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Introduction A threateningly armed political authority has established its roots in the Middle East. In June 2014, the Islamic State which sometimes calls itself the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) or the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Shram (ISIS) announced its establishment on the world politics (Lister, 2014). The organization is led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi who declared himself the Caliph. On his announcement, al-Baghdadi assumed the title of the Commander of the faithful Caliph Ibrahim II. Islamic State aspires to unite all Muslims in one state. According to the jihadists, this is only possible through a caliphate in which ISIS is closest to achieving. The difficulty of the formation of the caliphate is the harsh opposition the group obtains from the Shias who are a fifth of all the Muslims. Such oppositions had already been observed in the history of Islamic schism (Lister, 2014). ISIS ideological appeal has worked in its favor to recruit its fighters all over the world. The strategy has also resulted to some supports from Muslim countries such as Pakistan. Nonetheless, the group has unspeakable violence majorly directed to Christians and the Shias. This paper conducts an in-depth analysis of the Islamic State regarding its evolution, modus operandi in terms of its operations and recruitment. The paper then assesses the impacts and threats of the group not only in the Middle East, but also world-wide. Literature Review The Islamic State has made great advances in both Iraq and Syria. It has captured significant cities, military armaments, weapons and oil refineries. With the recent proves that it is capable of being a sub-state actor, the terror group places a critical challenge to the stability of the Middle East and of the world in general (Tucker, 2014). The Islamic State (IS) has a goal to establish a transitional Islamic state (Caliphate) that would rule over the borders of Europe established in the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement. The caliphate will use Shariah law and will be under a caliph considered to be Prophet Muhammad’s political authority. The Islamic State announced the initial restoration of the caliphate with al-Baghdadi becoming the self-proclaimed Caliph as Ibrahim II. Baghdadi’s “real” name-Ibrahim II was to show his lineage to a former Ottoman rule (1640-1648), Caliph Ibrahim I. The territories taken by IS has life similar to conventional state governments. Similar to state governments IS builds and maintains infrastructure, power-lines, roads, post offices, religious schools (Glint, 2014). The terror group as well has consumer protection agency and the police force. A significant part of the governance is the social service segment in which they assist in running bread factories and give out grocery to the public (Tucker, 2014). The group has plans to kill all Americans and Israelis. This is a similar the thoughts laid out by al-Qaeda being that the Islamic State evolved from the al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). The actual number of its fighters is unknown. However, the group is majorly composed of Baathists, Sunnis and other moderate Islamic groups. Moreover, several foreigners have joined the group via the porous Turkish-Syrian border (Glint, 2014). The Islamic State is known to be a centralized terror organization with that applies a coherent top-down leadership. The group applies a robust social media campaign in order to solicit donation. It also uses social networking sites to recruit its fighters. The fighters are armed with mortars, propelled grenades and small arms. Recently, the group acquired advanced weapons. The success of the group is associated to the incompetence of the Iraqi military, the instability of Syria and Sunni alienation (Tucker, 2014).
