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Jonjonjon

In: Business and Management

Submitted By lightfoot18
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Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 2
One Japanese manufacturer, by installing a flexible manufacturing system, has reduced the number of machines in one facility from 68 to 18, the number of employees from 215 to 12, space requirements from 103000 square feet to 30000 and processing time from 35 days to a 1.5 days.
“Ford has poured $4,400,000 into overhauling its Torrence Avenue plant in Chicago, giving it flexible manufacturing capability. This will allow the factory to add new models in as little as two weeks instead of two months or longer. The flexible manufacturing systems used in five of Ford Motor Company's plants will yield a $2.5 billion savings. By the year 2010, Ford will have converted 80 percent of its plants to flexible manufacturing.”
(www.ford-motorcompany.com)
Looking at local FMS systems, we have Nissan in Sunderland and Greggs in Longbenton. Both these companies have fantastic FMS systems, with virtually no human input, loading- manufacture-unloading is all completed by FMS, this removes the need for human input, which greatly improves quality and output.
There are more benefits to FMS, using humans for repetitive work can be dangerous for the body, fatigue is a large part in human operation and if done for long periods of time (i.e. a 10-20 years of work) the human body begins to shut down, creating problems such as arthritis and repetitive strain injury.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 2
One Japanese manufacturer, by installing a flexible manufacturing system, has reduced the number of machines in one facility from 68 to 18, the number of employees from 215 to 12, space requirements from 103000 square feet to 30000 and processing time from 35 days to a 1.5 days.
“Ford has poured $4,400,000 into overhauling its Torrence Avenue plant in Chicago, giving it flexible manufacturing capability. This will allow the factory to add new models in as little as two weeks instead of two months or longer. The flexible manufacturing systems used in five of Ford Motor Company's plants will yield a $2.5 billion savings. By the year 2010, Ford will have converted 80 percent of its plants to flexible manufacturing.”
(www.ford-motorcompany.com)
Looking at local FMS systems, we have Nissan in Sunderland and Greggs in Longbenton. Both these companies have fantastic FMS systems, with virtually no human input, loading- manufacture-unloading is all completed by FMS, this removes the need for human input, which greatly improves quality and output.
There are more benefits to FMS, using humans for repetitive work can be dangerous for the body, fatigue is a large part in human operation and if done for long periods of time (i.e. a 10-20 years of work) the human body begins to shut down, creating problems such as arthritis and repetitive strain injury.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 2
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories. The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types, and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. The second category is called routing flexibility, which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability.

Most FMS consist of three main systems. The work machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow. The main advantages of an FMS is its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production.
Advantages
Reduced manufacturing cost
Lower cost per unit produced,
Greater labour productivity,
Greater machine efficiency,
Improved quality,
Increased system reliability,
Reduced parts inventories,
Adaptability to CAD/CAM operations.
Shorter lead times
An Industrial Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) consists of robots, Computer-controlled Machines, Numerical controlled machines (CNC), instrumentation devices, computers, sensors, and other stand-alone systems such as inspection machines. The use of robots in the production segment of manufacturing industries promises a variety of benefits ranging from high utilization to high volume of productivity. Each Robotic cell will be located along a material handling system such as a conveyor or automatic guided vehicle. The production of each part or work-piece will require a different combination of manufacturing cell. The movement of parts from one cell to another is done through the material handling system. At the end of part processing, the finished parts will be routed to an automatic inspection cell, and subsequently unloaded from the Flexible Manufacturing System.
A Load/unload station is the physical interface between an FMS and the rest of the factory. It is the place where raw work parts enter the system and finished parts exit the system. Loading and unloading can be accomplished either manually (the most common method) or by automatic handling systems. The load/unload stations should be ergonomically designed to permit convenient and safe movement of work parts. Mechanized cranes and other handling devices are installed to assist the operator with the parts that are too heavy to lift by hand. A certain level of cleanliness must be maintained at the workplace, and air houses and other washing facilities are often used to flush away chips and ensure clean mounting and locating points. The station is often raised slightly above the floor level using as open-grid platform to permit chips and cutting fluid to drop through the openings for subsequent recycling or disposal.
Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 2
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories. The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types, and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. The second category is called routing flexibility, which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability.

