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Kecenderungan Memakai Jam

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KECENDERUNGAN MAHASISWA PRASETIYA MULYA MEMAKAI JAM TANGAN
Oleh
James Krisnanda
Business 1E
0131141066

m.k. Reading and Writing
S1 Prasetiya Mulya School of Business and Economics
2014
Sejak ribuan tahun lalu, manusia sudah mencoba untuk membuat suatu alat pengukur waktu yang bisa berfungsi secara akurat. Peradaban Mesir kuno memutuskan untuk membagi 1 hari ke dalam 12 jam. Mereka memanfaatkan obelisk, yaitu bangunan tinggi yang mempunyai empat yang sisi dan diujungnya mengkerucut seperti pyramid. Obelisk digunakan untuk menandai pergerakkan matahari. Setelah itu, mereka juga membuat jam air yang lebih mudah dibuat dan digunakan.
Kebanyakan peradaban kuno, memulai membuat alat yang bisa menunjukan waktu dengan memperhatikan benda-benda langit, seperti bulan dan matahari. Teknik ini dimulai dari daerah Mesopotamia dan Mesir. Setelah itu, kalender yang pertama kali dibuat didasari oleh pergerakan bulan dan perubahan musim. Tetapi sampai saat ini, karena peradaban megalitik tidak meninggalkan bukti-bukti yang cukup kuat, penulis hanya bisa mendapatkan data yang sedikit mengenai kalender-kalender tersebut.
Salah satu perangkat yang digunakan untuk mengukur waktu yang paling terkenal adalah menggunakan jam matahari yang diperkirakan berasal dari peradaban mesir kuno. Jam matahari berfungsi dengan memanfaatkan bayangan dari sinar matahari yang ditandai dengan patokan tertentu. Dengan memanfaatkan bayangan sinar matahari, jam matahari bisa memberikan perkiraan waktu pada saat itu. Tetapi karena teknologi yang digunakan masih sangat sederhana, pada malam hari atau dalam keadaan sinar matahari sulit untuk didapatkan, jam matahari tidak akan berfungsi.
Berdasarkan sejarah, mulainya teknologi yang mumpuni untuk membuat sebuah jam tangan berasal dari cikal bakal penemuan mainspring yang dirancang oleh seorang ahli jam bernama Peter Henlein di abad ke-16. Pada saat itu, jam yang dirancang masih bersifat mechanical. Baru pada tahun 1960 jam tangan dilengkapi dengan teknologi yang memanfaatkan getaran kristal quartz.
Asal mula kata jam berasal dari kata inggris kuno woecce yang artinya penjaga, karena pada saat itu jam dipakai untuk para penjaga gerbang suatu kota untuk mengetahui waktu kerja mereka.
Jam pertama kali dibuat untuk dikalungkan menggunakan rantai, menggunakan bahan kuningan, lalu diukir dan diberi ornament-ornamen. Jam pada saat ini belum mempunyai 2 jarum seperti jam pada saat modern seperti sekarang, jam pada saat itu hanya memiliki 1 jarum penunjuk. Jam pada saat ini sudah dilengkapi oleh mekanisme yang dirancang untuk memberikan fungsi alarm. Karena teknologinya yang masih dibilang rendah, setidaknya dalam 1 hari jam harus disetel ulang karena ketepatan detiknya yang masih belum sempurna. Seiring berkembangnya waktu, lama kelamaan bentuk jam tidak hanya bulat, tetapi sudah dikombinasikan dengan seni-seni unik, seperti jam berbentuk bintang, salib, dan lain-lain. Pada saat itu, fungsi jam kalung ini dikenakan bukan sebagai penunjuk waktu, karena akurasi mesin atau movementnya yang masih sering kacau, dimana jam tersebut belum bisa dibilang sebagai penunjuk waktu yang benar-benar akurat. Jam pada masa itu digunakan sebagai simbol perhiasan yang digunakan oleh orang-orang besar karena ornament-ornamen indah yang diukir.