This in-depth analysis traces the evolution of the current Islamic State from al-Qaeda to become what it is today. It determines the point of separation of the group from the parent al-Qaeda.. The paper then identifies the manner in which ISIS operates and the ideologies that it holds. Moreover, the paper identifies the organizational structure of the group and finds out the persons that occupy the positions given out in the structure. In order to remain strong a terror group must have a reliable source of funds. This paper describes the major sources of funds for the group and finds out there sustainability. The paper then describes the Islamic States’ recruitment process. This includes the tactics it uses to lure its fighters. The paper concludes by identifying the major impacts of ISIS n Middle East. It as well finds the effects of ISIS operations in the Southeast Asia in which it narrows down to China. Discussion
The Evolution of Islamic State The present Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sharam (ISIS) was founded by Abu Musab alZarqawi. The founder first link with al-Qaeda was in 2000 during his meeting with Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. The meeting was to discuss ways that the duo would establish al-Tawhid al-Jihad that would focus its activities on overthrowing the Jordanian government. In 2002, Al-Zarqawi successfully avoided the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-led inversion on Afghanistan by relocating to Iran and later to Iraq (Glint, 2014). At the request of al-Qaeda, he started facilitating the movements of his military forces into Iraq to fight the NATO-led coalition. Despite his forces fighting alongside al-Qaeda, al-Zarqawi did not swear allegiance to al-Qaeda until 2004. Since then, the relationship between al-Qaeda and al-Zarqawi forces strengthened leading to the change of the name of its forces to Tanzim Qa-idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn. It was commonly called al-Qaeda in Iraq or AQI. After the death of al-Zarqawi in 2006, AQI formed Mujahidin Shura Council (MSC) and changed its name to Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). ISI was commanded by Abu Umar al-Baghdadi. However, after the death of its founder, ISIS’s relationship with al-Qaeda was affected by ideological differences. Al-Qaeda argued that ISI brutal and indiscriminate tactics were isolating the two organizations from the Iraqi public support. In 2013, the ISI leader announced the expansion of its group to Syria leading to the official change of name from Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) to Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (Levant) (ISIS or ISIL). Al-Nusrah Front leader argued that he was not consulted on the establishment of ISIS and rejected al-Baghadi’s claim. He continued his allegiance to al-Qaeda leadership rather than ISIS. In several occasions, the two rival groups fought one another with every group solidifying breaks and targeting forces from the opposing organization. The deterioration of the relationship reached its peak in 2013 when the ISI leader Abu Umar al-Baghdadi claimed that al-Nusra Front was under his command an issue which was largely rejected by Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani. Unlike al-Baghdadi, Al-Jawlani had direct allegiance to al-Qaeda. Consequently, al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri tried to mediate by supporting al-Jawlani group as the official al-Qaeda branch in Syria. Despite the advances, ISIS continued its operations in Syria and even attacked some members of al-Nusrah Front. The 2013 development led to official denouncement of ISIS by al-Qaeda on February 2014. The United States in 2012 claimed that Iran has continuously funded ISIL (al-Qaeda in Iraq). However, the report lacked dates and evidence to corroborate its claim. Nonetheless, Iran’s collaboration with ISIL has been their common opposition against the US’ involvement in the Middle East politics. In fact, in 2001, when the al-Zarqawi was fleeing from the NATO-led forces, Iran provided him with a safe landing haven. However, ISIL support from Iranian authority has deteriorated with Iran advocating for military action against them. This was brought by the group’s activities in Iraq. Since the establishment of post-Saddam government, ISIL has attempted several ways to overthrow the Iraqi authority and drive away the US forces out of Iraq. The main intent is to create an Islamic state in Iraq. Their clash with government-loyal forces has led to several campaigns against them. Although, the group has for a long time being the US enemy, they have tactfully avoided attacking the US at home but its forces in Iraq. Apart from the US, Iraqi forces and Iran, ISIL faces opposition from the 1920s Revolutionary Brigades. The Brigades mitigates the influence of ISIL in Middle East in order to expel them from the region (Glint, 2014). ISIL has continuously focused its activities in unstable countries to enforce its authority. The Arab revolution that resulted in rebellion against Assad-led government gave ISIL the best opportunity to campaign against the Syrian authority. It has gained notoriety for its brutal tactics such as decapitations and shariah law enforcement in location they have succeeded to gain territory (Friedland, 2014). The group has also used different tactics against Islamic coalitions that are advocating overthrowing the Syrian regime. Since its establishment in Syria, the group has clashed with other rebel groups resulting to the assassination of the Free Syrian Army commander. Such disagreements have led to the denouncement of ISIS by a number of Syrian active groups such as Jaish al-Mujahedin, Islamic Front, and the Syrian Revolutionaries Front. ISIS has also targeted its operations on Lebanon due to Hezbollar’s engagement in the Syrian Crisis. This has led to the spill of violence across the Syrian-Lebanese border (Friedland, 2014). Despite having created enemies with groups that fight the same course, ISIS is believed to have a close support from the Tunisian faction of Ansar al-Sharia and Jamaat Ansar Bayt al-Maqdisi. In addition, it is argued that ISIS has been supported in several occasions by the local Sunni communities led by Nouri Maliki (Friedland, 2014).
