Free Essay

Kerensky

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jakescrivens2
Words 1358
Pages 6
How far do you agree that Kerensky’s mistakes were the main reasons for the collapse of the Provisional Government?
The abdication of the Tsar on March 2nd 1917 meant that Russia was left in control of the governing body, which became known as the Provisional Government. This occurred as a consequence from the February Revolution, consisting of mass demonstration and outbreaks of violence, demanding the Tsar to step down. This left the provisional government, which consisted of mainly Kadets and Octobrists, despite them not having much support throughout Russia, as problem that the new government faced was that they did not represent everyone’s political view, due to the fact that neither the Bolsheviks nor Mensheviks who were quite popular within Russia, were represented by the Provisional Government. Also the Provisional Government never really had total control to govern to rule Russia, due to the Petrograd soviet. These issues were exploited by key events during the reign of the Provisional government as factors such as Kerensky’s mistakes, which the assertion gives along with aspects such as the return of Lenin, the June Offensive, having to share power with the Petrograd Soviet and the July Days.
Alexander Kerensky played a great part in the collapse of the Provisional Government due to his actions after becoming Prime Minister in July 1917. Mass desertions from the Russian army caused by the failed June Offensive, lead to the replacement of Prince Lvov by Kerensky, right from the off he realised that the Provisional Government faced a variety of issues. For example, he did not end Russia’s involvement in the First World War when he became Prime Minister after the July Day protests in Petrograd. Kerensky was well aware that the June Offensive against Austria-Hungary was extremely unpopular with the Russia people and that morale within the Russia armed forces was on the verge of collapse. He initially supported the appointment of General Kornilov becoming Commander-in-Chief of the Russia armed forces, however was the Kornilov’s affair on August 27th started to evolve he soon became worried about Kornilov’s intentions. As Kornilov decided to march in the attempt to restore order on behalf of the Provisional Government, Kerensky became apprehensive that Kornilov was going to try and remove him from power; this resulted in Kerensky tragically arming the Red Guards and released the Bolsheviks from prison, also supplying them with weapons. It soon became clear to Kornilov that he had been betrayed by Kerensky and continue the March; however he soon lost the support of his troops and was later arrested. It is clear that Kerensky’s role as part of the Kornilov Affair contributed to the fall of the Provisional Government due to a number of consequences, firstly this affair cause the support for the All-Russia Soviet to be increased, being the Provisional Government itself lost even more support, subsequently weakening its ability to govern Russia. Also Kerensky himself lost support of both the right and left wing political parties, weakening his position as Prime Minister. Not only that, but the events created a mass power vacuum, providing the returning Lenin and Bolsheviks, who were now armed, with a great opportunity to seize control of Russia. Once again reinstating the idea that Kerensky was responsible for the fall of the Provisional Government.
However Kerensky’s role wasn’t just the reason for the fall of Provisional Government, the return of Lenin also contributed. Lenin had not actally expected the abdiciation of the Tsar, but realised it provided him with a real opportunity to make a real impace when he returned. Interestingly enough it was the German government who supported Lenin’s return to Russia on April 3rd, due to the fact that he had opposed Russia’s involvement in the First World War. When Lenin returned he demanded a social revolution. Lenin produced a document kwon as the ‘April Theses’, throughout the document he made promises of Peace, Land and Bread’ and ‘All Power to the Soviets’, and these declarations gained support