare. In this article, colon cancer refers to colon carcinoma only. Causes Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Early diagnosis, though, can often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in glands in the lining of the colon and rectum. When doctors talk about colorectal cancer, this is usually what they are talking about. There is no single cause of colon cancer. Nearly all......

Words: 5765 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Breast Cancer

...Breast Cancer Amber Whitted COM/156 March 9, 2014 John Garot Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a rising concern with men and women in the United States, but with the right treatment and knowledge many lives have been saved. It has many forms and a possibility of growing rapidly. Do you know the signs and the treatment options that are available? Know these can save your life or a loved one’s life, as well. There are steps that you can take to lower your risk for breast cancer.” In 2013, according to the American Cancer Society there will be an estimated 299,200 new cases of breast cancer among men and women, and approximately 39,620 women are expected to die, and about 410 men will die. The five year relative survival rate for breast cancer patients has improved from 75% in the mid1970s to 90% today. Death rates have continued to decline since 1990. (American Cancer Society, 2013). Men are at a low risk for developing breast cancer. “The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2014, about 2,360 men in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and about 430 of those men will die. Breast cancer is 100 times less common for men than women” (American Cancer Society, 2013). However, breast cancer is the leading cancer among women in the United States, accounting for 29% of newly diagnosed cases. White women have a higher incidence rate than African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians, although, African Americans have the highest......

Words: 1065 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Breast Cancer

...Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women in the United States today. There are many factors for developing breast cancer. Many women survived breast cancer now because of advance technology detecting the disease early. There are a variety of treatments women can choose from to treat breast cancer. The word” risk” is simply referring to the factors that will increase or decrease the chances of women developing breast cancer. There are several factors that can increase the chances of women getting the disease. One of these factors is family history. If a woman has a family member who was diagnosed with breast cancer such as a mother, sister, daughter her risk of developing breast cancer is increases. This risk increases more if the family member was diagnosed before the age of fifty. If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast before, you have a greater risk of being diagnosed with cancer in the other breast. Your risk also increases more if abnormal breast cells have been detected before. Women with dense breast tissue might have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, than women without dense breast tissue. A woman who began her menstrual cycle before she reaches the age of twelve or have no children has a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Also, if a woman had her first child at the age of thirty years or older and began menopause after the age of fifty five, she too is at risk of developing breast cancer. Early...

Words: 1366 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Understanding the Complex-I-Ty of Metformin Action: Limitiing Mitochondrial Respiration to Improve Cancer Therapy

...mitochondrial respiration to improve cancer therapy Alba Luengo1, Lucas B Sullivan1 and Matthew G Vander Heiden1,2* Abstract Metformin has been a first-line treatment for type II diabetes mellitus for decades and is the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug. Retrospective studies have found that metformin treatment is associated with both reduced cancer diagnoses and cancer-related deaths. Despite the prevalence of metformin use in the clinic, its molecular mechanism of action remains controversial. In a recent issue of Cancer & Metabolism, Andrzejewski et al. present evidence that metformin acts directly on mitochondria to inhibit complex I and limits the ability of cancer cells to cope with energetic stress. Here, we discuss evidence that supports the role of metformin as a cancer therapeutic. See research article: http://www.cancerandmetabolism.com/content/2/1/12. The biguanide metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent used to treat type II diabetes. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by suppressing liver gluconeogenesis and stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Metformin is prescribed to over 120 million people, providing a wealth of epidemiological data. Retrospective studies have found that metformin treatment is associated with diminished tumorigenesis, with a recent meta-analysis of these studies reporting a 31% reduction in cancer incidence and a 34% reduction in cancer-specific mortality across many......

