Free Essay

Lie Detector

In: Science

Submitted By almjohn
Words 1002
Pages 5


To create a sensing device modeled after a polygraph test ▶

Test would incorporate results from several physiological sensors

Create a Labview program to gather and analyze subject data

▶ Polygraphs
▶ Heart



▶ Respiratory
▶ Blood
▶ Arm



and leg motion

▶ Electrodermal


▶ Lie

detection, also referred to as deception detection, uses questioning techniques along with technology that record physiological functions to ascertain truth and falsehood in response. It is commonly used by law enforcement and has historically been an inexact science.

Manufacturers of lie

Lie detector manufacturer Nemesysco

Lafayette Instrument Company

Axciton Systems

Limestone Technologies Inc.

Stoelting Company


From the onset of civilization:there has been a compelling need to determine the truthfulness of individuals when transgressions have occurred.

Over the centuries: there have been many efforts to refine the rule of ‘two or more witnesses’ with additional methods of truth verification. An example of this would be circa 500 B.C. in India

Evolution conti..
▶ The

first recorded effort: In 1885 Lombroso was recording changes in blood pressure in police cases in Italy with some success.

▶ The

next innovation :in lie detection came in
1914 when Vittorio Benussi measured breathing to determine truthfulness.

▶ In

1920 John Larson:was the 1st to record at one time for the purpose of lie detection both breathing & pressure

Evolution cont…

In the 1930's:Leonard Keeler incorporated the GSR into his polygraph and started the first polygraph school in 1948.

In 1971, Olof Lippold:Lippold explained that the tremor is believed to be a function of the signals to and from motor neurons

1975 was the year that the International Society of Stress
Analysts was formed.

Evolution cont..

In 1988 the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer™ was debuted by the National Institute for Truth Verification.

1988 was also the year that congress passed the
1988 Employee Polygraph Protection Act.

The CVSA®II is now the truth verification device of choice in the law enforcement community


Use of real world polygraphs as design models

Assemble a polygraph which monitors heart rate, breathing rate and electrodermal activity

Create a Labview program which would self-analyze data and “detect” deceptive behavior


Incorporates two physiological sensors detecting two phenomenon
1)electrodermal activity

Self analyzes received data



New Data

Display Results


Electrocardiogram or EKG

Galvanic Skin Response Sensor

▶ Measures

the electrical activity of the heart

▶ Determines

hearts rate and rhythm

▶ Our

project used it to measure motion

▶ Senses


▶ Stand-alone
▶ Produces



▶ Frequency

was too fast for the DAQ


Based off the idea that skin resistance decreases with moisture Used a voltage difference circuit
Amplified the voltage difference to obtain obvious results LABVIEW LOGIC (EKG)

Take initial readings visually from the waveform graph

Calibrate the high and low end of the threshold based on the initial readings

Every question after will be compared to the threshold

If a person’s motions go above the threshold, a LED goes on, indicating a lie

Takes voltage readings of subject’s fingers until button is pushed
▶ Then it computes and displays and average voltage for the given time period
▶ Displays a waveform chart showing how much the subject’s voltage is increasing from the average as resistance decreases
▶ If the in average increase goes above a certain predetermined value, a light goes on, indicating a lie


Thresholds were determined by analyzing results gathered from group testing

Normalized against predetermined values

Galvanic Sensor:
▶ Computes


▶ Determines

a lie if the subject’s voltage goes above a threshold DATA ANALYSIS AND
▶ Displays the electrical impulses generated by a human body
▶ When a certain level of voltage is generated in the body it rises above a predetermined value indicating irregular behavior ▶ Detects movements from bodily extremities, specifically the arms and legs




Nervousness of test subject

Calibration errors


Heart Rate Monitor

Galvanic Skin Response


Lab Setup

Job Functions and Work
Environment of Polygraph

The job of a polygraph examiner often includes:

Prepping subjects for testing

Conducting polygraph exams

Preparing written reports

Working closely with investigators

Providing courtroom testimony

Obtaining continuing education

Education And Skill Requirements for Polygraph Examiners

Individuals looking to work as polygraph examiners will often need to hold an associate's or bachelor's degree. Degrees in criminal justice, criminology, psychology or forensic science will be most beneficial.

Interpersonal communications skills and writing skills are musts for potential examiners.

Job Growth and Salary
Outlook for Polygraph

Jobs for all forensic examiners are expected to grow at a rate of
19 percent through 2020. This is slightly higher then the national average for all occupations in the United States.