for the Bolsheviks. These promises from Lenini attracted the supported of many throughout Russia, as the majoirty did not want to carry on the war with Germany. Lenin made sure to emphasise the failure of the Provisional Government who were attempting to redistribute the land to peasants, but the influence from the middle class and wealthy land owners meant this policy had failed massively and proved unpopular with the peasants. Lenin gained the support he needed and sent the Bolsheviks to factories in Petrograd to gain support for the strikes in an attempt to remove the Provisional Government from power, despite this, the Bolsheviks failed to make the impact Lenin desire, in influencing the public to revolt again the Provisional Government. However Lenin's leadership skills alone were a threat to the Provisional Government and this threat was realised by them. Overall it is clear that Lenin's return to Russia really made and impact and did indeed contribute to the eventual downfall.
Another factor as to why the Provisional Government failed was due to 'The July Days'. Taking place between the 3rd and 6th of July it saw demonstrations take place mainly within Petrograd but also across Russia. It most be noted that these demonstrations were in reply to the failed June Offensive (as previously mentioned) along with continued food shortages and continued economic crisis. It was clear to everyone that the new government had not acted swiftly enough to gain the support of the Russias people and were in fact contributing to their own downfall. The most significant revolt to take place was the Kronstadt Naval Base Revolt who in the 1905 revolution, stood by their Tsar, and showed extreme loyalty. However now in July 1917, the events that had taken place throughout the provisional government's reign had lead to them believing they had no option but to hold an armed demonstration with the clear aim of causing the collapse of the Provisional Government. At the height of their protests they managed to gather the support of 50,000 people who surrounded the Tairude Palace, the headquarters of the Soviet. However the mistake that was made was Lenin failed to truly expose the situation after no clear leadership was given. Despite this, it is clear that the events of the July Days heavily contributed to the collapse of the Provisional Government as for the first time it demonstrated the Kronstadt Officers who had previously been loyal to which government was in power had now realised it was time for a change and made their feelings noticed by demonstrating, this proved significant and it made ordinary Russians realise they would have the support of certain armed forces in any potential uprising against the Provisional Government and the Soviet.
A final reasons which also contributed to the downfall of the Government was the fact that they never had total power and had to share their power with the Petrograd Soviet who soon became the All-Russia Soviet and also claimed the right it issue laws for Russia. The most famous law they issued was the 'Order No.1' which undermined the authority of the military officers, stating that the military orders of the provisional government should be only followed if agreed with by the Soviet. Therefore if ever the Provisional Government believed they had to react the demonstrations with military actions, the power was out of their hands and it was down to the soviet to agree with any military actions. Leaving the government extremely vulnerable to any potential revolution, which of course did take place in just October of the same year where the Bolsheviks proved triumphant.
To conclude I believe that although Kerensky's mistakes were instrumental in the downfall of the Provisional Government there is no doubt that all the factors are inextricably linked and all occurred due to a chain reaction, started by the issue of having to share power with the Petrograd Soviet. Once again the factors of Lenin returning and the failure of the June Offensive were also to blame, however I believe there is no one isolated reason as to why the Provisional Government collapsed in October 1917.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