Most FMS consist of three main systems. The work machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow. The main advantages of an FMS is its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production.
Advantages
Reduced manufacturing cost
Lower cost per unit produced,
Greater labour productivity,
Greater machine efficiency,
Improved quality,
Increased system reliability,
Reduced parts inventories,
Adaptability to CAD/CAM operations.
Shorter lead times
An Industrial Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) consists of robots, Computer-controlled Machines, Numerical controlled machines (CNC), instrumentation devices, computers, sensors, and other stand-alone systems such as inspection machines. The use of robots in the production segment of manufacturing industries promises a variety of benefits ranging from high utilization to high volume of productivity. Each Robotic cell will be located along a material handling system such as a conveyor or automatic guided vehicle. The production of each part or work-piece will require a different combination of manufacturing cell. The movement of parts from one cell to another is done through the material handling system. At the end of part processing, the finished parts will be routed to an automatic inspection cell, and subsequently unloaded from the Flexible Manufacturing System.
A Load/unload station is the physical interface between an FMS and the rest of the factory. It is the place where raw work parts enter the system and finished parts exit the system. Loading and unloading can be accomplished either manually (the most common method) or by automatic handling systems. The load/unload stations should be ergonomically designed to permit convenient and safe movement of work parts. Mechanized cranes and other handling devices are installed to assist the operator with the parts that are too heavy to lift by hand. A certain level of cleanliness must be maintained at the workplace, and air houses and other washing facilities are often used to flush away chips and ensure clean mounting and locating points. The station is often raised slightly above the floor level using as open-grid platform to permit chips and cutting fluid to drop through the openings for subsequent recycling or disposal.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems

As with any business decision, there are pros and cons to installing, automated robotic systems into the workplace, the list below shows a list of advantages and disadvantages.
The Advantages of Industrial Robots
Quality: Industrial automated robots have the capacity to dramatically improve product quality. Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. This level of consistency can be hard to achieve any other way.
Production: With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production. Because an automated robot has the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, holiday or even illness, it has the potential to produce more than a human worker. Also, manufacturing robots provide better quality parts. For example, an arc welding robot provides high quality weld seams, making the weld strong and the part more durable. Because of high repeatability, reworking time is nearly eliminated when using manufacturing robots. A human could not offer the exact same weld each time.
Safety: Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles where they no longer have to perform dangerous tasks in hazardous areas.
Savings: Improved worker safety leads to financial savings. There are fewer healthcare and insurance concerns for employers. Automated robots also offer untiring performance which saves valuable time. Their movements are always exact, minimizing material waste.
Reduced Costs: Industrial manufacturing robots do not require an hourly wage. Other than the cost of maintenance, a company pays for a manufacturing robot once. The initial cost of an industrial manufacturing robot can seem expensive, but the return on investment can quickly be realized after implementation. A company can expect a return investment on their industrial manufacturing robot in six months to one year.
The Disadvantages of Industrial Robots:
Expense: The initial investment to install automated robotics into your business is very high, especially when business owners are limiting their purchases to new robotic equipment. The cost of robotic automation should be calculated in light of a business' greater financial budget. Regular maintenance needs can have a financial issue as well.
Return on Investment: Incorporating industrial robots does not guarantee results. Without planning, companies can have difficulty achieving their goals.
Expertise: Employees will require training program and interact with the new robotic equipment. This normally takes time and financial output.
Safety: Safety is one of the most important things to think about when considering robotic industrial automation. Manufacturers need to think not only about how their workers will be able to function around the robot being integrated, but also about how the robot can raise the level of safety for the workers in the shop.
Quality: Since robots are not intelligent or have a brain for themselves, robots can never improve the results of their jobs outside of their predefined programming.
As you can see by this comparison of advantages and disadvantages, there are more advantages to installing robots in a work place, which is thinking of introducing an automated system, therefore, I believe, that we should introduce a system at Responsive Engineering. A self-sufficient system producing the valves that we have on order will complete the items far quicker than our typical workforce. This in turn saves money, makes the customer far happier with the quicker turn around, and hopefully secures more work in the future.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems

As with any business decision, there are pros and cons to installing, automated robotic systems into the workplace, the list below shows a list of advantages and disadvantages.
The Advantages of Industrial Robots
Quality: Industrial automated robots have the capacity to dramatically improve product quality. Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. This level of consistency can be hard to achieve any other way.
Production: With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production. Because an automated robot has the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, holiday or even illness, it has the potential to produce more than a human worker. Also, manufacturing robots provide better quality parts. For example, an arc welding robot provides high quality weld seams, making the weld strong and the part more durable. Because of high repeatability, reworking time is nearly eliminated when using manufacturing robots. A human could not offer the exact same weld each time.
Safety: Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles where they no longer have to perform dangerous tasks in hazardous areas.
Savings: Improved worker safety leads to financial savings. There are fewer healthcare and insurance concerns for employers. Automated robots also offer untiring performance which saves valuable time. Their movements are always exact, minimizing material waste.
Reduced Costs: Industrial manufacturing robots do not require an hourly wage. Other than the cost of maintenance, a company pays for a manufacturing robot once. The initial cost of an industrial manufacturing robot can seem expensive, but the return on investment can quickly be realized after implementation. A company can expect a return investment on their industrial manufacturing robot in six months to one year.
The Disadvantages of Industrial Robots:
Expense: The initial investment to install automated robotics into your business is very high, especially when business owners are limiting their purchases to new robotic equipment. The cost of robotic automation should be calculated in light of a business' greater financial budget. Regular maintenance needs can have a financial issue as well.
Return on Investment: Incorporating industrial robots does not guarantee results. Without planning, companies can have difficulty achieving their goals.
Expertise: Employees will require training program and interact with the new robotic equipment. This normally takes time and financial output.
Safety: Safety is one of the most important things to think about when considering robotic industrial automation. Manufacturers need to think not only about how their workers will be able to function around the robot being integrated, but also about how the robot can raise the level of safety for the workers in the shop.
Quality: Since robots are not intelligent or have a brain for themselves, robots can never improve the results of their jobs outside of their predefined programming.
As you can see by this comparison of advantages and disadvantages, there are more advantages to installing robots in a work place, which is thinking of introducing an automated system, therefore, I believe, that we should introduce a system at Responsive Engineering. A self-sufficient system producing the valves that we have on order will complete the items far quicker than our typical workforce. This in turn saves money, makes the customer far happier with the quicker turn around, and hopefully secures more work in the future.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 1
There are three main types of industrial robot, these range from low cost basic models, through to high cost, very complex editions.
First we have CARTESIAN style, this is the most basic of robots. The first kind of robots to be made, they have three functions; linear, horizontal and vertical. The most common application for this type of robot is a computer numerical control machine (CNC machine) or 3D printing. The simplest application is used in milling and drawing machines where a pen or router translates across an x-y plane while a tool is raised and lowered onto a surface to create a design. Pick and place machines and plotters are also based on the principal of the Cartesian coordinate robot. High-speed pick and place robots take product from one location to another with pinpoint accuracy.

Secondly we have Scara style robots. SCARA stands for Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm. A SCARA robot has a full range of motion on its X and Y axis but is bolted down and unable to move in the Y axis. It can be programed to perform precise jobs repetitively, such as installing a pin or carrying items from one location to another within its range of motion. In the field of robotics, the SCARA is considered more affordable than many of its competitors and is one of the most popular methods of automated assembly. It is designed to mimic the action of a human arm and can be used in jobs from automobile factories to underwater construction. SCARA robots are considered one of most important developments in assembly line technology because of their range of motion, speed and precision. By copying the movements of the arm, elbow and wrist, the SCARA performs many tasks in a fraction of the time it would take a human. Whether constructing something intricate, such as a computer motherboard or something large like the frame of a truck, this tool helps increase production and lower costs because of its efficiency.

