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John Rawls Thoery

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1. Shaw and Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe each and use examples.
Shaw and Barry distinguish these two forms, act utilitarianisms and rule utilitarianism. Act Utilitarian is a form “to have a rights, then, is... to have something which society ought to defend me in the possession of” (P. 109), they believe the action that can bring happiness for most of the people. For example, banning on drug can bring happiness among large number of people. Banning on drug has more positive points than negative so when the action holds the maximum of happiness is a form of act utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarian, is “identifies as rights are certain moral rules, the observance of which is of the utmost importance for the long run, overall maximization of happiness” (P.110). This rule based on morally not to hurt mankind, do not interfere with each other’s freedom and promote well being in the society.

2. What do economists mean by the "declining marginal utility of money"?
Utilitarian tend to favor greater inequality of income goes back to what economist would call the declining marginal utility of money. (P. 112) It mean that utilitarian want more worker participation and more equal distribution. For example utilitarian will vote to democratic. Because they want to promote social well being for more people. They want to see equality in society.

3. Robert Nozick presents his entitlement theory as a function of three basic principles. What are these three basic principles?
• The first principle of Noziks’s entitles theory concern the original acquisition of holdings- that is, the appropriation of unheld goods or the creation of new goods.
• Nozick’s second principle concerns transfers of already-owned goods from one person to another.
• Nozcik’s third and final principle state that one can justly acquire a holding only in accord with the two principles previously discussed. If you come by holding in some other way your are not entitle to it. (P. 114-115)…...

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