ISIS Operations The operations of ISIS are within the Salfist-Jihadism. According to this ideology, there is no distinction between state and religion. Decisions are made through interpretation of Islamic law (sharia) which is viciously enforced in territories controlled by the group. Its ideology is almost similar to those held by Taliban and al-Qaeda. The differences with these groups are the conditions required to develop a caliphate and its timing. ISIS believes in returning to the supposedly pure form of Islam as was established by its founder Prophet Mohamed. The group rejects later innovation into the religion as un-Islamic. It also proclaims their victims who deviate from the interpretations as heretics (takfir). Heretics have death penalty (Friedland, 2014). ISIS’ short-term goal is to expand and consolidate its territory in Syria and Iraq. Once the short-term goal has been achieved, the group’s next state involves its advancement to the neighbouring Sunni countries. This places Jordan and Saudi Arabia as the next target. The two countries have large number of discontented young adults. They are also authoritarian monarchies that breed an ample ground for their instability in the near future. The advancement of ISIS in this manner keeps its current practical approach of power consolidation in proximate territory in order to establish a defensible and manageable state. Eventually, ISIS aims at having total world domination (Friedland, 2014).
ISIS has majorly precipitated the secretarian war between Shiites and Sunis. This has been accomplished through killing of civilian Shiites wherever and whenever it can. This methodology is applied as they view the Shiites as heretics who deserve to die. The tactic is also to anger the Shiites against the Sunnis who will run for ISIS assistance (Friedland, 2014). ISIS is led by Abu Bakr al-Bagdadi who has declared himself the caliph of the group’s territory. During his declaration, al-Baghdadi exhorted all Muslims in the world to obey him. The caliph has a cadre of advisors military commanders and ministers that help him in running the caliphate. The group is managed by complicated hierarchy of commanders of whom each has a specific responsibility (Friedland, 2014). Al-Baghdadi has two deputies, one for Iraq and another for Syria. The caliph is advised by ministers who have clearly demarcated responsibilities. The major ministry in the caliphate includes security, treasury, transport and prisoners. It also has a ministry that looks at the requirement of foreign jihadists (Friedland, 2014). A specialized war office is established to manage the technicalities and logistics of war. Al-Baghdadi has ruled its caliphate through delegation of responsibilities and on the skills of his subordinates. A number of his officers had served in high-ranking positions in the Saddam Hussein’s military with others having high level technical expertise. The ISIS expertise is mirrored in its all levels of war machine. ISIS has about 1,000 commanders with salaries ranging from $ 300 to $ 2000 per month depending on their responsibilities (Friedland, 2014). Down the leadership hierarchy, every province under the caliphate has its own governor who administers in the region. ISIS spends a lot of energy in establishing infrastructures and institution in the addition to their military advocacy. As they intend to govern their territories they argue that they have to offer services to the population. Since it conquered Raqqa, ISIS has declared it as the de facto capital (Friedland, 2014). Raqqa is mandated to run education, healthcare and keep order in public. The group is aware that for it to build a caliphate it must gain the submission of the governed even if it is for a certain extent. In addition, the Islamic States has courts operating under the sharia law. It enforces gender segregation forcing women to wear burqa in public. In order to ensure that the governed abide by sharia law, the morality police (Hisbah) patrol around the streets of its territory. The police also enforce the banning of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Punishment ranges from flogging, amputation to death. At Raqqa, ISIS has publicly crucified its transgressors in the town square. Such a mode is applied to pacify their territory and gain from the propaganda value of fear (Friedland, 2014). ISIS is also known for its realising of the gory videos such as those of David Haines (the British aid worker) and US journalists Stephen Sotloff and James Foley. The tactic is replicated in its online strategy in posting messages across different social sites to increases its visibility. The application of this tactic is well explained in the group’s English magazine, Dabiq, which highlights its millenarian appeal (Friedland, 2014).
Sources of ISIS Funds All the activities of ISIS cost money; however, the group is the richest terror organization in the world. It obtains its revenues basically from the illegal proceeds such looting of banks, extortion, fields and refineries control, illicit taxation, and robbery (FATF Report, 2015). It also obtain ransom from kidnapping, donations, fundraising, and material support. However, ISIS’ revenue schemes are non-coherent and changes on the availability of the resources and efforts made by the coalition military. ISIS controls a complex extortion racket through looting, robbing and claiming for economic resources in its territories. This is similar to the manner in which organized crime groups obtain their funds (FATF Report, 2015). The extortions are done on the perception of provision of protection or services. It ranges from children’s school fees to vehicle and fuel taxes. The effectiveness of extortion is founded on the application of force in areas it operates. Its economic assets are held on natural resources, banks, archaeological and historic sites. Therefore, the group’s wealth is derived from monetary and non-monetary economic assets (FATF Report, 2015). The group has formalized its extortion through the provision of receipts for the paid levies. Although, the extortion has been branded as charitable giving or taxation, involuntary donations buys the continuity of businesses and monetary safety (FATF Report, 2015).