Polygraph examiners can expect to earn around $56,000 annually


“Simple” circuitry increases in complexity once work begins ▶

Check and recheck components before and after assembly ▶

Start early

Be flexible and constantly improve

Latest Medical
A Valve Job with Heart

The Sapien transcatheter aortic valve is a life-saving alternative to open-heart surgery for patients who need new a new valve but can't endure the rigors of the operation. Manufactured by
Edwards Life Sciences (Irvine, CA), theSapien has been available in Europe for some time but is only now finding its first use in U.S. heart centers—where it is limited only to the frailest patients thus far. The
Sapien valve is guided through the femoral artery by catheter from a small incision near the grown or rib cage. The valve material is made of bovine tissue attached to a stainless-steel sten, which is expanded by inflating a small balloon when correctly placed in the valve space. A simpler procedure that promises dramatically shorter hospitalizations is bound to have a positive effect on the cost of care.

Thank You…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Reasons Why People Lie

...CH 11 What are the reasons why people lie in Organizations? Lying is sometimes a result from a barrier that is unable to overcome in a organization. These barriers can be talking on the phone, sending emails, gossip, ect. There are many things that a person can lie about in an organization. They could lie about a mistake they made, take credit for something they did not do, lie about communicating internally/externally, or just to save themselves from being punished. These lies are a way to protect ones self from being viewed as a bad asset to the company or organization. Many times when a person is lying to cover up for something they will throw in some curve balls. These curve balls can be true statements or actions the person says in their lie to make it seem more true. For example, if an employee is lying about sending out a shipment late, they may say that the shipment order was filled out and completed and delivered, but it was not delivered. The truth of filling out the shipping document is true but delivering the document is a lie. This little truth in ones lie may make them feel better about the lie and make it more believable. I have not really experienced someone lying to me in a workplace situation but I assume it would be very difficult. It is hard to tell someone that they are lying and get the truth out of them. The only case I can think of was I had a member in a group for school who continuously lied about being late to meeting and not......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

White Lie Is Still a Lie

...Ever since the early age, we have taught that lying is wrong and hurts people including ourselves. Moreover, we also have educated that it is better to accept the consequences of my actions than to lie. However, the more we grow up, the more we know about using of lying because telling the truth cannot always solve the problem. From my point of view, some lying is acceptable, some is not. It depends upon what purposes that make people tell lies. A white lie is allegedly one which is done for someone's good and which harms no one. There’s no such thing. The philosophical view that allows people to think that lies can be harmless is one which counts the self as nothing morally interesting. The first point to note is that although telling lie is easy to get things in the short period of time, it will create a bad impression on the next generation as well as it does not give any benefit on long way. For example, if you tell some lies to the children such as smoking doesn't effect on everyone around, what will they learn in their future? It is dangerous for us to aware of wrong way because of adult. Another point I would like to mention is that if we always cheat others many times, one day our lie will befall upon us and will lose prestige in our relationships. The story telling about a shepherd rearing his sheep is typical example. He cheats villagers many times that there was wolf on the hill. When they ran to save him but found no wolf, they became angry with him. And then......

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pyroelectric Detectors

...Pyroelectric detectors Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors (PIR)convert the changes in incoming infrared light to electric signals. Pyroelectric materials are characterized by having spontaneous electric polarization, which is altered by temperature changes as infrared light illuminates the elements. Since our sensor series uses this effect they can be used at ambient temperature even in the presence of thermal noise. By choosing appropriate IR receiving electrodes, they serve a wide range of application. * Characteristics | High Sensitivity | | Versatile selection of IR wavelength filters | | Room temperature operation | | Low cost | | Roust under severe environmental conditions | | Stable against ambient temperature and atmospheric changes | | Stable against electromagnetic interference | * Applications | Light control | | Temperature measurement | | Flame detector | | Automatic door switch | | Visitor detector | | Home security | | | | | * IR Filters | AR coated silicon (low cost) | | 7µm cut-on, long pass, filtered silicon (body detection) | | 4.3 µm bandpass filtered quartz (flame detection) | | 4.5 µm AR coated silicon (body detection) | | 5µm cut-on silicon (body......

Words: 2755 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Is It Ever Ok to Lie?

