Premium Essay

Kaposi's Sarcoma

In: Science

Submitted By jackk885
Words 726
Pages 3
Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kaposi’s Sarcoma Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a malignant tumor of the blood and lymphatic vessels. KS is caused by the human herpes virus-8(HHV8). The disease occurs frequently in immunodeficient HIV-AIDS patients and organ donor recipients taking immune suppressant medications. KS is often a sign that HIV has progressed into AIDS. Before the HIV-AIDS epidemic, the classical case of KS was typically found in older males of Eastern European and Italian descent. The disease developed slowly in a period of about 10-15 years versus the rapid growth in immune deficient patients. KS is associated with red, purple or black lesions on the skin. Patients often complain of swelling, pain and itching from infected areas. KS can spread quickly to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, bones and other internal organs. Tumors that develop in the respiratory tract have a high rate of mortality in patients. Coughing up blood, shortness of breath and finally respiratory failure can occur. GI tumors tend to be asymptomatic but diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever and bleeding are common symptoms of the disease process. Urinary incontinence and retention have been reported. Before KS is formally diagnosed, a biopsy is performed on infected tissues. Samples are taken from lesions and examined closely under a microscope. Endoscopy is used to collect samples from the throat, stomach, lungs and intestines. Chest x-ray, CT scan, and MRI help to locate tumors that have spread into internal bones and organs. There is currently no known cure for Kaposi’s sarcoma. Several therapeutic strategies have proven effective to treat the underlying causes of the disease and relieve symptoms. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Interferon are medications that decrease the HIV viral load and boost…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Infections

...People with advanced HIV infection are vulnerable to infections and malignancies that are called 'opportunistic infections' because they take advantage of the opportunity offered by a weakened immune system. A partial list of the world's most common HIV-related opportunistic infections and diseases includes: Bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis, MAC, bacterial pneumonia and septicaemia (blood poisoning) Protozoal diseases such as toxoplasmosis, microsporidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, isopsoriasis and leishmaniasis Fungal diseases such as PCP, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and penicilliosis Viral diseases such as those caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and herpes zoster virus HIV-associated malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Different conditions typically occur at different stages of HIV infection. In early HIV disease people can develop tuberculosis, malaria, bacterial pneumonia, herpes zoster, staphylococcal skin infections and septicaemia. These are diseases that people with normal immune systems can also get, but with HIV they occur at a much higher rate. It also takes longer for a person with HIV to recover than it takes for someone with a healthy immune system. When the immune system is very weak due to advanced HIV disease or AIDS, opportunistic infections such as PCP, toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis develop. Some infections can spread to a number of different organs, which is known as 'disseminated' or......

Words: 4703 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Ewings Sarcoma

...Ewing's Sarcoma My uncle Herm was diagnosed with Ewing’s Sarcoma when he was in his mid-20s; it was found in his leg. He lived with this rare cancer for 10 years before he passed away from it. He died before I was born, so I didn’t know anything about it. Years later when I was a teenager my cousin Joe was diagnosed with the same type of cancer, he was also in his 20s. Joe’s cancer was found in his chest, he didn’t live as long with the cancer. He passed when he was only 27. Joe and I were really close, so I got interested in the type of cancer. His doctor said that it was a rare type of cancer that was hereditary to the identical. This made me very interested. Looking at pictures of Joe and my Uncle Herm you could not tell them apart. I wanted to know if it is true that Ewing’s Sarcoma is hereditary to the identical because there were two people in my family that were diagnosed with this type of cancer and they were identical. Joe never had any children, so if the cancer is hereditary to the identical then the cancer gene stopped with him. Ewing’s Sarcoma is a very rare cancer in adults; it has usually spread to other parts of the body when it is detected. Ewing’s Sarcoma is a form of bone cancer and is typically found in teenagers when they undergo growth spurts, but it can occur at any age. Ewing’s Sarcoma is very rare in adults. Ewing’s Sarcoma accounts for about one to two percent of childhood cancers. There are about 225 children and adolescents......

Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Classification of drugs | Mechanism of action | Indication | Contraindication | Intervention | Dactinomycin(actinomycin-D)Cosmegen | >Antibiotic antineoplastics | Interfere with DNA synthesis by binding to DNA prevent RNA synthesis. | To treat erwing’s sarcoma, gestational trophoblastic or whilm’s tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcoma botryoides, and testicular cancer tumors.To treat erwing’s sarcoma and sarcoma botryoides | * Infection * Recent surgery * Impaired renal failure * Recent radio therapy * Pregnancy * Bone marrow depression | * Administer vesicants only if you are highly knowledgeable with the drug. * Prepare in accordance with the manufacturer instruction * Avoid using the vein * Begin at the most distal site * D/C if suspected of extravasation | Drugs | Classification of drugs | Mechanism of action | Indication | Contraindication | Intervention | Doxorubicin hydrochlorideAdriamycin PFS,Adriamycin RDF, Rubex | >Antibiotic antineoplastics | Interfere with DNA synthesis by binding to DNA prevent RNA synthesis | To treat acute lymphocytic leukemia; bladder, breast, gastric, epithelial ovarian,or thyroid cancer, hodgkin’s lymphoma; small-cell lung carcinoma; and soft-tissue sarcoma or osteosarcoma. | * Infection * Recent surgery * Impaired renal failure * Recent radio therapy * Pregnancy * Bone marrow depression | * Administer vesicants only if you are highly knowledgeable with the drug. * Prepare in......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Tumor Causes