Pada abad ke-17, tren menggunakan jam berubah dimana para pria mulai menggunakan jam saku tetapi para wanitanya masih menggunakan jam kalung. Hal ini disebabkan karena pada tahun 1675 Raja Charles 2 dari inggris memperkenalkan waistcoat, yaitu atasan yang menyerupai vest/rompi, popular digunakan sekitar abad 17-18 . Sehingga desain pocket watch dibuat dengan dimensi bulat supaya mudah dimasukkan ke dalam saku jubah.
Konsep jam tangan sebenarnya sudah dimulai pada tahun 1571, ketika Ratu Elizabeth 1 mendapatkan persembahan dari Robert Dudley di tahun 1571 yang dideskripsikan sebagai jam lengan. Karena pada saat itu jam tangan digunakan oleh wanita, dan para pria menggunakan jam saku. Alasan mengapa pria menggunakan jam saku adalah, karena pada saat itu teknologi yang digunakan masih rentan, sehingga jam lebih baik disimpan dalam saku sehinga lebih aman dan tidak mudah terbentur. Jam tangan baru dipakai pertama kali oleh tentara militer Inggris di akhir abad ke-19, karena pada saat itu bagi para tentara terasa sangat penting untuk mengetahui waktu secara tepat dan akurat di tengah medan peperangan. Lama-kelamaan dirasakan bahwa jam saku tidaklah efektif, karena ditengah perang seperti saat berkuda, memegang senjata dan lain-lain, para tentara tidak bisa mengambil jam di saku mereka. Maka dari itu para petinggi prajurit mulai sering mengikatkan jam di pergelangan tangan mereka. Baru pada tahun 1983 Garstin Company mulai mematenkan model jam tangan produksi pabrik mereka. Pada saat Perang Boer, pemakaian jam tangan sudah sangat umum di kalangan para petinggi militer, dan perusahaan mappin & webb menuai kesuksesan besar-besaran di bidang produksi jam tangan. Desain yang digunakan mereka secara sederhana merupakan sebuah jam tangan saku yang diberikan strap kulit sehingga bisa digunakan di pergelangan tangan. Baru di awal abad 20, jam baru benar-benar didesain sebagai jam tangan yang digunakan di tangan. Salah satu pengusaha yang memulai secara serius di bidang ini adalah Hans Wilsdorf dan Alfred Davis, yang nantinya akan mendirikan perusahaan terkenal sampai saat ini, yaitu Rolex. Jam tangan Quartz, yang dinilai sampai saat ini adalah jam tangan yang paling mudah diproduksi secara besar-besaran dan yang memiliki akurasi mesin yang paling akurat diperkenalkan pada tahun 1969. Jam ini tidak menggunakan balance wheel, atau roda penyeimbang yang merupakan bagian inti dari jam tangan mekanik, tetapi jam ini memanfaatkan getaran kristal quartz yang menghasilkan getaran 8,192 Hz. Selama tahun 1980 jam tangan yang menggunakan teknologi kristal quartz mengambil pasar jam tangan yang semua dikuasai oleh jam yang bersifat mechanical, keadaan ini disebut orang sebagai quartz crisis. Meskipun akhirnya jam mekanik masih tetap diminati oleh para penggemar jam tangan, jam quartz masih memegang dominan di pasaran. Alasan mengapa jam mekanik masih cukup diminati oleh para kalangan kelas atas adalah karena jam mekanik mempunyai prestise yang tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan jam tangan yang mengunakan teknologi kristal quartz. Selain karena harganya yang mahal, jam mekanik juga dinilai mempunyai seni tersendiri karena di dalam jam tangan model ini, semua rangkaian mesinnya merupakan murni terdiri dari gir-gir mesin, berbeda dengan jam tangan quartz yang rata-rata mempunyai mesin yang sangat sederhana berupa kumparan tembaga dan sirkuit mesin yang dihubungkan dengan baterai jam tangan.
