Free Essay

Instructional Planning for Term Paper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By zeanma
Words 1947
Pages 8
Asko Karjalainen 2002

“Our task is to try to redefine benchmarking by using new concepts and surprising metaphors.“

D uring the last decade quality assessment phenomenon called benchmarking has expanded very rapidly.( By using the expression “assessment phenomena“, I will now underline the importance of reflection. Benchmarking must be set to the test of the creative and critical thinking.) Benchmarking stories are told all over the organisations, also in the public sector. And some stories they are! They are success stories about growing efficiency, great improvements, with an undertone of enthusiasm and promising visions. In those narratives benchmarking is introduced as the modern management tool as well as the most effective quality enhancement method. It seems that benchmarking really works. Why is it so? There may be many practical reasons like “building on the work of others makes sense“, “it can lead to cooperation“ or that the method is concrete and well documented (Keehley, 1997)

However, it should be self-evident that any method adopted from the business life, is most likely to fail in defensive organisations like the universities.( Some further critics of the benchmarking, see for example Gooden & McCeary, 2001, Dervitsiotis, 2000; Palfreyman, 1999).) Surprisingly enough, this seems not to be true with benchmarking. There is an increasing interest to apply benchmarking in the higher education organisations (Schofield, 2000). The unexpected reaction compels us to set the philosophical question, what is the hidden nature of the benchmarking process?

What is the secret of benchmarking? In the Enqa-workshop group of benchmarking experts approached the subject under the heading of “benchmarking philosophy“. During next pages I will utilize some ideas of our “creative morning session“. To create something new, useful and far-reaching is the task of the reader now. In this article I only give some incentives based on the workshop results.


In the literature benchmarking has got many definitions. I have divided those definitions to three uniting categories: practical definitions, existential definitions and metaphorical definitions.

Practical definitions tell rather in prose what the benchmarking is or what activities it includes:

Benchmarking “is the systematic study and comparison of a company’s key performance indicators with those of competitors and others considered best-in-class in a specific function“ (Dervitsiotis, 2000).

...“is a way of comparing a product or process against others, with reference to specified standards“ (Pepper, Webster & Jenkins, 2001):

Existential definitions try to connect benchmarking with the experiences, emotions and basic processes of the human existence. Those definitions bring the method closer to our ordinary living world suggesting, that benchmarking is nothing but a more or less formalised dimension of our natural everyday interaction.

“it is, at bottom, a systematic way of learning from others and changing what you do“ (Epper 1999)

It “is actually a matter of imitating successful behaviour“ (Karlöf & Östblom 1993)

“Benchmarking is a form of human being’ s natural curiosity with which s/he explores the possibilities of cooperation and friendship.“(Karjalainen, Kuortti & Niinikoski 2002)

Benchmarking is a learning process, which requires trust, understanding, selecting and adapting good practices in order to improve. (One team in Enqa-workshop, 2002)

In so far there are no really strong metaphorical benchmarking definitions, which would indicate that researchers, consults, managers and other benchmarking users merely see the method as a technical question. Metaphorical definitions, by using metaphorical expressions, could provide new and astonishing perspectives. They could provide a surprising and a revelatory angle to the nature of benchmarking or give a sudden insight to the inner meanings of the method. “State of mind of an organization“ is an example of a weak metaphorical expression:

“it is the state of mind of an organization which encourages the continuous effort of comparing functions and processes with those of best in class, wherever they are to be found“ (Zairi & Leonard 1994).

But why would we not develop stronger ones? What if we called the benchmarking as “the shortcut through the forest of the quality assessment“, “the flower of the organisational curiosity“ or “the envious energy between the managers“. Each of these “shocking“ metaphors implicates a very different benchmarking conception and benchmarking process. Metaphors are tools for creating self-awareness. When starting a benchmarking project, why would you not search your thoughts and create your own metaphor. The metaphor matters in our post-modern world of narratives.


Benchmarking literature sometimes uses the concept “true benchmarking“. One challenge of our conceptual adventure now is to explore if there is such a phenomena at all. It is clear that there are numerous types of different benchmarking methods and styles. Here we have some examples of attributes, which benchmarking experts have given to the benchmarking method. Benchmarking can be:


Free combination of these attributes can produce a huge amount of variations for methodological framework. Teams of enqa-workshop were keen on trying to define the distinction between the “true“ and the “false“ benchmarking. The true benchmarking is always improvement oriented. Negotiation, collaboration and process for mutual understanding are necessary parts of it. In the true benchmarking organisations and people learn from each other and an active dialogue flows. It has explicit and open goals and the decision making process is (as) clear (as possible). True benchmarking is always creative. Adapting best practices means not the same as copying them.

The “false“ benchmarking instead is ranking oriented or merely explorative without interest in improvement. It has hidden purposes and it may be even spying. Nor is touristy visiting true benchmarking. Fuzzy goals and undefined process are typical false benchmarking constituents. Performance measurement by using some benchmarks moves into true benchmarking when it defines targets for improvement by identifying best practices and adapting them to achieve continuous improvement in one’s own organisation (see also Fine&Snyder 1999; Palfreyman 1998).