...Kaposi sarcoma is a tumor cause by human herpes virus, also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus. It was originally described by Moritz Kaposi, a Hungarian dermatologist practicing at the University of Vienna in 1872. It became more widely known as one of the Aids-defining illnesses in the 1980s. The viral cause for this cancer was discovered in 1994. Although KS is now well-established to be caused by a viral infection, there is a widespread lack of awareness of this even among persons at risk for KSHV/HHV-8 infection. Kaposi’s sarcoma is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without internal involvement. Four subtypes have been described: Classic KS, affecting middle aged men of Mediterranean and Jewish descent; African endemic KS; KS in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients; and Aids-related K. The erythematous to violaceous cutaneous lesions seen in the KS have several morphologies; macular, patch, plaque, nodular, and exophytic. The cutaneous lesions can be solitary, localized or disseminated. KS can involve the oral cavity, lymph nodes, and viscera. Classic KS tends to be indolent, presenting with erythematous or violaceous patches on the lower extremities. African endemic KS and AIDS- related KS tend to be more aggressive. The Aids-related KS lesions often rapidly progress to plaques and nodules affecting the upper trunk, face, and oral mucosa. The diagnosis can be made with a tissue biopsy and, if clinically indicated,......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...typically there are few or no symptoms at first, near the end of this stage many people experience fever, weight loss, gastrointestinal problems and muscle pains. Another group is those who also maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment who are known as "elite controllers" or "elite suppressors". Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is defined in terms of either a CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells per µL or the occurrence of specific diseases in association with an HIV infection. Which infections occur partly depends on what organisms are common in the person's environment. People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral induced cancers including Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer. The second most common cancer is lymphoma which is the cause of death of nearly 16% of people with AIDS and is the initial sign of AIDS in 3 to 4%. Diarrhea is another common symptom present in about 90% of people with AIDS. They can also be affected by diverse psychiatric and neurological symptoms independent of opportunistic infections and cancers. Transmission HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding . There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears,......

Words: 5105 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Cause and Effect Essay

...Cause and Effect Essay In 1981 a new disease by the name of AIDS (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome) was diagnosed. AIDS was first discovered in major coastal cities such as New York, San Francisco, Miami, and Los Angeles. The Center for disease control and prevention (CDC) published in their morbidity and mortality weekly report on June 5th 1981 a report with a description of rare cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a lung infection. Doctors from all over the United States recounted numerous similar cases as well as cases of a rare cancer known as Kaposi’s sarcoma. In these early reports it was noted that those affected were mostly gay men and intravenous drug users. It was because of this that many referred to the disease as GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). Later reports sprouted up of women, babies born to infected women, blood recipients such as hemophiliacs, as well as prostitutes and their customers all with the disease. Some children were even denied entry to school and when it was found they had the disease. When wealthy high profile victims started surfacing, the movie icon Rock Hudson for example, it was realized that AIDS is a disease that can affect anyone and is not just limited to a particular group of people. This realization set the stage for the anxiety of people toward what is now known as the Aids pandemic and put the world in a state of emergency. It is now know that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS go hand in hand.......

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Oncology Infomation System an oncologist� oncology is concerned with the diagnosis of any cancer in a person, therapy (e�g� surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other modalities), follow-up of cancer patients after successful treatment, palliative care of patients with terminal malignancies and ethical questions surrounding cancer care (wikipedia ,2009)� CANCER any malignant tumor, including carcinoma and sarcoma�it arises from the abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells that then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues� spread of cancer cells (metastasis) may occur via the bloodstream or the lymphatic channels or across body cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal spaces, thus setting up secondary tumors (metastases) at sites distant from the original tumor� each individual primary tumor has its own pattern of local behavior and spread; for example, bone metastasis is very common in breast and prostate cancer but less common in other tumors� There are probably many causative factors, some of which are known; for example, cigarette 242 smoking is associated with lung cancer, radiation with some sarcomas and leukemia, and several viruses are implicated (robert, 1999)� tyPes of cancer and caUses ANAL CANCER Cancer of the anus (the opening at the lower end of the alimentary canal through which feces are released). ) CAUSES 1� smoking cigarettes 2� receiving anal intercourse 3� abnormal openings in or around the anus (fistulas) 4� having multiple sexual partners 5� anal swelling,......

