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Kodak in Russia

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Kodak Di Rusia

Pada awal 1990-an, Kodak memasuki Rusia. Masuknya Kodak ke pasar ini menimbulkan sejumlah tantangan. Konsumen Rusia memiliki sedikit pengetahuan tentang produk Kodak, dan pasar konsumen untuk fotografi sangat terbelakang. Selain itu, terlepas dari toko yang dikelola negara yang umumnya buruk dalam menjalankannya ,. Ada sedikit atau bahkan tidak ada infrastruktur di tempat tersebut untuk mendistribusikan peralatan fotografi dan film dan untuk pengolahan Film. Untuk hal-hal majemuk, konsumen Rusia yang miskin dan tidak mungkin mampu membayar semua kamera yang paling murah dan film.

Ketika Kodak menginvestasikan lebih dari $ 10 juta ke pabrik kertas finishing di wilayah Yaroslavl, ada banyak kegugupan pada kedua bagian Rusia divisi perusahaan dan kantor pusat. Setelah semua, pengalaman perusahaan lain berinvestasi di Rusia tidak selalu bahagia. Tapi merefleksikan keputusan dua tahun setelah pabrik mulai beroperasi, Thomas D. Garman, general manager Kodak di Rusia, mengatakan proyek ini "sukses" dan menggambarkan hubungan antara perusahaan dan pemerintah daerah sebagai salah satu: "Kau menjaga kata Anda, kami akan menjaga kata kami. " Ini adalah keberangkatan dari apa yang perusahaan telah diantisipasi. Kodak menyewa sebuah bangunan besar di Yaroslavl dari produsen peralatan fotografi Rusia, Slavich, untuk membangun fasilitas kertas finishing. The multinasional juga menegosiasikan kebijakan gaji dan kondisi kerja karyawan baru melalui Slavich - mengambil semua stafnya dari berjuang produsen Rusia. Garman mengatakan bahwa – "touch wood" - perusahaan telah tidak mempunyai masalah untuk tanggal dengan hubungan kerja. Memang, manajer umum telah terkesan dengan kinerja karyawannya. "Hal ini tidak mendorong untuk mengatakan bahwa produksi dan efisiensi di pabrik di Yaroslavl lebih baik dari yang di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris," kata Garman. Pabrik ini memproduksi kertas foto yang digunakan untuk Kodak cetak di seluruh Rusia.