Secara keseluruhan, jam tangan sejauh ini dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa jenis, tergantung dari kategorinya masing-masing. Yang pertama, yaitu jenis jam tangan berdasarkan tujuan dibuatnya jam tangan itu sendiri dan jenis jam tangan berdasarkan media penunjuk waktunya. Kategori yang pertama bisa dibagi menjadi 3 jenis, yaitu jam tangan fashion atau jam tangan yang memang untuk dipakai sehari-hari, jam tangan diving dan jam tangan space. Kemudian kategori yang kedua dibagi menjadi 2 jenis, yaitu jam tangan analog (jarum) dan jam tangan digital. Jam tangan yang dibuat kebanyakan adalah jam tangan jenis ini, yaitu jam tangan yang memang diperuntukkan sebagai jam tangan biasa, atau jam tangan yang digunakan untuk dipakai sehari-hari. Jam tangan ini tidak dilengkapi dengan teknologi khusus,berbeda dengan jam tangan diving dan jam tangan space. Selanjutnya jam tangan jenis space adalah jam tangan yang dilengkapi teknologi khusus, sehingga jam tangan ini bisa dipakai di lingkungan yang mempunyai gravitasi yang berbeda dengan bumi. Salah satu contohnya adalah jam tangan yang diproduksi oleh POLJOT, merek jam tangan yang dipatenkan di Jerman pada tahun 1995 yang dipakai oleh Yuri Gagarin, astronot pertama yang mendarat di Bulan pada tahun 1961. Pada tanggal 12 April 1961, jam tangan ini adalah jam tangan pertama dalam sejarah yang didesain untuk dipakai di luar angkasa. POLJOT sendiri adalah perusahaan jam tangan asal Rusia.
Jam tangan ini mempunyai beberapa sebutan, seperti jam tangan diving atau jam tangan scuba diving. Jam tangan kategori ini, harus lulus test ISO 2281, dimana jam tangan tersebut harus kedap air di kedalaman 200-250 meter.
Selanjutnya, untuk jam tangan yang dibagi berdasarkan media penunjuknya terdapat jam tangan analog dan digital. Jam tangan analog adalah jam tangan tertua yang dibuat, secara sederhana jam ini dilengkapi oleh 2 jarum penunjuk, jarum penunjuk jam dan jarum penunjuk detik. Tetapi sekarang sudah banyak jam tangan analog yang dilengkapi dengan tanggal, stopwatch, dan alarm. Jam tangan jenis analog adalah jenis jam tangan yang paling sering dilengkapi dengan perhiasan dan batu-batu berharga, dan jam tangan jenis ini adalah jam tangan yang paling banyak divariasikan. Berbeda dengan jam tangan digital yang tidak terlalu sering dibuat variasi modelnya.
Jam tangan digital adalah jam tangan yang menunjukkan waktu dengan fungsi angka secara langsung. Jam tangan digital masih bisa dibilang sangat baru bila dibandingkan dengan jam tangan analog. Jam tangan digital pertama kali dibuat pada tahun 1920an, jam tangan digital ini juga masih bersifat mekanik, dimana tampilan mukanya tidak secanggih jam tangan digital saat ini. Baru pada tahun 1970, pulsar bekerja sama dengan Hamilton Watch company membuat prototype jam tangan digital LED yang sekarang bisa kita dapatkan dengan sangat mudah.