Words: 6916 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

A Universal Fight

...A Universal Fight On April 24, 1980, Ken Horne was reported to the Center for Disease Control. He was suffering from Kaposi’s sarcoma of the skin and Cryptococcus, both of which are very rare. At the end of 1981, 121 people had died from a mysterious disease similar to Horne’s. Rumors of a disease that attacked homosexual men spread across the country until the disease proved to spread among heterosexual as well as homosexual partners. On July 27, 1982, the term “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)” was proposed in Washington. Today, this is a term we all recognize and fear, but many people do not truly understand the real complexity of the issue or how it spreads and develops. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, meaning it is an RNA virus that undergoes a process called “reverse transcriptase.” This process creates a complementary strand for the RNA, together making a double-stranded line of DNA that is then inserted into the host’s genome. However, in the process of creating a complementary strand, the virus often makes small mistakes. These small mistakes are genetic mutation of the virus, leading to countless strains of the same basic virus and diminishing the hope of one overall cure. Misconceptions or ignorance of HIV and its consequences result in dramatic spread of the virus. It is common knowledge that HIV is sexually transmitted, but not quite as commonly understood that it can be spread by blood contact. Many places in the......

Words: 1354 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Autoimmune Disorders • When your own immune system attacks some part of you • Examples: Allergies HIV and AIDS • HIV cells can hook up cells with CD4 receptors , including helper T cells and some macrophages and dendritic cells • Reverse transcriptase uses viral RNA as template to form viral DNA • Viral DNA integrates with host cell’s DNA • Eventually, viral DNA becomes active, new viral RNA and proteins are produced, and the host cell is destroyed  Normal T cell count is about 600-1000/mm3. If T cell count is: > 500 - no symptoms 200 – 499 – persistent infection < 200 – AIDS – fatal infections, tumors, Kaposi’s sarcoma, pneumocystic pneumonia Treatment: • 1987 – reverse transcriptase inhibitors o example- AZT, DDI, DDC, D4T • 1994 – Protease inhibitors – interfere with enzymes that edit viral proteins • HIV cocktail - Testing:...

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Epidieomology Human Immunodeficiency Virus

...infections, fatigue, fever, diarrhea, weight loss, fungal infection of nails and malignancies (Daar & Marks, 2012). Epidemiology evidence indicates that HIV is transmitted through blood, body fluid, seminal fluid, amniotic fluid, breast milk, and vaginal secretions. HIV can be mainly transmitted by unprotected sex with an infected person, blood transfusion and sharing of infected needles among drug users, from an infected mother to the fetus and sometimes even accidental exposure in hospitals and clinics. If not treated, a person with AIDS/HIV often develops symptoms and signs of unusual infections like: tuberculosis, meningitis, encephalopathy, toxoplasmosis, oral candidates and Pneumonia. Lymphoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma are the most common HIV related malignancies. Kaposi’s sarcoma may form lesion on the skin and spreads in the mouth, intestine, and respiratory tract (Daar, Marks, Medina & Nittleman, 2012). There is no cure for AIDS or HIV but the combination therapy of antiretroviral, is used to suppress the reproduction of the virus. It is a very successful standard of care for patients who can tolerate it. It is even better to give the medications earlier in HIV infection to prevent progression to AIDS (Daar, Marks, Medina & Nittleman, 2012). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) more than 60 million people have been infected with the HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. Globally 33.4million people are infected with HIV/AIDS virus and high incidence......

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hiv Human Immunodeficiency Virus Research Paper

...these subtypes come into contact in the cell of an infected person and combine their themselves and create a new hybrid virus. Thankfully these new strains do not survive long; they are called circulating recombinant forms or CRFs. As the HIV/AIDS virus progresses more pathological agents come into play as opportunistic infections come into play, like viral infections such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, molluscum contagiosum, herpes zoster, measles. Bacterial infections include recurrent bacterial pneumoniaalso known as strep, mycobacterium tuberculosis, non-tuberculosis myocobacteriosis and systemic non-typhoid salmonella infections. Fungal infections include severe candida infection, protozoal infections, and tumors include Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary cerebral lymphoma, carcinoma of the cervix, conjunctiva and the anus. Other conditions include HIV- wasting syndrome, HIV- associated dementia, skeletal myopathy, cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension to name a few. SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS Symptoms vary depending of the stage of the infection. In the early stage known as primary or acute HIV infection people experience a flu-like symptoms illness within a month or two of infection. This stage may last a few weeks with signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches and joint pain, rash, sore throat and swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck. These symptoms may be minor and may go unnoticed but there is a large amount of the virus in the bloodstream and......