C Grade Exam Answer

...but to later kill him. However in the development of Russian government I don’t think it had much importance, out of all the wars in Russian history I feel it was the revolutions in 1917 that played the most important role in the development of the Russian government. Russia involvement in world war one is a very big turning point in Russian history, it removed the tsar from power and left Russian on its knee’s as industries could not keep up with the demands of the war, many soldiers were without weapons and ammunition. But really didn't have a effect on the development of the Russian government it wasn't until the February revolution in 1917 that the development really started, it allowed the few remaining members of the duma including Kerensky to develop the provisional government, it was successful in installing a democratic government as it quickly allowed free elections and allowed legal political parties to be formed. However their freedom of speech and publishing of political materials from opposition was their downfall as it allowed the Bolsheviks to attack them, as there popularity increased the provisional government was starting to grow weak and soon ran away leaving Lenin and the Bolsheviks to take power in the October revolution, this led to the development of the communist style government that would last long after the second world war and the cold war. In conclusion the February and October revolution was the major turning point in the development of a......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Peace, Land and Bread

...their officers. By 12 March it was all over, the February Revolution had been realised. From the beginning, the Bolsheviks were dealt a weak hand. Most of the leadership was still in exile in Siberia, Trotsky was in New York and Lenin himself was stranded behind enemy lines in Switzerland. Without leadership, the Bolsheviks missed the opportunity to maintain the revolutionary spirit and the day went to the moderates, namely to Alexander Kerensky, the leader of the Socialist Revolutionaries, and to Pavel Miliukov, leader of the liberal-aligned Kadets. As millions of politically inexperienced citizens were handed control of one of the state, they elected familiar names that they knew from the pre-revolutionary times. Even amongst some Bolshevik elements that were present in Petrograd, revolutionary fraternity was strong and there was talk of backing the newly created provisional government for the sake of unity. Alarmed, Lenin wired the Bolsheviks: "Our tactic: absolute lack of confidence; no support to the new government; suspect Kerensky especially; arming of the proletariat the sole guarantee; immediate elections to the Petrograd Duma; no rapprochement with other parties." The provisional government set up a duality of power shared by the Constituent Assembly (a continuation of the State Duma), under the rule of the Kadets, and the Soviets, made up mostly of Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. The government enjoyed wide support at first, but dissatisfaction......

Words: 3171 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Asses the Reasons Why Lenin and the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in October 1917

...The Bolshevik seize of power in October 1917 was undoubtedly a turning point for Russia’s political situation and a point that would set the tone for the future rulings. It can be easily argued that the Bolsheviks were only able to take over as a result of the long term weaknesses and failures of the Provisional Government. However, as with all events in history, the final seizure in October would not have been possible had it not been for the more recent, trigger causes. The roles of Lenin and Trotsky, during the later months of 1917, were key factors in allowing the takeover to happen; and the extremely poor decisions and military leadership executed by Kerensky strengthened the Bolsheviks position for revolution. Whilst these short term causes played a major role in October, it cannot be argued that without the weaknesses of the Provisional Government, the Bolsheviks would not have been sitting in power by the end of 1917. The weakness of the Provisional Government was one the most important factors in the Bolshevik takeover in October 1917. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in March 1917, the Provisional Government, formed from some of the previous Dumas, was set up to govern Russia. The new government was weak and unstable from the start, mainly due to whom it was made up of. It was a coalition, if you could call it that, between the Liberals, the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries; and thus the new government had no unity from the start. With each part...

Words: 2132 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Main Reason for the Fall of the Provisional Government Was the Skill and Determination of Lenin in 1917?

...the weaknesses it in itself possessed. For example, the dual authority government can be seen as a weakness because it was not an elected body, and came into being as a rebellious committee of the old duma, refusing to disband at the Tsar's order. This meant it consequently lacked legitimate authority as a result. It had no constitutional claim upon the loyalty of Russian people and no natural fund of good will to rely on, meaning it was judged entirely on how it dealt with the nations problems, making it vulnerable from the start. Its second major weakness was that its authority was limited by its unofficial partnership with the Petrograd Soviet. To begin with there was considerable co-operation between the two, with some people (e.g.- Kerensky) being members of both bodies. The soviet did not set out to be an alternative government, and regarded its role as supervisory, checking that the interests of the people were fully understood by the new government. However, things changed when the Provisional Government seemed unsure of its own authority after the February revolution, resulting in the Petrograd Soviet gaining greater prominence. Soviets played an increasing important role in the development of the revolution, but the Bolsheviks- at this stage- did not dominate them. This importance and ability of the Petrograd Soviet in restricting the Provisional Governments authority was clearly revealed in its issuing of 'Soviet order number 1', meant that decrees of the......

Words: 2202 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Did the Bolsheviks Seize Power?

...the things that they wanted most of all, which was to provide food for all families, end the war to reduce Russian deaths and bring in land reform in the countryside. This was all very well advertised with the slogan ‘Peace! Bread! Land!’ created by Lenin. It appealed to all people, the soldiers who were tired of war, to the hungry workers in the town and to the poverty-stricken peasants. The Germans financed the Bolsheviks because they knew that Lenin wanted to take Russia out of the war, this gave them the money to mount their publicity campaigns. In September 1917, the army commander in chief, general Kornilov, attempted to move troops back from the front to Petrograd in order to destroy the soviets and arrest leading Bolsheviks. Kerensky was afraid that Kornilov might be planning to take power for himself so he decided to arm the Bolsheviks. Trotsky was the temporary leader of the Bolsheviks as Lenin was still in hiding after the July Days. He made sure the Kornilov plot filed by sending out Bolshevik agents to encourage Kornilov troops to desert him, They were so successful that the Commander-in chief found himself with no army before he even reached Petrograd. The Bolsheviks got all the credit for stopping Kornilov.   In 1917, the Bolsheviks had very little numbers, but they made up for this with their determination and professional approach. They were a very well organised group who valued their unity unlike the other parties and held discipline very highly. They......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sdvsfve