Selanjutnya berikut penjelasan komponen-komponen yang secara rata-rata terdapat di semua jam tangan dalam Bahasa Inggris. Pertama, aperture adalah jendela kecil yang bisa terdapat di muka jam tangan yang biasanya menunjukkan tanggal, hari, dan lain-lain. Applique adalah Angka atau sImbol Romawi yang dibentuk sebagai penunjuk jam. Lalu, masuk ke dalam bagian mesin jam tangan sendiri, balance adalah komponen yang berfungsi untuk menyeimbangkan detik jam tangan kemudian rotor dan tourbillion juga memainkan peran yang penting. Rotor hanya terdapat di jam automatic. Rotor adalah lempengan besi yang berbentuk setengah lingkaran, mempunyai ujung yang tajam seperti pisau. Fungsinya adalah sebagai sumber energi untuk menggerakkan detik jam tangan. Tourbillion adalah perangkat yang berfungsi untuk mengeleminasi kesalahan-kesalahan yang mungkin terjadi saat jam diletakkan diposisi vertikal. Untuk bagian luarnya terdapat watch case, crown, dan dial. Watch case adalah lempengan besi yang berfungsi sebagai badan jam, untuk melindungi mesin dari benturan, getaran, dan debu. Crown berupa sekrup pemutar yang berfungsi untuk menyesuaikan waktu jam tangan. Dibuat dari bahan stainless stell yang permukannya diberi tekstur bergerigi agar mudah digunakan. Bagian yang cukup penting lainnya adalah dial. Dial adalah besi lempengan yang berfungsi sebagai muka jam tangan. Dial berfungsi sebagai tempat ditempelnya angka-angka, jarum penunjuk jam, dan lain-lain.
Di abad 21 ini, terdapat cukup banyak perusahaan-perusahaan raksaksa yang menguasai pasar jam tangan, kebanyakan dari perusahaan ini berasal dari Swiss dan Jepang. Perusahaan yang berasal dari Swiss antara lain adalah Tissot dan Rolex. Tissot adalah sebuah perusahaan jam yang berasal dari Swiss, didirikan pada tahun 1853. Sebagai perusahaan jam tangan Tissot terkenal karena jam tangan yang diproduksi selalu berkaitan dengan olahraga, seperti bersepeda, hoki es, circuit training, dan lain-lain. Namun pada tahun 1985, Tissot bekerja sama dengan Swatch Group, sebuah perusahaan jam tangan yang berasal dari Swiss juga. Sampai sekarang, Tissot adalah salah satu perusahaan jam tangan yang mempunyai jumlah penjualan terbesar di Swiss dan di dunia. Rolex didirikan di London pada tahun 1905 oleh Hans Wilsdorf. Dia terinspirasi untuk menciptakan sebuah jam tangan yang benar-benar tahan air dan dapat digunakan untuk beranang ataupun diving.
Desain yang dirancang oleh Hans Wilsdorf diberi nama oyster case. Oyster case ini memiliki desain screw down dan case back, sehingga bisa mencegah masuknya air ke dalam mesin jam tangan. Rolex sendiri memiliki keunikan, yaitu jam tangan Rolex bisa dirawat cukup baik selama 3-5 tahun dapat dijual lagi dengan harga jual yang bisa melibihi harga beli pada tahun sebelumnya. Hal ini disebabkan karena Rolex memiliki kualitas yang sudah tidak perlu diragukan lagi dan rata-rata Rolex dapat menaikan harga minimal 2-3kali dalam setahun. Ditambah lagi dengan desain jam tangan yang diusung Rolex memang berbau klasik. Sehingga para pecinta tangan sering kali berpendapat bahwa membeli Rolex dapat diibaratkan seperti investasi.
