Free Essay

Lie Detector

In: Science

Submitted By almjohn
Words 1002
Pages 5
THE LIE
DETECTOR
BY,
ALMITA JOHN
0981090
VENKATA LAKSHMI SAILAJA CHAVALI
0982874

OBJECTIVES


To create a sensing device modeled after a polygraph test ▶

Test would incorporate results from several physiological sensors



Create a Labview program to gather and analyze subject data

POLYGRAPH THEORY
▶ Polygraphs
▶ Heart

measure:

rate

▶ Respiratory
▶ Blood
▶ Arm

rate

pressure

and leg motion

▶ Electrodermal

activity

LIE DETECTION
▶ Lie

detection, also referred to as deception detection, uses questioning techniques along with technology that record physiological functions to ascertain truth and falsehood in response. It is commonly used by law enforcement and has historically been an inexact science.

Manufacturers of lie
Detectors


Lie detector manufacturer Nemesysco



Lafayette Instrument Company



Axciton Systems



Limestone Technologies Inc.



Stoelting Company

Evolution


From the onset of civilization:there has been a compelling need to determine the truthfulness of individuals when transgressions have occurred.



Over the centuries: there have been many efforts to refine the rule of ‘two or more witnesses’ with additional methods of truth verification. An example of this would be circa 500 B.C. in India

Evolution conti..
▶ The

first recorded effort: In 1885 Lombroso was recording changes in blood pressure in police cases in Italy with some success.

▶ The

next innovation :in lie detection came in
1914 when Vittorio Benussi measured breathing to determine truthfulness.

▶ In

1920 John Larson:was the 1st to record at one time for the purpose of lie detection both breathing & pressure

Evolution cont…


In the 1930's:Leonard Keeler incorporated the GSR into his polygraph and started the first polygraph school in 1948.



In 1971, Olof Lippold:Lippold explained that the tremor is believed to be a function of the signals to and from motor neurons



1975 was the year that the International Society of Stress
Analysts was formed.

Evolution cont..


In 1988 the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer™ was debuted by the National Institute for Truth Verification.



1988 was also the year that congress passed the
1988 Employee Polygraph Protection Act.



The CVSA®II is now the truth verification device of choice in the law enforcement community

INITIAL IDEAS


Use of real world polygraphs as design models



Assemble a polygraph which monitors heart rate, breathing rate and electrodermal activity



Create a Labview program which would self-analyze data and “detect” deceptive behavior

FINAL LIE DETECTOR


Incorporates two physiological sensors detecting two phenomenon
1)electrodermal activity
2)motion



Self analyzes received data

DETECTOR LOGIC
Subject
Electrodermal
Sensor/Motion
Sensor

DAQ

New Data
LABVIEW/CPU

Display Results

SENSORS



Electrocardiogram or EKG



Galvanic Skin Response Sensor

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
▶ Measures

the electrical activity of the heart

▶ Determines

hearts rate and rhythm

▶ Our

project used it to measure motion

GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE
SENSOR
▶ Senses

moisture

▶ Stand-alone
▶ Produces

unit

noise

▶ Frequency

was too fast for the DAQ

CREATED SKIN SENSOR





Based off the idea that skin resistance decreases with moisture Used a voltage difference circuit
Amplified the voltage difference to obtain obvious results LABVIEW LOGIC (EKG)


Take initial readings visually from the waveform graph



Calibrate the high and low end of the threshold based on the initial readings



Every question after will be compared to the threshold



If a person’s motions go above the threshold, a LED goes on, indicating a lie

LABVIEW LOGIC (GSR)
Takes voltage readings of subject’s fingers until button is pushed
▶ Then it computes and displays and average voltage for the given time period
▶ Displays a waveform chart showing how much the subject’s voltage is increasing from the average as resistance decreases
▶ If the in average increase goes above a certain predetermined value, a light goes on, indicating a lie


DATA


Thresholds were determined by analyzing results gathered from group testing



Normalized against predetermined values

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Galvanic Sensor:
▶ Computes

voltage

average
▶ Determines

a lie if the subject’s voltage goes above a threshold DATA ANALYSIS AND
RESULTS
EKG:
▶ Displays the electrical impulses generated by a human body
▶ When a certain level of voltage is generated in the body it rises above a predetermined value indicating irregular behavior ▶ Detects movements from bodily extremities, specifically the arms and legs

NORMAL EKG WAVEFORM

DECEPTIVE WAVEFORM

SOURCES OF ERROR


Nervousness of test subject



Calibration errors

Difficulties


Heart Rate Monitor



Galvanic Skin Response



LABVIEW



Lab Setup

Job Functions and Work
Environment of Polygraph
Examiners


The job of a polygraph examiner often includes:



Prepping subjects for testing



Conducting polygraph exams



Preparing written reports



Working closely with investigators



Providing courtroom testimony



Obtaining continuing education

Education And Skill Requirements for Polygraph Examiners



Individuals looking to work as polygraph examiners will often need to hold an associate's or bachelor's degree. Degrees in criminal justice, criminology, psychology or forensic science will be most beneficial.



Interpersonal communications skills and writing skills are musts for potential examiners.

Job Growth and Salary
Outlook for Polygraph
Examiners


Jobs for all forensic examiners are expected to grow at a rate of
19 percent through 2020. This is slightly higher then the national average for all occupations in the United States.



Polygraph examiners can expect to earn around $56,000 annually

CONCLUSIONS


“Simple” circuitry increases in complexity once work begins ▶

Check and recheck components before and after assembly ▶

Start early



Be flexible and constantly improve

Latest Medical
Machine
A Valve Job with Heart

The Sapien transcatheter aortic valve is a life-saving alternative to open-heart surgery for patients who need new a new valve but can't endure the rigors of the operation. Manufactured by
Edwards Life Sciences (Irvine, CA), theSapien has been available in Europe for some time but is only now finding its first use in U.S. heart centers—where it is limited only to the frailest patients thus far. The
Sapien valve is guided through the femoral artery by catheter from a small incision near the grown or rib cage. The valve material is made of bovine tissue attached to a stainless-steel sten, which is expanded by inflating a small balloon when correctly placed in the valve space. A simpler procedure that promises dramatically shorter hospitalizations is bound to have a positive effect on the cost of care.

Thank You…...

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