ROBOTIC ARM (6 Axis +) are probably the most easily recognized industrial robot arm. Even seen in press releases and adverts like the Nissan advert a few years ago. These robots carry out assigned tasks based on movement routes programmed into a computer. These are again far more advanced than the SCARA robots we have just looked at. Typically, these robots appear to be no more than a robotic arm or set of arms that perform functions such as welding, cutting, picking, or materials placement along an assembly line. Manufacturing environments involving overly repetitive tasks, hazardous materials, or unsafe conditions are the ideal environments for assembly robots. This type of robot seems to be much more costly, however they are far more heavy duty used in car manufacturing facilities around the world. An articulated robot is a robot which is fitted with rotary joints. Rotary joints allow a full range of motion, as they rotate through multiple planes, and they increase the capabilities of the robot considerably. An articulated robot can have one or more rotary joints, and other types of joints may be used as well, depending on the design of the robot and its intended function. With rotary joints, a robot can engage in very precise movements. Articulated robots usually show up on manufacturing lines, where they use their flexibility to bend in a variety of directions. Multiple arms can be used for greater control or to complete multiple tasks at once, for example, rotary joints allow robots to do things like turning back and forth between different work areas.
There are many other different robots on the market such as; redundant arm, dual arm, welding arm, material handling, painting arm etc etc. However these would not be ideal for our company.
Looking at the different options there are on the market, I feel for us to build a new automated section complete with new cnc milling machines and automated robots to produce the large batch of safety valves we may having coming through. That we should consider using SCARA type robots, they will give us the ideal movement we need to swap each job from machine to machine, they are relatively low cost and require low maintenance. They are generally smaller in size, however they are more than capable of moving the projected items as they only weigh approximately .7 kg’s
Again with the robots being smaller in size this will give us less floor print space for the new section, meaning we can fit in more machines. Or we can use the space for other job related operations, such as inspection/assembly/ packing area.

Industrial Robots and Engineering systems
Task 1
There are three main types of industrial robot, these range from low cost basic models, through to high cost, very complex editions.
First we have CARTESIAN style, this is the most basic of robots. The first kind of robots to be made, they have three functions; linear, horizontal and vertical. The most common application for this type of robot is a computer numerical control machine (CNC machine) or 3D printing. The simplest application is used in milling and drawing machines where a pen or router translates across an x-y plane while a tool is raised and lowered onto a surface to create a design. Pick and place machines and plotters are also based on the principal of the Cartesian coordinate robot. High-speed pick and place robots take product from one location to another with pinpoint accuracy.

Secondly we have Scara style robots. SCARA stands for Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm. A SCARA robot has a full range of motion on its X and Y axis but is bolted down and unable to move in the Y axis. It can be programed to perform precise jobs repetitively, such as installing a pin or carrying items from one location to another within its range of motion. In the field of robotics, the SCARA is considered more affordable than many of its competitors and is one of the most popular methods of automated assembly. It is designed to mimic the action of a human arm and can be used in jobs from automobile factories to underwater construction. SCARA robots are considered one of most important developments in assembly line technology because of their range of motion, speed and precision. By copying the movements of the arm, elbow and wrist, the SCARA performs many tasks in a fraction of the time it would take a human. Whether constructing something intricate, such as a computer motherboard or something large like the frame of a truck, this tool helps increase production and lower costs because of its efficiency.

ROBOTIC ARM (6 Axis +) are probably the most easily recognized industrial robot arm. Even seen in press releases and adverts like the Nissan advert a few years ago. These robots carry out assigned tasks based on movement routes programmed into a computer. These are again far more advanced than the SCARA robots we have just looked at. Typically, these robots appear to be no more than a robotic arm or set of arms that perform functions such as welding, cutting, picking, or materials placement along an assembly line. Manufacturing environments involving overly repetitive tasks, hazardous materials, or unsafe conditions are the ideal environments for assembly robots. This type of robot seems to be much more costly, however they are far more heavy duty used in car manufacturing facilities around the world. An articulated robot is a robot which is fitted with rotary joints. Rotary joints allow a full range of motion, as they rotate through multiple planes, and they increase the capabilities of the robot considerably. An articulated robot can have one or more rotary joints, and other types of joints may be used as well, depending on the design of the robot and its intended function. With rotary joints, a robot can engage in very precise movements. Articulated robots usually show up on manufacturing lines, where they use their flexibility to bend in a variety of directions. Multiple arms can be used for greater control or to complete multiple tasks at once, for example, rotary joints allow robots to do things like turning back and forth between different work areas.
There are many other different robots on the market such as; redundant arm, dual arm, welding arm, material handling, painting arm etc etc. However these would not be ideal for our company.
Looking at the different options there are on the market, I feel for us to build a new automated section complete with new cnc milling machines and automated robots to produce the large batch of safety valves we may having coming through. That we should consider using SCARA type robots, they will give us the ideal movement we need to swap each job from machine to machine, they are relatively low cost and require low maintenance. They are generally smaller in size, however they are more than capable of moving the projected items as they only weigh approximately .7 kg’s
Again with the robots being smaller in size this will give us less floor print space for the new section, meaning we can fit in more machines. Or we can use the space for other job related operations, such as inspection/assembly/ packing area.…...

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