Selanjutnya, untuk perusahaan jam tangan yang berasal dari Jepang terdapat Casio. Casio ini adalah sebuah perusahaan elektronik yang didirikan di Jepang pada tahun 1946. Selain memproduksi jam tangna Casio sendiri juga memproduksi camera, handphone, LCD, dan lain-lain.
Keluaran produk Casio bisa dibilang cukup bervariasi, hal ini terbukti dari beberapa jenis sub-brand yang mereka keluarkan sesuai dengan karakteristik jam tangan tersebut. Seperti untuk jam tangan jenis digital, Casio mengeluarkan sub-brand G-shock, G-shock sendiri sering diklaim sebagai jam tangan terkuat di dunia karena ketangguhannya yang sudah diuji coba di seluruh dunia. G-shock dirancang dengan konsep triple 10 yaitu desain jam tangan yang tahan dijatuhkan dari ketinggian 10 meter, tahan air sampai kedalaman 10 bar (100 meter) dan daya tahan baterai 10 tahun.
Berdasarkan survei yang dilakukan secara online melalui surveymonkey.com, di dapatkan sebanyak 30 responden, yang terdiri dari 19 pria dan 11 wanita. Sebanyak 23 dari 30 responden, memakai jam tangan, dan sisanya sebanyak 7 orang tidak memakai jam tangan sama sekali. Kemudian, sebanyak 15 responden dari 23 responden yang memakai jam tangan karena fungsi jam tangan tersebut sebagai penunjuk waktu, sedangkan 8 responden memakai jam tangan karena sekadar bagian dari fashion.
Dari 7 responden yang tidak memakai jam tangan, 4 diantara mereka tidak memakai jam tangan karena memang tidak biasa memakai aksesoris di tangan, dan sisanya 3 responden memang tidak mempunyai jam tangan. Dari 23 responden yang memakai jam tangan, 20 orang dari mereka memakai jam tangan setiap hari, sedangkan 3 diantara mereka memakai jam tangan hanya kadang-kadang saja. Sebagai pertanyaan tambahan, di antara para responden yang memakai jam tangan, 19 orang diantara mereka lebih menyukai menggunakan jam tangan di tangan kiri, dan sisanya sebesar 4 orang memakainya di tangan kanan. Lalu dari 30 responden secara keseluruhan, 7 orang sudah mengeluarkan uang sebesar Rp 0 - Rp 600.000 rupiah untuk membeli jam tangan, 9 orang mengeluarkan Rp 500.000 - Rp 1.000.000 rupiah, 11 orang mengeluarkan Rp 1.000.000 – Rp 6.000.000, dan sisanya sebanyak 3 orang mengeluarkan uang lebih dari Rp 5.000.000 untuk kebutuhan membeli jam tangan mereka. Sebagai pertanyaan tambahan, 29 responden lebih memilih jam tangan analog, atau jam tangan yang masih memakai jarum, ketimbang jam tangan digital sebagai jam tangan favorit mereka.
Akhirnya berdasarkan data yang didapat, bisa disimpulkan bahwa mahasiswa Prasetiya Mulya cukup menggemari jam tangan atau arloji, yang sebenarnya bila kita perhatikan fungsi sebenarnya dari sebuah jam tangan yaitu penunjuk waktu sudah mulai digeser karena keberadaan mobile phone. Hal ini didasari pada survei sebelumnya di mana kurang lebih sekitar 70 persen dari mahasiswa Prasetiya Mulya memakai jam tangan. Hal ini didukung lagi dengan tambahan data juga dimana mahasiswa Prasetiya Mulya memang cenderung tidak tanggung-tanggung dalam mengeluarkan uang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan jam tangan mereka, dimana range harga antara Rp 1.000.000 – Rp 6.000.000 adalah yang paling banyak dipilih di survei tersebut.

