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Macy' Case

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CORPORATE STRATEGY: IL CASO MACY’S

DOMANDA 1
Per analizzare l’industria del Traditional Department Store (TDS) mi avvalgo del modello delle 5 forze di Porter per l’analisi esterna, individuerò i differenziali competitivi, mentre per l’analisi interna utilizzerò il modello della Value Chain. Queste analisi verranno poi sintetizzate in una SWOT.
LE 5 FORZE
Competizione tra aziende esistenti
Al 2005 esiste un elevata competizione tra le catene TDS esistenti basata soprattutto sui prezzi. Tutti vendono gli stessi assortimenti di prodotto e i costi di switching per gli acquirenti sono bassi. Questo obbliga gli attori a tentare riduzioni di prezzo per acquisire e provare a fidelizzare i consumatori. Per controbilanciare questo effetto le varie catene tentano di differenziarsi con elevate spese di marketing e comunicazione e facendo leva sulla qualità del servizio offerto.
Le barriere all’uscita sono inoltre molto alte date dagli investimenti effettuati e dal costo elevato del magazzino.
Esiste un eccesso di capacità per sopperire all’aumento delle vendite in periodi di alta stagionalità
Potere dei fornitori
In questa industria è basso. Le catene infatti possono contare su grandi ordini centralizzati che ne favoriscono anche un abbassamento del costo degli input.
Potere degli acquirenti
Il mercato dei TDS è altamente elastico ai prezzi. Nonostante l’abbandono di un acquirente sia un costo irrilevante per la singola catena, il fatto di avere dei costi di switching praticamente nulli e che esistano nel mercato gli stessi assortimenti nei vari competitors, rendono alto il potere contrattuale degli acquirenti
Minaccia di nuovi entranti
Il TDS si caratterizza per avere alte barriere all’entrata dovute a diversi fattori: 1. Elevati capitali iniziali 2. Regolamentazioni nazionali e locali (licenze, permessi,..) 3. Conoscenze di lungo periodo tra i fornitori e le catene difficili da intaccare 4. Economie di scala
La minaccia di nuovi entranti è quindi molto bassa in quanto troverebbero molto difficile riuscire ad approvvigionarsi agli stessi prezzi e quindi a competere sul prezzo.
Minaccia di sostituti
Vista l’omogeneità dei prodotti offerti, della sensibilità al prezzo e dei bassi costi di sostituzione, sono sempre più presenti dei sostituti rappresentati in particolare dai Discounters come Wal Mart che essendo molto aggressivi sul prezzo riescono sempre di più a “rubare” quote di mercato ai TDS.
Un altro sostituto è l’on-line che attraverso soprattutto Amazon sta anche lui erodendo quote di mercato ai TDS
I DIFFERENZIALI COMPETITIVI
Si evidenziano i seguenti Key Success Factors: 1. Efficienza operativa 2. Adeguata grandezza degli Stores 3. Acquisti centralizzati 4. Servizio al cliente 5. Immagine della catena

ANALISI DELLA VALUE CHAIN
Nei processi primari Macy’s ha un basso costo degli input data la centralizzazione degli acquisti, bassi costi di distribuzione dato che possiede i propri centri distributivi. Ha alti investimenti in marketing e vendite, importanti per poter differenziarsi dai concorrenti e infine un forte servizio ai clienti.
Nei processi secondari il vero fattore di successo di Macy’s sono le risorse umane che a detta di tutti sono le migliori dell’intero mercato TDS

SWOT
STRENGTHS
1. Macy’s è un marchio affermato e ben riconosciuto 2. Gli Stores sono localizzati nelle migliori posizioni 3. Possibilità di Economie di scala consolidando le catene di proprietà 4. Risorse umane d’eccellenza
WEAKNESSES
1. Concentrazione geografica
THREATS
1. Competizione da parte dei sostituti (discounters, special stores…) 2. On line shopping 3. Situazione Economica
OPPORTUNITIES
1. On line shopping 2. Diversificazione geografica 3. Differenziazione dell’assortimento rispetto ai competitors

DOMANDA 2
I punti di forza della strategia adottata da Macy’s sono sintetizzabili nei seguenti punti: 1. Il consolidamento delle catene di proprietà sotto un unico marchio da la possibilità di ottenere forti economie di scala. Infatti all’inizio dell’attuazione del piano puntano alla standardizzazione degli assortimenti in modo da ottimizzare gli acquisti centralizzati. 2. Non hanno più dispersione nelle spese di marketing in quanto possono concentrarle sul posizionare efficacemente il marchio Macy’s rispetto ai competitors 3. Il posizionare Macy’s nell’upper middle level gli permette di tenere prezzi più elevati rispetto a prima e quindi di avere una migliore reddittività 4. La nuova strategia di posizionamento gli permette di attirare grandi marchi nazionali che in un futuro potrà anche chiedere di essere l’unica a poterli vendere andando così a differenziarsi per l’unicità dell’assortimento
I punti di debolezza: 1. Nel 2005 è ancora molto debole sull’on line 2. Il consolidamento sotto il marchio Macy’s gli crea qualche problema con i vecchi clienti delle catene preesistenti che non accettano di buon grado l’aumento dei prezzi e il rinnovo dell’esposizione 3. La standardizzazione crea delle inefficenze nelle vendite per la presenza di differenti segmenti di clientela nelle differenti location

DOMANDA 3 La mia risposta alla domanda è sicuramente positiva.
Macy’s effettuando il riposizionamento verso l’alto della sua immagine percepita si è differenziata da tutti i suoi diretti competitors potendo all’inizio addirittura evitare di competere sul prezzo grazie al suo “Everyday Value Program”. La crisi economica del 2008 ha poi compromesso questo suo intento.
Ha successivamente sempre più delineato una strategia di differenziazione sopprattutto su tre punti fondamentali: 1. Le risorse umane attrraverso il programma Magic Selling (servire il cliente più velocemente e con più charm) che prevede un continuo addestramento della forza vendita 2. L’esclusività dei marchi venduti (hilfiger per esempio ma anche molti altri) 3. L’’on line con la strategia Omnichannel. Attraverso questomprogetto ha investito enormemente nella tecnologia per essere il miglior retailer on line 4. Ha sempre più localizzato i prorpi assortimenti andando a soddisfare i bisogni dei clienti del luogo
Questa strategia di Macy’s che loro sintetizzano nell’acronimo MOM (My Macy’s Localization, Omnichannel e Magic selling) ha sempre più abbassato la pressione competitiva da parte dei concorrenti su Macy’s che ora si appresta anche attraverso un ulteriore differenziazione dell’assortimento, del layout dei punti vendita e attraverso l’on line ad attaccare il segmento dei Millenium Customers (giovani tra i 13 e i 30 anni di età)…...

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