Words: 2126 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Pancreatic Cancer

...Pancreatic Cancer Karen R Lindner Wright Career College Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer occurs in approximately 29000 patients every year. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths. Worldwide, pancreatic cancer is the eighth most common cause of death from cancer in both sexes combined. There have been advancements in the perioperative management, but the 5yr survival rate remains unchanged. Surgical resection is still the only potentially curative treatment for the disease. What is Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancers can arise from both exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas. But cancers formed by the exocrine cells are more common. It is important to know if a tumor is from the exocrine or endocrine part of the pancreas. The tumors have their own signs and symptoms and are found by using different tests , are treated in different ways and have different outlooks. Exocrine tumors are most common and start in the gland cells. Endocrine tumors are less common and are known as islet cell tumors. Here are some: gastrinomas, insulinomas, glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, vipomas,ppomas. Most of these tumors are not cancer. The outlook for these is better than that of exocrine cancers. Approximately 75% of all pancreatic cancers occur within the head of neck of the pancreas, 15-20% occur in the body of the pancreas, and 5-10% occur in the tail. Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer Early pancreatic cancers often do not cause any......

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Cancer, the body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal cells grow, divide into cells and die. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of the abnormal growth of cells. Different types of cancer can behave very differently. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is made to be their own. The cancer I am going to focus on is testicular cancer. Testicular cancer can start in one or both of the testicles. It is often found in young men but can occur in any age. The testicles are made up of many different kinds of cells. Each cell can develop into one or more types of testicular cancer. Studies show about 8,430 new cases of testicular cancer, and out of those 8,430 are only 380 deaths cause by the cancer. The chance of having testicular cancer is about 1 and 270. It is mostly found in middle aged men but about 7% of the cases occur in children and teens. Testicular cancer is one of the most curable forms of cancer. The risk of dying is about 1 in 5,000. There is no actual cause to testicular cancer, but the American Cancer Society has founded some risk factors. Those would include family history, HIV infection, being at the age 20-34, race/ethnicity, and body size. None of these factors can be changed, and most men that end up with testicular cancer have no known risks. With that being said there......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Breast Cancer

...Breast Cancer COM/172 September 3, 2013 Frank Nainoa, MA/Communications Breast Cancer Breast Cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in women. According to “American Cancer Society” (2013) “one out of eight women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. For 2013, it is estimated about 232,340 new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed and 39,620 women will die from this cancer” (2013). In this paper I plan to explain how early detection, diagnosis, and treatment are a prominent key to a woman’s survival. Early detection has proven helpful to many women in the fight against breast cancer. An important element in aiding women in finding abnormalities is self breast examinations. A self breast examination is an examination a woman conducts on herself by looking and examining her breast. Women should be aware of any change in size or shape, dimpling, or indentation in the breast. Any inversion of the nipple or discharge should be evaluated by a physician. Women typically start doing self breast examinations in their early twenties. Examinations are generally conducted once a month after a women’s menstrual cycle. Most women do these examinations in the shower or while getting dressed. Knowing what is normal is the first defense in finding abnormalities. The next helpful examination in early detection is a clinical breast examination. A clinical breast examination is much like a self breast examination a woman would do at home, the difference is the...

Words: 1410 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is one of the most under-detected types of cancers in existence because many of the symptoms are not noticeable until the later stages of the disease. These symptoms typically follow a pattern that helps determine whether or not a woman has ovarian cancer. The symptoms are “frequent bloating, pain in your belly or pelvis, trouble eating, or feeling full quickly, urinary problems, such as an urgent need to urinate or urinating more often than usual, fatigue, indigestion, pain with intercourse, constipation, and menstrual cycle changes.” For women who have ovarian cancer, the symptoms follow three common attributes: “they start suddenly, they feel different than your normal digestive or menstrual problems, and they happen almost every day and don’t go away.” However, another problem with the symptoms of ovarian cancer is that there are some women that just naturally have them, and that makes it very difficult to determine whether or not they have cancer (http://www.webmd.com/ovarian-cancer/guide/ovarian-cancer-symptoms - Symptoms). The risk factors that are associated with ovarian cancer are not absolute. However, like in any type of disease or infection, the more risk factors that a person has, the more likely they are to become disease-ridden. The risk factors of ovarian cancer can be very complex, but simplify as a person gets older. One factor is gene mutations within families. Most of the mutations come from families that have a prominent......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3