Daftar Pustaka :
INTERNET

http://10mosttoday.com/10-awesome-obelisks-from-around-the-world/ Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 19.14 WIB. http://www.beaglesoft.com/maintimehistory.htm. Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 21.05 WIB. http://blog.onlineclock.net/quartz-crisis/. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember pukul 18.14 WIB.

http://www.gemnation.com/base?processor=getPage&pageName=education+watches+watchmovements. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 21.20 WIB.

http://hiro.alliancehorlogere.com/en/History/Tissot_SA. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.30 WIB. http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/000000000000000012783609/all-about-rolex/. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.34 WIB. http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/541ab57f1a9975e6148b4568/97339733gshock-warriors97339733-part-ii---part-2/. Diakses pada tanggal 7 Desember 2014 Pukul 18.44 WIB. http://www.poljot-international.com/?id=info. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.05 WIB. http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level1/gagarin.html. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.18 WIB. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/waistcoat Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 19.18WIB. http://www.webhostingreport.com/learn/casio.html. Diakses pada tanggal 7 Desember 2014 Pukul 18.33 WIB.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. http://10mosttoday.com/10-awesome-obelisks-from-around-the-world/. Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 19.14 WIB.
[ 2 ]. Ibid.
[ 3 ]. http://www.beaglesoft.com/maintimehistory.htm. Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 21.05 WIB.
[ 4 ]. Ibid.
[ 5 ]. Ibid.
[ 6 ]. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/waistcoat Diakses pada tanggal 6 Desember 2014 Pukul 19.18WIB.
[ 7 ]. http://blog.onlineclock.net/quartz-crisis/. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember pukul 18.14 WIB.
[ 8 ]. . http://www.poljot-international.com/?id=info. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.05 WIB.
[ 9 ]. http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level1/gagarin.html. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.18 WIB.
[ 10 ]. http://www.gemnation.com/base?processor=getPage&pageName=education+watches+watchmovements. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 21.20 WIB.
[ 11 ]. http://hiro.alliancehorlogere.com/en/History/Tissot_SA. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.30 WIB.
[ 12 ]. http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/000000000000000012783609/all-about-rolex/. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Desember 2014 Pukul 20.34 WIB.
[ 13 ]. http://www.webhostingreport.com/learn/casio.html. Diakses pada tanggal 7 Desember 2014 Pukul 18.33 WIB.
[ 14 ]. http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/541ab57f1a9975e6148b4568/97339733gshock-warriors97339733-part-ii---part-2/. Diakses pada tanggal 7 Desember 2014 Pukul 18.44 WIB.…...

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...Traffic jam in Palton area Trffic jam in Farmgate area Taffic Jam in Dhaka City Men have stepped on the moon. Now they are going from one place to another with few hours. But the citizens of Dhaka(sometimes) can not reach to Gulistan Jatrabari from Mohakhali or Farmgate within few hours. Who is responsible for this? Traffic Jam is that magician. Traffic jam has become a great monster in our modern life. Traffic jam has turned daily trips into nightmares. The business community inevitably suffers for the constant waste of its most precious resource of time. Others commuters complain of being stuck in jam for hours an end, while residents breathe in a lat more lead and almost 10 percent of its population seeks medical treatment each year for air pollution related respiratory illnesses. I. Drivers don’t comply with traffic rules. II. Allegations of police support to makeshift shops on footpaths and street sidelines and illegal automobile and rickshaw parking, which occupy more than a third of the streets. III. Some police officers are busy for extracting money for allowing illegal parking. IV. Lack of automatic traffic signals, slow-moving illegal rickshaws and rail crossings are also causing serious traffic jam. Many roads of Dhaka city are not spacious according to the necessity. As aresult, traffic jam occurs very now and then in the congested areas even of the highways. Overtaking tendency is another reason which causes traffic jam. Moreover, our traffic......

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...The Traffic Jam and Snug, established 1965, is truly one of Detroit's hidden treasures. Known throughout Midtown for our in-house bakery, microbrewery, and dairy, our curiously intimate multi-level dining rooms, and an eclectic menu of made-from-scratch dishes, there is simply nothing quite like The Traffic Jam. We only use the best, freshest ingredients. We know this because we make everything ourselves. Each day, our bakery turns out a new Bread of the Day, from authentic ethnic crusted rolls and vegetable breads to whole grain sourdoughs and cheese loaves. In fact, head baker Pete Waldenmeyer stopped keeping records of recipes years ago. A shamefully delicious selection of pies, cakes, and cookies are made here too, not to mention our very own hot fudge and ice cream. Our award-winning cheeses and beers are a local favorite. We actually use the same equipment for brewing beer and making cheese, and we encourage you to witness this unique process from our observation balcony. One popular lunchtime choice is our cheese platter, consisting of three of our finest cheeses, served with premium crackers, fresh berries, and house-made honey dijon mustard. On December 18, 1992, after a decade-long legal battle, the Traffic Jam became the first brew-pub in the state of Michigan. Since then, we have been brewing an uncommon, ever-changing selection of hand-crafted beers. Take, for example, the Grand Theft Pilsner, or the Java Porter. Available in 14 or 22 oz. pours, or try...