Similar to contemporary banking system, ISIS respect the difference between state owned and private owned banks. The cash at state-owned institutions are their property while those of the private banks are prone to taxation upon customer withdrawals (FATF Report, 2015).
Several analysts have attempted to explain the reason beyond the ISIS spectacular growth within a short period. This may be its capability to advertise and recruit using social media. Its global approach has been massive as it has successfully used Danish, English, German and Arabic. The approach and careful choice of words has been inclusive and elusive. Initially, Facebook and Twitter did not care about the group using their platform, but, when it became extreme in its messages and violence, the two social networking sites developed the need to restrain them from using social media. On Twitter, the group uses sophisticated bots and apps to produce essential soul winning propaganda campaign. Compared to Jabhat al Nusra, ISIS’ growth on Twitter was four times. The number was higher on Facebook as the supporters of ISIS dominated the platform. In 2014, the group began to create sites that targeted particular countries such as Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Holland, France, Kashmir and other Western nations.
The group learnt of the advantages of using social platforms in recruiting its members over the conventional means. Although, the group has always been targeted by law enforcers and social media companies, it has managed to maintain its presence on the social sites. In most cases, it has created mirror sites when they anticipate that a particular site will be torn down. Facebook has continuously attempted to remove terrorist contents from its platform; however, the group has remained a challenge to them. The group has continuously modified its strategy and establishment on the social media landscape. In a number of circumstances, it has been through an absolute persistence and by showing a clear strategy in countering the attacks on its presence on social media. According the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), ISIS has become adept to reach to Western teenagers who are good in digital communication. The FBI has raised concerns that the group has attained some success with its social media campaigns. FBI argues that ISIS message to the youth is romantic, alluring and heroic to the young western population. To support this, there have been several reports of youths fleeing from Colorado and England to join the group or marry the fighters (Kaplan, 2015). Being that ISIS is an armed group it recruits persons who are ready to perform their terrorist activities. ISIS has successfully persuaded European women to join its army in fighting Assad’s regime. ISIS convince the women that they will attain happiness in serving the group since serving a Muslim ISIS man would make her automatically have eternal heaven. The recruitment duty is mandated to the female member of the group who promotes the ideologies on social networking sites (Hesterman, 2014). After the recruitment of the women, they are trained at the group’s military training base in the outskirts of Aleppo. Most of recruits in the base are adolescent non-Arabic women. The women are then prepared to perform military and terrorist operations (Sanders, 2015). Their duties include taking parts in relentless combats, planting bombs, and performing suicidal operations (Hesterman, 2014). The women are also mandated to identify ISIS’ dissidents and eliminate them through water and food poisoning. Assassination by poisoning has been practiced in Turkey and several other nations. The women as well help the group in inspecting the residence of the occupied areas (Hesterman, 2014). This activity is done through brutality and harassment. In addition, the women are mandated to punish fellow women who do not wear burqa. Moreover, they enforce the mandatory laws enacted for women through whipping. Contrary, to these laws, the women are used for sexual purposes. In several occasions, ISIS has recruited British whores for sexual Jihad program (Sanders, 2015). In joining ISIS, the recruits are promised several personal fulfilments such as having power, improving self-esteem, and becoming part of the brotherhood (Hesterman, 2014). Generally, ISIS has continuously recruited teenagers through campaigns such as free schooling that includes training on weapons and the use of firearms. One such boy recruited by ISIS is 17 year-old Amr from Idib, who narrated that the group request the newly recruits to voluntarily sign a list in carrying out suicide operations. According to Amr, most of the teenagers do so from social pressure (Hesterman, 2014). ISIS has schools in their territories in which they run. According to the group, a school is a military recruitment center in which the young ones are trained and brainwashed on taking orders without objections. The children are forced to memorize Quran without comprehending it (Schram & Perez, 2015). Children recruitment in schools is a strategy ISIS has used to increase its sustainability. ISIS has forced parents to have their children enrolled in schools in order to ensure that they attain abundant recruits. The science curriculum is also replaced by combat lessons. The group has abolished science, biology, national education, Islamic education, geography and history in the schools that it runs. These subjects have been replaced by books describing Salafi-jihadist ideology, extremist interpretation and memorization of the Quran (Schram & Perez, 2015). Students are given military training and the best of them are chosen to join jihadist in which they are given guns. Mathematics and Science are only taught to selected few to assist the group in rocket fighting mission (Gerges, 2014). Medical centers that treat injured children report that the children are happy from the bullet wounds they suffer as they believe that it is a proof of jihad. When asked why they are joining ISIS, they argue that they are assisting in the implementation of Allah’s Sharia law, to attain martyrdom in God’s cause and to establish a caliphate (Schram & Perez, 2015).