Pada awal 1990-an, perusahaan mulai beroperasi sendiri di Rusia, memilih untuk tidak melalui anak perusahaan, keputusan manajer umum digambarkan sebagai "di belakang 20/20, hal terbaik untuk dilakukan." "Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, kita tumbuh fenomenal," kata Garman periode setelah menetapkan diri pasca-Soviet Rusia. "Operasi Rusia adalah pemain bintang untuk Kodak, dengan penjualan melompat dari beberapa juta untuk dekat dengan $ 200 juta dalam waktu tiga atau empat tahun." Penjualan kamera Kodak sedang berkembang di Rusia, bagaimanapun, datang berhenti berteriak setelah krisis keuangan Agustus 1998, sebagai daya beli penduduk secara dramatis berkurang. Perusahaan terpaksa untuk menumpahkan 200 staf dan turun 40 persen tahun ini pada tahun lalu. Dan itu tidak hanya penjualan kamera yang terkena. "Kami menjual mesin-mesin, kertas dan kimia untuk foto ke toko-toko, dan setelah pebisnis krisis hanya berhenti berinvestasi di mesin," kata Garman. Namun, meskipun penurunan kamera dan mesin penjualan, penduduk terus mengambil foto. Secara umum, perusahaan membutuhkan strategi baru untuk beradaptasi dengan keadaan ekonomi berubah, katanya. Menyadari pendapatan terbatas konsumen Rusia, strategi produk Kodak telah menjual film dan kamera yang lebih rendah /murah. Kodak menawarkan kamera sederhana untuk sekitar $ 20 sampai konsumen Rusia, sesuatu yang perusahaan mampu untuk dilakukan karena kamera yang dibuat secara lokal. Kodak mulai menawarkan sebuah film baru, sejajar dengan produk Kodak Emas yang dihormati. Garman menggambarkan warna Kodak baru, diproduksi dengan kemasan Rusia dengan harga lebih murah, seperti "tidak berkualitas cukup tinggi" sebagai Kodak Emas, "tapi lebih baik dibandingkan pesaingnya." "Kami terus dengan Kodak Emas sebagai produk premium kami, tetapi Anda tidak bisa mengabaikan tekanan pada belanja konsumen - orang yang menerima kualitas yang lebih rendah karena harga yang lebih rendah, dan kita harus menanggapi itu." "Orang-orang harus mengambil foto," tambahnya. Hari ini, Kodak mempekerjakan 300 orang di Rusia, lima di antaranya adalah ekspatriat.
Dalam upaya untuk memecahkan stagnasi pasca krisis dalam penjualan kamera, perusahaan ini ingin menjual ke "pasar premium," untuk agen perjalanan dan perusahaan kaya seperti LUKoil. Garman mengatakan tujuan Kodak adalah untuk mendorong perusahaan seperti LUKoil untuk memberikan kamera sebagai hadiah untuk karyawan yang berharga daripada buku atau sebotol vodka. Meskipun Rusia memiliki tradisi panjang fotografi, kepemilikan kamera relatif rendah di 50 persen, kata Garman. Di Jepang atau Amerika Serikat, tingkat sekitar 90 persen. Kodak menyadari bahwa itu dibutuhkan untuk membangun saluran distribusi untuk produk-produknya. Daripada berinvestasi langsung di toko sendiri, perusahaan membentuk program waralaba untuk membuka Kodak Express toko di seluruh Rusia untuk menjual produk dan mengembangkan film. Saat Kodak memiliki perjanjian lisensi dengan 700 usaha foto di Rusia. Garman mengatakan bahwa di bawah perjanjian tersebut, bisnis menggunakan produk Kodak dan menghasilkan produk-produk berkualitas Kodak, sementara perusahaan berkonsentrasi pada dukungan pasar untuk mempromosikan nama Kodak Express. "Tujuan kami adalah untuk memperluas program sebanyak yang kita bisa untuk menjadi seperti fotografi McDonald," kata Garman. "Mungkin tidak begitu besar seperti McDonald, tapi kami sedang mencari untuk mencapai keunggulan kompetitif secara nasional." Pada saat yang sama, Kodak memiliki beberapa operasi kecil, termasuk mendirikan laboratorium bioskop di Rusia (untuk Mosfilm dan lain-lain) untuk memproses film dan membuat salinan untuk film. Garman mengatakan bahwa, secara tradisional, direksi bioskop telah takut untuk melakukan operasi seperti di Rusia - lebih memilih untuk memiliki pekerjaan yang dilakukan di luar negeri untuk alasan kualitas. Kodak telah membantu membangun dua atau tiga laboratorium, menurut Garman. Perusahaan ini juga telah membuka Kodak bioskop dekat Pushkinskaya. Tujuannya adalah, Garman mengatakan, untuk memberikan sebuah karya kepada publik yang mungkin peralatan bioskop terbaik untuk soundtrack dan gambar visual di layar. "Hal semacam ini tidak akan menghasilkan keuntungan besar bagi perusahaan Tapi itu tidak akan kehilangan uang -. Itu adalah merasa-baik [usaha]," katanya. "Apa yang telah dilakukan, meskipun, adalah mendorong bioskop lainnya di Moskow untuk meningkatkan peralatan mereka sehingga masyarakat menerima gambar berkualitas tinggi dan suara."

1) Bagaimana Rusia berbeda dari pasar di negara-negara Barat maju? Bagaimana perbedaan ini akan berdampak pada permintaan produk fotografi?

Ada beberapa perbedaan utama antara pasar Rusia dan pasar Barat maju lainnya. Perbedaan utama yaitu Rusia terlibat transisi dari ekonomi komando ke ekonomi pasar, dan semua tantangan yang dihasilkan dari transisi. Selain itu, pasar konsumen untuk fotografi adalah terbelakang, lini produk Kodak hampir tidak dikenal, dan biaya kamera dan produk pelengkap berada di luar jangkauan bagi banyak konsumen. Perbedaan lainnya hanya ada beberapa pilihan yang layak untuk distribusi.