Words: 2545 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Microbiology Task 10 Fomite

...secretions, or by indirect contact i.e. when the pathogen is transferred to host by fomite or vector. Droplet transmission is another form of direct contact transmission where the pathogen is transmitted in droplet form from the respiratory tract through the air by coughing sneezing or talking. The third element is a susceptible host: This is someone who is at the risk of infection especially a person with a compromised immune system (Gladwin, & Trattler, 2011). 2. Explain what can make a potential host susceptible to infection. A compromised immune system i.e. the body does not have the ability to defend against pathogens. People with AIDS have a compromised immune system causing then to be open to opportunistic infections like Kaposi's sarcoma virus. The age of host is important also. The very young and the very old are usually more susceptible to diseases than older children and young adults .When we’re stressed, the immune system’s ability to fight off pathogens is reduced. Stress hormone corticosteroid is released and lowers the number of lymphocytes. Overall health of a person is important to fight of diseases. Eating a balanced diet and exercising helps improve immune system and hence fight infections. Pre-existing injury makes it easy for pathogens to get in the host, since there is damage in the protective barrier, e.g. broken skin allowing them access. Describe the eight sites you chose to test and explain your results for each of the sites......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hcr 220 Week 9 Final Project How Hipaa Violations Affect the Medical Billing Process

...Click below link Part One: Resources:Appendix A, Appendix C, and Table 8.3 on pp. 258–259 of Medical Insurance Refer toTable 8.3 on pp. 258–259 of your text to complete the CMS-1500 form, located in Appendix C, according to the following case study: A 67-year-old Medicare patient presents to the office, exhibiting symptoms of HIV infection. After detailed examination, symptoms are determined to be advanced AIDS with manifestation of Kaposi’s sarcoma and other opportunistic infections. Name: James Brown Account Number: 080811 Insurer: Medicare Policy Number: 1098765 ID number: 12345678910 DOB: 02/01/1940 Gender: Male Insured: James Brown Address: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Wash. D.C. 60000 Marital Status: Widowed Patient’s Employer: Retired Nature of Condition: HIV, AIDS, Kaposi’s sarcoma Date of Illness: 06/01/2007 Referring Physician: Thomas Glassman, M.D. Physician ID: 1080808080 Federal Tax ID: 5551116679 Dates of Service: 06/01/2007, 06/15/2007, 07/07/2007, 08/01/2007 Procedure: Detailed examination, screening blood panel, pathology services Patient Signature Include ICD (categories only), CPT, HCPCS, and insurance information. If you believe there is insufficient information provided to fill a required field with data, indicate this by typing N/A. Post the completed CMS-1500 form as an attachment. Final Project: How......

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...of diseases. It causes roseola (a viral disease causing high fever and a skin rash in small children) and a variety of other illnesses associated with fever in that age group. This infection accounts for many of the cases of convulsions associated with fever in infancy (febrile seizures). Human herpes virus 7 Human herpes virus 7 (HHV7) is even more recently observed and is closely related to HHV6. Like other human herpes viruses, HHV6 and HHV7 are so common that most of humankind has been infected at some point, usually early in life. HHV7 can also cause roseola, but it is not clear what other clinical effects that this virus causes. Human herpes virus 8 Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) was recently discovered in the tumours called Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). These tumours are found in people with AIDS and are otherwise very rare. KS forms purplish tumours in the skin and other tissues of some people with AIDS. It is very difficult to treat with medication. HHV8 may also cause other cancers, including certain lymphomas (lymph node cancers) associated with AIDS. The fact that these cancers are caused by a virus may explain why they tend to occur in people with AIDS when their immune systems begin to fail. The discovery also provides new hope that specific treatments for these tumours will be developed that target the virus....

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hiv in Youth cured and if not cured how well is it managed, We will also look at the beginning of the diseases life, what demographics are the most affected, the future of the disease and how much as a global community we have spent to combat (HIV). History (HIV) was first clinically observed in its most advanced form as Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome better known as (AIDS) IN 1981. The first cases were a cluster of people who were using drugs intravenously and gay men with no known causes of impaired immunity showed symptoms of a rare and opportunistic pneumonia infection that presents itself when the immune system is compromised. Not too long after gay men started to develop Kaposi’s sarcoma a rare form of skin cancer. There were starting to be more and more cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumonia popping up all over the country. The spike in cases caused the Center for Disease Control (CDC) to form a task force. In the beginning the (CDC) did not have a name for the disease, the (CDC) often referred to it by associated diseases for example, lympadenopathy the original name of (HIV). The general media had coined the term GRID which stood for Gay Related Immunodeficiency Disease. The (CDC) had used the term the 4H disease, The (CDC) came up with this name by assessing the demographics that were most affected by the disease. Those four groups were the, Haitians, homosexuals, heroin users, and hemophiliacs. Origin The disease is......

Words: 1165 - Pages: 5