... | | |Formation of the Progressive Bloc…Opportunity for Nicholas II to work with them but he dismissed the idea, isolating himself | | |Feb 1917 – Octobrists demand removal of unwanted ministers | | |26th Feb – Rodzianko advises the Tsar that only major concessions would preserve the regime. Nicholas II ordered the Duma to dissolve.| | |It did but a rebellious ‘Provisional Committee’ of 12 members remained in session. Act of defiance | | |27th Feb Kerensky (SRs) called for Nicholas II to step down or be deposed | Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov) 1870 - 1924 ▪ Law graduate and Marxist ▪ Led Bolshevik wing of SDs from 1903 ▪ Returned to Russia in 1905, but in exile 1907 to 1917 ▪ April 1917 – return (German help) – April Theses ▪ Failure of July Days – exile again until October (Finland) ▪ Framer of Soviet policy in the first years of Communist power ▪ Made peace with Germany ▪ Ruthlessly suppressed opposition ▪ Founded Communist International ▪ Suffered a number of strokes 1922/23 ▪ Left no clear heir when he died in 1924 The October Revolution 1917 What problems faced the Provisional Government? Why was the Provisional Government......

Words: 7115 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Lenin’s Leadership Was the Main Reason for Why the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in 1917.

...provisional government however Kerensky saw him as a threat when kornilov ordered troops into Petrograd. Kerensky ordered his arrest and sought the aid of the Bolsheviks to insure Kornilov does not maintain power. This was a fatal area of Kerensky, as this had a negative effect on the provisional government and they lost many supporters. It also allowed the Bolsheviks to rise back to power, the Kornilov affair gave the Bolsheviks an element of power of the government as Kerensky was seeking their help and was relying on them. He made them look strong which resulted in more support for them. The greatest weakness of the provisional government was the kornilov affair as this allowed the Bolsheviks to get back on their feet and reassemble as Kerensky released a number from prison. The Bolsheviks may not have been able to gain power back without the unintentional aid of Kerensky, they may have not seized power and Lenin actually believed that after the July days a revolution in the near future was out of the question. It was due to Kerensky’s motives that allowed a successful revolution so close after the July days. In conclusion, I find that Trotsky role is the most important factor which allows the Bolsheviks to seize power as it was his thinking and clever plans which allowed this takeover to be successful unlike the previous time although I find that the Kornilov affair is also a very significant factor to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power. Kerensky made a fatal......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Why Was the Provisional Government, Set Up in Russia, 1917,so Short-Lived?

...the streets to protest and the Tauride Palace being besieged by 50,000 demonstrators. The burden of the war engulfed the masses in serious socio-economic difficulty as there were food shortages and the land situation grew ever worse. The PG failed to address this and subsequently people were drawn to Lenin’s rallying cries of “Peace,Bread,Land”. The war also put the Provisional Government at odds with the Soviets who only wanted to defend from attack on Russian frontiers. They were fiercely opposed to the agenda of gaining reparations and war indemnities. This greatly increased hostility that led to the Soviets being largely apathetic in 1917 to the fall of the PG. Yet the continuation of the war was supposed to be of benefit to Russia. Kerensky, second leader of the Provisional Government hoped that Russia would gain a monetary boon from defeated opponents that would boost Russia’s ailing economy. And anyhow, Russia was receiving loans from France and Britain on the confidence that she would continue fighting These were integral to financing the Provisional Government and if Russia declared a truce, not only would loans cease but they would have to be repaid, the cost of which would be crippling. Yet if there were sufficient economic resources to start with, the war would have been discontinued with immediate effect and the PG would have been overall far more popular with war-exhausted Russia. Another more short-term factor in the collapse of the Provisional......

Words: 1583 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

How Far Was the Provisional Government Responsible for Its Own Downfall?