Impacts of ISIS ISIS has continuously carried out despicable criminal activities and has changed rural Middle East areas as blood-soaked fields in order to have a non-Arab and non-Sunni Caliphate. The group’s brutal reputation is well established as it has immediately killed everyone who disagrees with its ideologies or who is viewed as an enemy (Gerges, 2014). Apart from the enemies in battlefields, ISIS first targets people they perceive as takfirs (heretics). They have argued that the Sunni Muslims, Shiites and Alawites have not been following Islam in the right way. The group has perpetrated several massacres particularly in Iraq with between 560 and 770 people murdered in Tikrit within a period of three days. Most of the soldiers executed in the city were Shiites who had been recruited into the Iraqi army with the only survivor of the group being Ali Hussein Kadhim (Aleneme & Egesi, 2015). ISIS has also targeted other minority groups within the Middle East. For instance, the Islamic State has successfully driven the Christian descendants of the Assyrian population from Mosul despite having stayed there for more than 3 millennia. The Assyrian homes were marked with inscription for Nazarene to mean Christians (Spark, 2014). The populations were given three choices: to pay Christian tax which they could not afford, convert to Islam and death. Towards the end of 2014, the Islamic State slaughtered several minority indigenous groups who had been trapped on Mount Sinjar. All the sides of the mountains had been sealed with no escape route for the indigenous population (Aleneme & Egesi, 2015). Fortunately, the US led forces managed to rescue some of the persons. According to Amnesty International, ISIS has been carrying out ethnic cleansing across Iraq and Syria. Individuals who are unfortunate to be governed by ISIS have to obey the Sharia law or face brutal persecution. Beating of its subjects is common within ISIS’ territories with women who refuse to wear burqa killed (Friedland, 2014). It has used rape as a weapon of war and as a method of humiliation to the conquered territories. It is also a means used in rewarding fighters for the services they have provided. Very young girls are been given to the fighters as wives while others are sold as slaves. In most cases, it is the older women who are sold off (Gerges, 2014). The young girls taken as wives are placed under temporary marriages in which once a fighter has satisfied himself he passes her to other fighters. The captured girls are also forced to contact their parents and narrate to them what they are undergoing. This is used to torture both the girls and the parents (Friedland, 2014).
The Economic Impact ISIS on Middle East Both Iraq and Syria are facing humanitarian and economic crisis brought by the influx of refugees and the internally displaced persons (IDPs). The World Bank reported a contracted economic growth of Iraq by 5 percent and an increase in poverty rate from 3.5 to 8.1 percent (Katzman at al., 2015). The World report offers regional and national policy makers with technical evaluation of the cost of effects and stabilization required to reduce the effects of IDPS and refugee influx. The Iraqi forces have been constantly addressing the needs for the refugees and IDPs, however, more resources are still needed to halt the crisis and resolve the needs. The effects on Iraq are the immediate fiscal and economic impacts on the Iraqi budget and economy. On the other hand, the cost of stabilization is the additional expenses required to restore the welfare of Iraqi citizens (Katzman at al., 2015). The crisis has led to the increase in unemployment and prices with the IDPs and refugees in the labour market pushing the wages down. In addition, an increase in the violence has resulted to side shocks (Spark, 2014). The crisis has also had an enormous effect on the trade on services and goods. It has disrupted the transportation routes and reduced the foreign direct index (FDI) while activities of foreign businesses have been greatly affected (World bank, 2015). The destruction of public investment projects has also had a negative influence on the Middle East economy (Spark, 2014). The displacement brought by ISIS has led to the increases of population of certain regions such as Kurdistan. This has exerted pressures on the local economy and on access to the public services and host community. The refugees and the IDPs are accepted by the locals by permitting them to access all the services in the region (Katzman at al., 2015).