...Is it ever ok to lie? To me, lying is a means to an end, and hence whether lying is acceptable or not depends on the intended nature of the “end”, whether it is “intended” for the good or for the worse. For instance, a father consoling his terminally ill daughter would lie and tell her that everything is fine, with the positive intention of giving his daughter hope and will to live, which is, of course, morally acceptable. On the other hand, a tax accountant lying about a company’s income and revenue statistics to the government with the ill intention of avoiding taxes for personal gain is morally impermissible. Hence whether lying is acceptable depends very much on the intended end-result. Another thing that I would like to point out is the relative emphasis on intention rather than consequences. (Of course, this is not to say that consequence does not play a role in the determination of whether lying is wrong.) Since events are always unpredictable, things may turn out with unexpected consequences regardless of the nature of the intention. For example, the aforementioned daughter may accidentally find out about her father’s lies on her medical condition and hate her father because of it until the second she died. This is obviously a negative and unexpected consequence. However, her father’s lies are still justifiable due to his well-meant intention. And let’s say, if, the tax accountant’s fraud initiated many company financial reviews and ultimately led to a......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Methods of Lie Detection

...Methods of Lie Detection Samuel Medina Housatonic Community College Abstract This research paper will cover a few different aspects of Lie Detection. Through the knowledge gathered from 5 journal articles the reader will learn of different methods of lie detection as well as some real life applications and the possibilities of lie detection in the near future. The areas that the 5 journal articles touch upon are the Cognitive load approach, the use of the polygraph and its controversies, the behavioral differences when using a person’s first or second language, the use of fMRI and the potential future of fMRI technology and last but not least some of the application of lie detection in our world today and potential for even more efficient and less intrusive methods of lie detection. Methods of Lie Detection In today’s society technology is at the fore-front of almost every aspect of life. In one particular area technology has created a new path of discovery for society to explore. Lie detection is a subject widely used in different ways throughout law enforcement and is becoming implemented in many different ways in our society today. Lie detection is being used in court rooms all over the world to solidify verdicts proved in the court rooms. There are a few methods of lie detection used in and outside of the court rooms but not all are allowed in the court rooms because of certain controversies. Of course with......

Words: 1960 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Why Do People Lie?

...I.- Why do people lie? Everybody lies. It may only be “white” lies, but everyone tells lies or “omits the truth” sometimes. We start lying at around age 4 to 5 when children gain an awareness of the use and power of language. This first lying is not malicious, but rather to find out, or test, what can manipulated in a child’s environment. Eventually children begin to use lying to get out of trouble or get something they want. White lies, those concocted to protect someone’s feelings, are not a big deal at all. The person, however, who seems to feel compelled to lie about both the small and large stuff has a problem. We often call these folks pathological liars (which is a description, not a diagnosis). They lie to protect themselves, look good, gain financially or socially and avoid punishment. Quite often the person who has been deceived knows that this type of liar has to a certain extent deluded him or herself and is therefore to be somewhat pitied.A much more troubling group is those who lie a lot — and knowingly — for personal gain. These people may have a diagnosis called antisocial personality disorder, also known as being a sociopath, and often get into scrapes with the law. Lying often gets worse with the passage of time. When you get away with a lie it often impels you to continue your deceptions. Also, liars often find themselves perpetrating more untruths to cover themselves. We hold different people to different standards when it comes to telling the truth. We......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Justify a Lie?

...Justify a Lie? In the one-act play Trifles by Susan Glaspell, John Wright, a citizen of Dixon County, Nebraska is killed in his home and his wife, Minnie Wright is the suspected murderer. The following morning, the County Attorney, the Sheriff Peters and his wife, and The Wright’s neighbor, Lewis Hale and his wife visit the house to look for evidence. The men tell the women to stay in the kitchen to keep out of the way. Little to the men know the answer to their questions is in the kitchen and Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale discover the clues and solve the crime. However, the two women decide not to tell the men in order to protect Minnie. The question that comes to mind is: “Was the decision made by Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale right? Was it just?” The answer to the question is that it was not right, nor was it just. Is there a difference? The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines the word “just” as acting or being in conformity with what is morally upright and good. They also define the word “right” as being in accordance with what is just, good, or proper. The two definitions coincide with each other perfectly. Especially considering the fact that one of the two words is in the other’s definition. Therefore, there is no difference between the two words. They have the same meanings. What Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale decide to do at the end of the play is morally wrong. Before the three men leave the kitchen for the upstairs bedroom, the County Attorney says to Mrs.......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Whe Do We Lie