Strategi keseluruhan Kodak yang seperti apa dalam mengejar dan jelaskan pilihan Anda? (cth. global standardisasi, lokalisasi, transnasional.)

Kodak membuat beberapa perubahan bauran pemasaran untuk lebih sesuai dengan pasar Rusia. Memanfaatkan biaya produksi yang lebih rendah Rusia, perusahaan Kodak membuka pabrik di Rusia untuk menghasilkan yang lebih sederhana,kamera dan aksesoris murah. Perusahaan ini juga mengembangkan pesan pemasaran yang konsisten disesuaikan dengan pasar lokal, dan mendorong perusahaan besar untuk memberikan kamera sebagai hadiah karyawan daripada vodka tradisional. Akhirnya, Kodak membentuk sistem waralaba untuk perusahaan toko Kodak Express di mana konsumen dapat membeli produk dan mengembangkan film. Ini akan muncul sebagai perubahan Kodak yang telah dibuat untuk bauran pemasaran yang berhasil. Bisa dibilang strategi yang digunakan Kodak adalah lokalisasi.

Apa mode entri telah Kodak dipilih? Jelaskan keuntungan dan kerugian dari masing-masing mode ini.

Kodak mampu berhasil melalui hubungan pribadi yang kuat dengan para pemangku kepentingan dan keputusan untuk berinvestasi dalam produksi lokal. Kodak membangun penerimaan konsumen melalui komunikasi yang terbuka dan sering dengan pelanggan mereka. Hal ini, dikombinasikan dengan strategi pemasaran multifaset, membantu mereka bertahan krisis keuangan Rusia. Kami berpendapat bahwa keberhasilan Kodak telah sangat difasilitasi oleh serangkaian kebijakan yang mencakup adaptasi sesuai praktik pemasaran dan sumber daya manusia Barat. Pertama-tama Kodak berinvestasi pada salah satu perusahaan kertas finishing di Russia. Setelah terlihat berhasil , Kodak memasuki pasar Rusia pada tahun 1990-an dengan cara beroperasi langsung tanpa melalui anak perusahaan atau dapat disebut dengan dengan FDI.
. Keuntungan :
Mendapatkan return yang tinggi melalui :
a. tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi yang lebih tinggi.
b. perpajakan yang lebih menguntungkan.
c. infrastruktur yang lebih baik.
d. Melakukan diversifikasi resiko (risk diversification).
e. Untuk tetap memiliki “competitive advantage” melalui “direct control”.
f. Menghindari tariff dan non tariff barrier yang dibebankan kepada barang impor.
g. Memanfaatkan berbagai insentif dalam bentuk subsidi yang diberikan oleh pemerintah lokal untuk mendorong foreign-direct investment.

Kerugian :
a. high risk
b. kadang kebijakan pemerintah dan nilai tukar serta kondisi ekonomi yang bergejolak dapat berdampak negatif

TUGAS STUDI KASUS
BISNIS INTERNASIONAL
KODAK IN RUSSIA

Kelompok 11
Cornelius Aditya 1203 19699
Denis Dwisatya 1203 19697
Fera Margareta 1203 19734
Ika Ayu Kiani 1203 19738
Severus Wildan 1103 19246…...

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...Eastman Kodak Company Industrial Analysis Mitul Patel The main objective of this industrial analysis is strategically analyzed the economic as well as the market position of Eastman Kodak Company commonly referred to as Kodak. This report will uncover any competitive advantage that the company has in today’s market. The analysis will begin with a brief overview of Kodak’s industrial history and influences on the economic, social, and technological environment that surrounds the company. The analysis will then proceed to focus on a SWOT Analysis that will designate what Kodak’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats in today economic market. In addition Porter’s Five Forces Analysis will be conducted to determine Kodak’s competitiveness and overall attractiveness it now holds in the market today. To bring out the full strategic potential of Kodak, it is important to understand Kodak’s value chain and recognize the resources available and their capabilities in relation to the firm’s direction. The report will then conclude with a VRIO analysis which determines the core competencies of the firm. Kodak has been a big player on the market since its founding. In order for Kodak to survive we must question Kodak and ask “Does the Kodak of today have the organization to fully utilize their available resources and obtain a competitive advantage?” Eastman Kodak Company is an American imaging, photographic equipment, and services company. The company was founded by......

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