The Impact of ISIS on Southeast Asia Southeast Asia possesses a enormous Muslim population and include the world’s most populous Muslim nation-Indonesia. Southeast Asia observed its subjects travel to the Middle East to participate in terrorist acts during the USSR occupation on Afghanistan. Presently, a significant number of Southeast Asians have sworn allegiance to the Islamic State. Some of the notorious allegiance includes those made by Jemaah Islamyah leader Abu Bakar Bashir. Two Filipino terrorist groups, Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters and Abu Sayyaf have also made their pledges. This shows of an existence of a strong connection between ISIS and the South East Asian terrorist groups (Lin, 2014). In the near future, Asian support on the terrorist group will be majorly based on Southeast Asia and will exhibits itself through most of the Southeast Asia travelling to the Middle East. In fact, at the present a large number of Southeast Asians have began migrating to Middle East. The immigrants offer large contributions to the group’s activities. In July 2014 about 500 Southeast Asian travelled to the Middle East. The number doubled on September 2014. The Southeast Asian ISIS’ fighters are largely engaged in terrorist activities similar to the parent organization. For instance, a Malaysian was the leader of suicide bombing that killed 25 Iraqi soldiers (Lin, 2014). Additionally, another Malaysian was proclaimed a marty after dying while fighting in Syria. Robert Cerantonio an Australian has devoted himself in recruiting ISIS fighters in Philippines. He is as well very active on Twitter and Facebook and had thousands likes on Facebook prior to the deletion of the account and followed by more than several youths on Twitter. The expansion of ISIS across Southeast Asia paints a threatening picture to the once peaceful region. The fighters travelling to Middle East to join ISIS return home with knowledge on terrorist logistics, activities, economic support, recruiting tactics, methodologies and networking. In a similar way to the fight against Soviet occupation on Middle East, Southeast Asians who returned home founded new extremist groups such as Jemaah Islamiyah which was responsible to the bombing of the Australian Embassy in Indonesia. The Southeast Asian-ISIS partnership is a fertile ground for the establishment of terrorist partnerships. Apart from Southeast Asians travelling to Middle East several other nationalists have supported the group from within their countries (Lin, 2014).
Impacts of ISIS on China China which for a long time remained unaffected by Middle East politics is anticipated to be the major loser from the ISIS menace. The rise of the Islamic State in the Southeast Asia possesses significant serious challenge to the Chinese security at both the national and international levels. ISIS has already declared war on China and has made threats to absorb the Chinese Xinjiang as part of its caliphate (Glint, 2014). The actions and situations at the international community is encouraging China to act seriously in dealing with ISIS. Although China has not felt any direct effect of the ISIS, the spillover effect is not underestimated. The restiveness of the Xinxiang province between the local Han and Uyghur communities has increased the likeliness of the ISIS’ threat coming to be real. The rise of ISIS is also a great threat to the Chinese oil investment in Iraq and its surrounding countries. In addition, as discussed above, the expansion of ISIS in Southeast Asia could as well encourage the growth of domestic terrorist groups within Chinese territories and makes its government vulnerable to terror (Chen, 2015). In the last two years, China has been experiencing the worst terror attacks in its history. China has always pointed fingers at Turkey for permitting Chinese Jihadists to migrate to Syria and Iraq to train with ISIS (Gerges, 2014). China estimates that 100 Chinese are currently fighting alongside ISIS in Syria. The communist nation suspects Turkey for supporting terrorist groups such as the Solidarity Association (ETESA) and the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM). The two groups recruits from the Uyghur Diasporas in Istanbul. Moreover, they have a network within Istanbul that recruits Chinese (Chen, 2015). The current ISIS activities forces China to develop interest to come up with ways of containing the spread of the terrorist group. The country is forced to abandon its long held non-intervention policy and improve the international engagement with the coalition forces fighting ISIS (Chen, 2015). Through strengthening of the global cooperation, the country will be capable of eliminating the negative impacts on the Chinese territories. It is in the Chinese interest to stop the growth of ISIS which is a threat to its security. The group could be more serious to the country if they attain more influence and power. ISIS is a brutal terror group that does not discriminate its victims (Gerges, 2014). After beheading the British and American journalists, it is probable that they will do the same the Chinese nationals. If it is true that ISIS has territorial mission on the Chinese Xinjiang province in Hong Kong and that it has already recruited Chinese. This is an indication that the Chinese domestic terrorism is closely linked to the international terrorism. With several attacks in the recent years, it is probable that Chinese authority will be worried that domestic terrorist could be supported by the international terrorists such as ISIS. This will complicate the Chinese anti-terrorism efforts (Chen, 2015).