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...is able to sprint 252mph, but the citizens of Dhaka (sometimes) cannot reach few miles to Gulistan from Mohakhali or any other place to our destination place within hours. You must go out from your house before two or three hours to reach destination which is only 20 or 30 minutes required. Who is responsible for this? Traffic jam is that magician. Traffic jam has become a great monster in our modern life. Traffic congestion is not only affecting our business but the education sector as well. Students cannot do other tasks such as photocopying or collecting notes before attending class in the morning because a lot of time gets wasted on traffic congestions. It wastes lot of working hours of students as well as teachers. In many occasions, students and teachers fail to attend classes in due time. And it is more painful when students fail to reach exam halls and fails just due to a social problem. Now just think everyday how much national time is wasting, how much economical activities are losing, for the traffic congestion problem. This assignment is focusing current situation of traffic congestion problem in Dhaka city. What is Traffic jam? A traffic jam is a long line of vehicles that cannot move forward because there is too much traffic, or because the road is blocked by something. Over the last few years the traffic congestion problem of Dhaka City has visibly been deteriorating steadily. Limited resources, invested for the development of transport facilities, such as......

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Traffic Jam

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Traffic Jam

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...▪ Karen is terrified of getting up in front of people to perform or speak, while her best friend lives for the spotlight. ▪ Phil thrives under pressure and performs best when he has a tight deadline, while his co-worker, Matt, shuts down when work demands escalate. ▪ Anita enjoys helping her elderly parents. Her sister, Constance, helps out as well but finds the demands of caretaking very stressful. ▪ Richard doesn’t hesitate to send food back or complain about bad service when eating out, while his wife, Miranda, finds it much too stressful to complain. Effects of chronic stress The body doesn’t distinguish between physical and psychological threats. When you’re stressed over a busy schedule, an argument with a friend, a traffic jam, or a mountain of bills, your body reacts just as strongly as if you were facing a life-or-death situation. If you have a lot of responsibilities and worries, your emergency stress response may be “on” most of the time. The more your body’s stress system is activated, the easier it is to trip and the harder it is to shut off. Long-term exposure to stress can lead to serious health problems. Chronic stress disrupts nearly every system in your body. It can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, contribute to infertility, and speed up the aging process. Long-term stress can even rewire the brain, leaving you more vulnerable to anxiety and depression. Many health problems are......

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...Term Paper on Traffic Jam in Bangladesh TERM PAPER ON Traffic Jam in Dhaka City Prepared For Mohd. H.R. Joarder United International University Prepared By MD. Aminul Islam Ariful islam MD. Mesbahuddin Shahanaz Parvin Mou Jeenniifeerr Islam Date of submission Name of Group Members Letter of Transmittal May 5, 2012 Mohd. H.R. Joarder Faculty School of Business Administration United International University Dear Sir, It is a great pleasure for us to submit our Term papers on “Traffic Jam in Dhaka city”. It is a great opportunity for us to implement the knowledge that we have learned in our academic career to work a Term papers on “Traffic Jam in Dhaka city”. We try our level best to make this Term papers to the required standard. We hope that this report will fulfill your expectation. We therefore, hope that you would be kind enough to go through this report for evaluation Sincerely yours ------------------------- --------------------- -------------------- MD. Aminul Islam Ariful Islam Shahanaz Parvin Mou ----------------- ------------------- Jennifer Islam MD. Mesbah...

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