...quality time with our favorite liquor. In other words, we lie. But why? Why are we so deceitful when we claim with that we value honesty in our interpersonal relationships? To some extent, we can be proud of our lies. Lying is considered a sign of intelligence and cognitive skill, because it takes some aptitude to recognize the way things are and then create and present an alternative to that reality. And it's a skill that we exercise quite a bit; in a study published in the Journal of Basic andApplied Psychology, researchers found that 60 percent of the subjects lied at least once during a videotaped 10-minute conversation [source: Lloyd]. Researchers reported that all the subjects believed they'd been completely truthful during the conversation, so when they watched the playback of the tape, they were amazed to find they'd said deceptive things. The ability to lie and not realize it is a gift unique to humans. Not only do we deceive others, we can trick ourselves into believing something that's not true is. That's because motivation for lying is usually tied up in self-esteem and self-preservation. We lie in an effort to create the best possible version of ourselves, and we lie so that we don't have to face the consequences that our other, less-perfect self incurs. That means we may lie about our accomplishments or skills so that others respect us more, or to cover up mistakes so that we don't lose that respect. We'll also lie about mistakes and misdeeds to avoid......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Is It Morally Right for a Politician to Lie?

...From two of the following perspectives evaluate the claim that it is morally right for a politician to lie to the public in order to get a policy enacted. a) Aristotle b) Kant c) Mill d) Rand Abraham Lincoln once said that “If you once forfeit the confidence of your fellow citizens, you can never regain their respect and esteem” ( Everyone has the understanding that once someone lies, they can’t be easily trusted again and it is harder to restore trust then probably anything else. Lying has made its way into society and especially in politics it can be easily found. Politicians often lie in order to achieve what they think is right for society. In their minds it might be right, but is it morally right to do so? When evaluating this claim by using Aristotle’s virtue and common-good approach, and Kant’s universal rule and right’s approach, we determine that it not morally right to lie in order to get a policy enacted. Aristotle says that everyone is striving for happiness. In order to be happy we have to be good, and to be good is to develop our highest potential by using virtues such as honesty. Since virtues develop our highest potential and lying is not a virtue, it is wrong to lie. Another approach that proves that lying is wrong is the common-good approach which says that the individual’s own good is linked to the whole community. Since lying hurts the community, it automatically hurts the individual. Kant would prove lying to be wrong......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Polygraph (Lie Detector) Tests

...Polygraph (Lie Detector) Tests Name of Student Name of University Polygraph (Lie Detector) Tests Employee Polygraph Protection Act Employee Polygraph Protection Act outlawed the use of polygraph or lie detector tests in connection with employment. The Act covers private employers in security businesses and those who authorized to distribute controlled substances (Carper, 2011). However, the Act does not apply on state, federal, and local employers of Government and those work in handling sensitive information related to national defense. Under the law, it is not legal for any private company to suggest or require any employee to submit polygraph tests. The Act does not allow accepting or inquiring the results of polygraph tests conducted on employees. It prohibits private companies from dismissal, discrimination, and even threatening the employees who rejects to take polygraph tests. Conditions for Using Polygraph Tests The federal law allows using the polygraph tests in connection with employment in drugs handling and investigating suspected crime or specific theft. However, employers must sent a written notice to the employees before 48 hours of conducting polygraph tests as part of an employment-related crime or an investigation (Grubin, 2005). The employers must have reasonable and provable suspicion of involving employees in theft or any other investigation. Limitations on Polygraph Tests The Employers must......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Results of a Lie

...Response Essay 20 February 2015 Results of a lie What is the reason for lying? When is a lie acceptable? Who does a lie hurt most? These questions are answered in Stephanie Ericsson’s essay “The Ways We Lie.” Ericsson begins by dishonestly calling the bank of her deposit check; stating it was in the mail, when it was not written yet. Lies arose, one after another. It started by explaining to a client her tartness due to traffic, hiding the fact that her day was terrible from her husband and denying a lunch invitation from a friend since she was busy (290).  Lying provides individuals a way to escape confrontation; only during certain situations are lies tolerable; on the other hand lies can hurt the liar and the victim.   It is human nature to lie, but that is not a reason to do such actions. Rather than expressing their true feelings some people believe that lying is easier, and most of the time it is the first choice. Ericsson emphasizes, “We lie. We all do. We exaggerate, we minimize, we avoid confrontation, we spare peoples feelings” (290). A lie becomes second nature to many; it is the go to option when wanting to dodge certain individuals. Trying to save the feelings of victims of a lie, people run to a dishonest face only fantasizing that the lie will protect the victim’s feelings. Even the small lies counts, when asked how their day was people tend to respond with “good” hiding the fact it was the worst day ever. It is simpler to lie than to explain why their day......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