...Lenin’s two main rallying cries ‘Peace, Land and Bread’ and ‘All Power to the Soviets’ were designed to both gain support for the Bolsheviks among the people and undermine the Provisional Government. ‘Peace Land and Bread’ was a popular message in Russia as it faced war and serious food shortages. As well as a highlighting the Provisional Governments support for the unpopular war, it also illustrated their failure to adequately address the land and food problems. Therefore it is suggested that it was due to Lenin that the Provisional Government collapsed. The Kornilov Affair brought about a fatal blow to the position of the Provisional Government; Kerensky panicked and feared that Kornilov was planning a military takeover, when in fact Kornilov was more concerned about a radical left-wing plot against the government. Kerensky had relied on the Bolsheviks which made them look strong and set them up as defenders of Petrograd, the Provisional Government then lost most of its authority by October 1917. Therefore the Provisional Government can be seen as responsible for its own downfall Another significant factor contributing to the downfall of the Provisional Government was their inability to tackle land reforms. The Provisional Government had control of Petrograd and other major cities, but little control of the countryside. The February Revolution had led the peasants to believe that they would soon benefit from a major land redistribution following the governments......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How Far Was the Provisional Government Responsible for Their Own Downfall?

...decision that doomed the Government to its downfall was the Prime Minister’s response to the Kornilov affair. Alexander Kerensky panicked when General Lavr Georgyerich marched into Petrograd with his armed men. Kerensky feared a military takeover but Kornilov claimed to be protecting the city against any more Bolshevik protests that had been about during the July days. In response, Kerensky released many imprisoned Bolsheviks from jail (jailed after the July Days), armed them and tasked them with defending Petrograd against the soldiers. This lack of communication between people of high command demonstrated to the people that they were not being ruled by secure and strong leaders, thus, the Government lost respect, with Kerensky losing support from the right without gaining any support from the left and discipline in the army beginning to fall at an alarming rate. This is not surprising seeing as the Government seemed to hold onto Russia in an extremely precarious fashion ; the leaders relied on the voluntary consent of their men who were quickly losing patience with the lack of change the dual power system was currently delivering. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks were portrayed as being the protectors of Petrograd which heightened their popularity and consequently armed them with weapons, given to them directly by the Government. In conclusion, the decision Kerensky made in September in the Kornilov affair seriously discredited him, it made him look weak and vulnerable while the......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Miss

...people were facing within Russia itself, although the continuation of the war ended in being a factor of its fall. No legitimate nor strong leadership was imposed within the provisional government, and therefore created attention upon the structure and organising the body itself rather than upon the issues within Russia. Prince Lvov; the leader of the provisional government had little experience with government. Lvov suffered with a lack of popularity and was not elected as leader but was just put into place after the Tsar abdicated. The Kornilov Revolt is an event which highlights the lack of support and power which the provisional government had hold of. Kerensky; also a leading member of the provisional government, attempted to assert control over events and appointed Kornilov to reassert discipline in the army. Kerensky released the Bolshevik’s from whom were in prison as a result of the July Days. They were released from prison and given weapons to fight off the SR and Mensheviks. Kerensky’s role damaged the army who were left demoralised and confused. This event had given the Bolsheviks massive support therefore being a big threat against the provisional government. Another problem and factor towards the provisional government was the land distribution. The issues with land was a massive concern for the peasants who revolted as a reaction towards these issues. They murdered and forced out the land owners in their aim to receive the land and redistribute it......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bolsheviks Seizure of Power

...for Bolshevik propaganda. The Russian situation in the war worsened and humiliating defeat began to loom. This robbed the provisional government of any popular support, and the chance to crush army dissent. In May, Kerensky was made war minister and inspired the country to support the Army in a fresh attack on the Austrians. However, this attack known as the 'June Offensive' was a failure, as a consequence, bread rations were reduced even more; rail workers went on strike as well as workers from Puetilov arms factory. Whole Russian regiments began to revolt. The government created hope among the people but there was a disastrous outcome. People started to question their judgment and turned their heads to the Bolsheviks. In the atmosphere created by the news of the failure of the offensive and the government's mounting problems, the protests of early July turned into a direct challenge to the provisional government. The provisional government blamed the small revolutionary parties and particularly the Bolsheviks for stirring unrest. The government ordered the arrest of leading Bolsheviks and those who were not captured were forced into hiding. As a result of the fears aroused by the July days the provisional government was reorganised under a new leader, Kerensky, many believed it to still be weak and growing even weaker.         Another challenge that the provisional government faced was the Kornilov affair. They were further weakened by the attempt to seize power, by......

