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Internationalisation Des Échanges

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Internationalisation des échanges

Dans les années 1960, Marshall McLuhan parle de « Village Global ».
Pour Levitt, la globalisation s’applique aux entreprises : les entreprises globales s’opposent aux entreprises multinationales car les entreprises globales sont sur des marchés standardisés.

Pour Ohmae (fin des années 1980), l’entreprise raisonne au niveau global mais insère la fonction marketing, RH, produits, …

En réalité, il existe un rapport de force entre les entreprises, les états, la population : la mondialisation.

I. Caractéristiques de la mondialisation : * Echanges de biens & services (exportation et importation) vérifier si exportation production pour déterminer l’évolution des échanges donc les liens de plus en plus forts entre les pays. * Division internationale du travail & décomposition internationale des processus productif (théorie de Smith appliquée internationalement) mais problème de « made in » car la marchandise n’est pas produite dans un seul pays. * Problème d’épuisement des ressources naturelles * Multiplication des flux financiers taxe tobin : taxer les flux financier
Si il y a beaucoup de mouvements dans les canaux de flux internationaux, il faut mettre une petite taxe pour décourager les mouvements spéculatifs qui sont les plus déstabilisants. (cas de grands volumes avec une petite marge) que de l’argent, pas de produits donc que des transactions de grosses sommes. profit permet les exportations, IDE, investissements de portefeuille. * Echanges de personnesflux migratoires * Technologies qui permettent par exemple de réduire le temps de transport et plus d’informations circulent sur internet. * Politique/culturel : sentiment d’appartenance au même monde.

II. Etat des lieux
Eléments principaux : Triade (80% des richesses) et PED (20% des richesses) * Les pays du Sud (Chine et Inde) montent en puissance donc il y a une répartition des disparités des leaderships. * Conflit de l’euro : L’Allemagne était septique sur les pays du « clubmed » (Espagne, Italie) contrairement a la France qui était plus laxiste. * En Europe : pays « cigale » (Grèce et Italie) et « fourmi » (pays du Sud(PMA)) * NPI : Corée du Sud, Taiwan, Singapour, Hongkong) * OCDE : « club des riches » * La Corée du sud se développe et donc se délocalise dans d’autres pays qui vont se développer et donc se délocaliser a leur tour. Inde+Chine= +1/3 de la population l’éco libérale s’insère dans l’éco mondiale et donc les pays produisent plus de richesses. * Si le PIB est faible, alors il n’y a pas d’argent pour l’éducation donc pas de qualification et peu de production. Cercle vertueux de la pauvreté * Les pays du Golfe (Iran, Irak, Koweït, Arabie Saoudite, Bahreïn, Qatar, Emirats arabes unis,
Oman) se sortent avec le pétrole. A l’arrivée de Denz Kiao Ring le niveau de développement est a 0.
Grace a l’évolution de la machine économique, la Chine peut rattraper les USA dans environ 20 ans mais la Chine se développe seulement sur une partie du pays.

III. Les Acteurs * Les entreprises (Firmes multinationales) : 1/3 du commerce mondial est intra-firme.
Dans les années 60, les FMN étaient présentes dans 5 pays et maintenant seulement 2 pays.

* IDE :

+ : filiale

Contrôle co-entreprise (JOINT-VENTURE)

- : prise de participation/ risque de doublon

Co entreprise : « occidentaux » : technologie « orientaux » : main d’œuvre et savoir faire.
Prise de risque et investissement : 50% chacun.

* Etats : compétition entre les états pour avoir des entreprises donc des entreprises qui choisissent la où les obligations sont fortes, le plus avantageux.
Attractivité de la France : Beaucoup d’impôts et 35H mais la main d’œuvre est qualifiée, très bien située géographiquement, bons réseaux de transport, bon système de santé, système politique stable.

IV. L’OMC
Crise : réaction épidermiste
1947 : accords du GATTaller vers le libre échange
Baisse les droits de douane de 40%

1995 : Uruguay round OMC (MULTILATERALISME)

Close de : * La réciprocité faire des efforts et baisser ses droits de douane. * La transparence droits de douanes classique. (par exemple 5% du prix du bien) * CNF (close de la Nation la plus favorisée)
Si un pays baisse les droits de douane tout l’OMC doit le faire exception : dumping : vente à perte. (prix de vente prix d’achat)
L’OMC fait évoluer les règles, définit les règles et tranche les conflits.
Les conflits n’avancent pas car les pays riches veulent lutter contre la contrefaçon, aller dans plus d’industrie, … et les pays du Sud veulent faire des concessions si les pays du Nord en font.

V. « Les enjeux de la mobilité des facteurs de production dans l’économie mondialisée » * combinaison des facteurs de production (capital, travail) * mondialisation des échanges de produits fini ET facteurs de Production.

1. Logique
Acteur logique : entreprises, ménages, états * Positionnement et stratégies ( IDE, délocalisation, …) [entreprises] * Au Nord, au sud [ménages] * Perte de contrôle (par rapport aux entreprises) et défendre les intérêts nationaux (patriotisme économique)

2. Enjeux A) Quête d’attractivité
Nord subventions
Sud peu d’aide B) Termes du débat
Débat sur le protectionnisme
Démantèlement des subventions.…...

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