History Is a Lie

...François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), also known as Voltaire, was a French writer, historian and philosopher who was famous for his political works. All his literary writings were famous, including plays, poems, novels, essays, historical and scientific works. His best-known histories are The Age of Louis XIV (1751), and his Essay on the Customs and the Spirit of the Nations (1756). He broke from the tradition of narrating political and military events, and emphasized traditions, societal history and achievements in the arts and sciences. One of his famous sayings, “History is the lie commonly agreed upon”, is quite contrary as some agree with it while others argue that that is not the case. Based on the analysis and readings I agree with what Voltaire said. Some people associate history with past whereas history is not the same as past. As past is the occurrence of all the events even the minor ones while history is the selection of some events from the past which are then given meaning to by the historians. So what we study is not actually history but historiography (the writings of history). An example of which can be a person selling gingerbread man in a low lying area and some random people come to his stall and beat him up and kill him [1]. So the historians will not give importance to this event – which is definitely part of the past but it is not the part of written history. At the same time history is majorly affected by the involvement of the......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Deadlock Detector and Solver Research Paper

... Deadlock Detector and Solver Abstract Deadlock is one of the most serious and complex problems concerning the reliability of concurrent Java Programs. This paper presents Deadlock Detector and Solver which detects and resolves circular deadlocks of a java program. An agent written in C++ runs parallel to Java Program and monitors the Java Virtual Machine for deadlocks. If the deadlock is detected, the solver agent is used to resolve the deadlock . Introduction The onset of multicore processors forces the programmers to use multiple threads in order to take advantage of hardware parallelism. Java is one of the first languages to make multithreading available to developers. Along with advantages of concurrent systems and multithreading, there are some challenges involved. Java has inter-process communication model which means it has set of methods for exchange of data among multiple threads and processes. It is based on shared data structures and meshes well with hardware architectures in which multiple cores share memory. However Java is susceptible to deadlocks. Deadlock is a condition under which the entire program is halted as each thread in a set attempts to acquire a lock already held by another thread in a set. Java is susceptible to deadlocks because (a) threads exchanges information by sharing variables that they lock with mutex locks and (b) the locking mechanism interacts with other language features, such as aliasing. Consider a simple banking transaction......

Words: 3641 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Lie of the Century

...| The Lie of The Century | Analysis of Bernard Madoff's Ponzi Scheme | | ' Introduction As long as the investment financial market existed, only one man was able to etched his name to the investment history as the greatest fraudster, and his name is Bernard Madoff. A brilliant fraudster that able to swindled over $50 billion from thousands of people using a type of investment fraud called "Ponzi Scheme." Using this type of investment frauds and his charming personality, Madoff stolen money from politicians, such as Senator Frank Lautenberg, famous celebrities, such as Kelvin Bacon, hedge fund directors, such as R. Thierry Magon de la Villehuchet, universities, such as Yeshiva University, banking institutions, such as Union Bancaire Privee, and charitable organizations, such as Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity. (Deborah & Strober, 2009) In that one day in the 11th of December in 2008, thousands people wake up to know the money that they entrusted to Madoff is nothing more than just a "lie." In other words, numbers that exist without any meaning. Madoff's Biography Born in Queens, New York, Madoff established himself from a humble blue collar workers, who earned his money from lifeguarding and installing sprinkle systems, to a genius international million dollar investor, who stolen billions of dollars from his clients. His investment firm, Bernard L. Madoff Investment Security (BMIS), based in New York, but its clients are as far as from European,......

Words: 2565 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Good Lie

...1. Why is this movie called "the good lie"? A good lie is normally a lie with good intention. This movie is called the good lie because at the beginning of the movie, Theo made a choice and lied to the soldiers telling them that he was lost to save Mamere and his other brothers. That was a good lie. The other good lie is when Mamere switch’s identities with Theo to thank him for saving his life. 2. If you were promoting this movie what clips would you use and what would be the marketing idea to attract people? Show the first clips of the movie: the good times they were having then the civil war, to show that war is a terrible thing and to understand what the refugees are running away. And show after their life in America to encourage giving opportunity to the refugees because they deserve it and only need opportunity. 3. About the movie: Why is Paul so upset? Why does Jerimiah want to go back to Sudan? Why are they unhappy in America? Paul is upset because he was blaming Mamere for Theo’s death that gave up his life to save everyone. He is also unhappy because he thinks that they are nothing in America and that they have no opportunity. Jerimiah wants to go back to Sudan because there he could make choices that he thought were good. In America he have to listen to his boss that makes him do bad choices and prevent him from helping others. They are unhappy in America because first thing when they arrived, they were separated from their sister, everything......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2