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Russia

...The Provisional Government was reluctant to act effectively of the problems of Russia in 1917, allowing the growing popularity and strength of the Bolsheviks as they played on these mistakes. With the Bolshevik under the leadership of Lenin, they managed to create the October Revolution. Figures like Leon Trotsky and the weaknesses of Kerensky were both significant factors that led to the Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin’s role in the revolution was vital but he would have not taken power were it not for the failures of the Provisional Government, which was the most crucial factor that caused the revolution and led the Bolsheviks to power. Word count: 104 One of the key element to the success of the Bolshevik revolution was Lenin’s orating and leadership skills, personality and his determination to take power. Lenin’s April theses where he spoke of ‘Peace, Bread and Land’ increased the popularity of the Bolshevik as it reached out to the peasants who made up most of the population. The April theses was effective because it highlighted the feelings and aspiration of the workers and soldiers. The Bolsheviks pacifist stance from the very start of the war and Lenins’ promise of ‘peace’ proved a popular idea and this gained them thousands of followers. With inflation causing prices, of the food that was available, to increase Lenin’s offer of food was an immense attraction. Lenin realised the importance of the peasants for support so he promised them land to get their support. The......

Words: 2082 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Accurate Is It to Say That Lenins Leadership Was the Most Important Reason for the Bolsheviks' Success in the October R

...Government policy ‘As to land, wait until the Constituent assembly. As to Constituent assembly, wait until the end of the war, wait until complete victory. The Bolsheviks also exploited the hesitancy of the nobility’s estates to the peasantry. This won over quite a bit of support for the Bolshevik party from industrial workers. Another important failing of the opponents of the Bolsheviks was the opponent’s attitudes’ toward war. By 1917, war was extremely unpopular with the public of Russia. However, the demand for peace wasn’t met by the opponents of the Bolsheviks party. The liberals of the 1st provisional government wanted to fight until victory had been won- a policy which lead Milyukov to be forced out of the government in May 1917. Kerensky had lost a huge amount of popularity after launching the June offensive, which ruined his representation of being a peacemaker. The Bolshevik were however most committed to being opposed to war in Russia in 1917 which helped raise their popularity and increased their chances of seizing power. The Kornilov affair was another reason which contributed to the success of the October revolution. Before the Kornilov affair, the Bolsheviks were given an opportunity to seize power in the July days, but had failed to do so. This was a dark time for the Bolsheviks as this made the popularity for the provisional government rise, and Lenin was soon forced to flee to Finland. The Bolsheviks were a key opponent in defeating Kornilov’s attempted......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Soviet Union

...Tiffany Hahn Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin: As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a socialist economic system. Call to the Russian people: April Thesis (peace, food, land). Joseph Stalin: Premier of the Soviet Union. Brought about the October Rev in Russia in 1917 and held the General Secretary of the Communist Part. Stalin’s USSR entered into a non-aggression pact w/ Nazi Germany that divided their spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. Alexander Kerensky: political leader before and during the Russian Rev of 1917. Served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Gov. until Vladimir was elected. Leon Trotsky: Try to implement Marx’s vision: war communism. Founder/first leader of the Red Army. Served as People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs. Major figure in the Bolsheviks victory in the Russian Civil War. Woodrow Wilson: 14 points – no reparations, international peace keeping body (League of Nations), nationality self-determination. Socialist Revolutionaries: Key player in the Russian Rev. First-ever democratic elections. Collectivism: enforced under Stalin. Goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms. The Soviet was confident that the replacement of individual peasant farms would increase the food supply for the urban populations, supply of raw materials, and......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2