The structure and leadership of ISIS is distinguished from the previous terror groups that had existed before. It even differs from the al-Qaeda which was until then considered as the world’s most powerful terror group. The characteristic of the organizational structure is not only hard to find, but as well difficult to replicate (Department of Defense, 2015). This may be due to the nature into which ISIS evolved from al-Qaeda and the approach that its leader has with its subordinates. For instance, the senior leaders in Iraq or Syria can execute operations in these countries as they deem fit, instead of awaiting Baghdadi’s approval. This has permitted a more tailored means to military advocacy as well the regional leaders having control over their territories. The style also introduces rotating assignment such that almost the top leadership understands whatever is happening in a number of positions. This leads to a more robust decision-making leadership framework. It also creates a pool of potential successors in the occurrence of decapitation on the top leadership. ISIS pragmatic approach on organizational leadership portrays its need to hire expertise in various fields (Department of Defense, 2015). The sophistication of cyber indicates the diversity and expertise of ISIS’ media team. The team applies various platforms in different languages. Their messages are tailored to frame the thoughts of certain groups. The team’s strategy is to let information flow externally into the group. The level of cyber sophistication with expertise in branding, marketing and media relations makes them to have a robust recruitment arm. The level of requirement of any group to copy ISIS media sophistication will take years to develop (The US Department of Defense, 2015). ISIL has spent a great deal of its time in communicating to the public of its legitimacy. BY splitting from al-Qaeda, it promoted the group as ideologically pure and created itself as a sustainable movement. In addition, ISIS is capitalizing on the public discontent on Iraq and Syria by providing basic amenities. This makes the organization to turn into a social movement that is very appealing to the wider public (The US Department of Defense, 2015).

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... seven ofthesixteen studies werepublished 1997-1998.Thisindicates recency in the of theSME internationalisation literature. explanation thelackofstudies One for in thelate 1980's and early1990's might that be research SME exporting on had reached critical a mass(as evidenced thereviewarticles Miesenbock in of 1988 and Aaby/Slater in activities SMEs of 1989). As such,interest theinternational declined. Morelikely in is however, that theearly1990's,SME researchperhaps mírvol. 39, 1999/3 231 This content downloaded on Sat, 19 Jan 2013 08:47:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions NicoleΕ. Coviello/Andrew McAuley 3 Í£ -a ι Iι. i ?ï 1 « ã -sa s ^ I ?í?.sá^l 1 SI1ÜI íSíí fllJS S IJIllUJill li''! ρ mi t-ι 03 «3 c ο ι_ι /- s (/3 It/3 C Vh ilfl ! «Bj,sliitiilä ifi lî j îifîllî L lîïis ! li fill! !!l|ilil?! L 3!!ï|!|!Î!II!î i ill îiji .m» í« JlPállíJIgi • · · íllílllll · · 'S «s 'S §s Ό α § 1 1 S .§ f -S1 § 1 „ 'a ai Is su a ills si • · · ι · failli liil 11* iii if^iiJ llllIfUïîI il! ifïii mil h ni Ils äsPl-fH, if!=iürüii milllliJtillH lllflllillll (ZI a 1 ° s (U Λ > •s! (D ^ § mirvol. 39, 1999/3 235 This content downloaded on Sat, 19 Jan 2013 08:47:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions NicoleΕ.......

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