But finally, do such a qualities as “true“ or “false“ really exist in the benchmarking sphere? Should we instead use the term “benchmarking-like activities“, which will flourish at the conceptual space of the benchmarking constituents. In that space there are many philosophical paths through which the benchmarking activities flow. I introduce the prototype of the benchmarking space in the tabular form:

S O U R C E S|
Q U A L I T Y C U L T U R E S|
Table 1. Benchmarking space

As can be seen in the table, the benchmarking space emanates between the sources and quality cultures. The sources give the reasons and the agents for the benchmarking. Quality cultures construct the social context of the benchmarking sphere. It is also noteworthy that all the entities in grey area have the dialectic characteristic to act as an element for both of the sources and the cultures. The same entities form the theoretical forces, which cause the tension for the particular benchmarking method creation. The outcomes and the results of the benchmarking process will create changes on the quality cultures, which have impact to the sources, and the “circle” goes round again.

The table in itself is more of an artistic image than an academic product. There is a lot of unexplained semantics in it, which I certainly left to the critical reader for creative interpretation. The table draws attention to the fact that benchmarking is not an unambiguous method. It has many different sources, many different processes and it can lead to multiple results.

Benchmarking process in the higher education context is not the same as in the business life or in the public sector overall. It may not be even the same between the universities in different continents. There is a great difference between American and European universities, for example. Higher education in Europe is mostly arranged with the close contact to research, whereas in the United States there are more teaching universities than research universities. The idea of the scientific community - the quality product of the continental philosophy - with it’s universal values of truth, collectivistic, objectivity and criticism gives mode to the academic action in the European context. Members of the Enqa-workshop were predictably quite critical of the ranking oriented benchmarking-like activities. Hard values of ranking may be incompatible with European spirit of the scientific community, where as the cooperation, discourse and knowledge tradition are more convenient values for it.

Perhaps there is a kind of social order to the European true benchmarking. Possibly there were some elements of it present in Enqa-workshop. Was the great metaphor very nearly reached? In Finland there is an old proverb, which says, that: “The salmon is worth of fishing, even if you would not get any.“ The same, I believe, is true of the benchmarking philosophy. It is worth trying.


There was a lot of social energy in Enqa-workshop. The most inspiring moment was to collaborate in teams with the people coming from different universities and from different countries. A similar kind of inspiring stimulus may be one of the reasons, why benchmarking stories mostly are enthusiastic. When the evaluation processes often are very bureaucratic and paper-based, benchmarking process can offer more living interaction and emotional stimulus, which both are the most important factors in a meaningful learning process. Getting the benchmarking passport to a strange culture is always a fascinating adventure.


Keehley, P, Medlin, S, MacBride, S & Longmire, L. 1997. Benchmarking for Best Practices in the Public Sector. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers

Schofield, A. 2000. The growth of Benchmarking in Higher Education. Life Long Learning in Europe. 2.

Bohte, J. & Meier, K.J. (2000). Goal Displacement: Organizational Cheating. Public
Administration Review. Vol. 60, 173-182.

Coleman, R. & Viggars, L, (2000) Benchmarking Student Recruitment: The UCAS Institutional Planning Service. Teoksessa: Jackson, N. & Lund, H. Toim. Benchmarking for Higher Education. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Dervitsiotis, K.N. 2000. Benchmarking and business paradigm shifts. Total Quality Management. Vol 11, p.641-646.

Epper, R. (1999). Applying Benchmarking to higher education. Change, p.24-31.

Fine, T. & Snyder, L. (1999). What is the difference between performance measurement and benchmarking. Public Management 80:1.

Gooden, S.T & McCeary, S.M. (2001) That Old-Time Religion: Efficiency, Benchmarking, and Productivity. Public Administration Review. Vol 61. p.116-120.

Grant, R. (2001). Improving Service Quality with Benchmarks. Educause Review.Vol.

Hodginson, L. (2000). Benchmarking Key Skills Using National Standards: the open University Experience. Teoksessa: Jackson, N. & Lund, H. Toim. Benchmarking for Higher Education. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Jackson, N. & Lund, H. (2000) Toim. Benchmarking for Higher Education. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Karjalainen, A.; Kuortti, K.; Niinikoski, S. (2002). Creative Benchmarking. University of Oulu & Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council. University Press of Oulu. Karlöf, B & Östblom, S. (1993). Benchmarking: a signpost to excellence in quality and productivity. Chihester Wiley. Palfreyman, D. (1999) Benchmarking in Higher Edducation: A Study conducted by the Commonwealth Higher Education Management Service. Book Review. Perspectives, Vol. 3, 71-72.

Wan Endut, W.J, Abdullah, M, Husain, N.(2000). Benchmarking institutions of higher education. Total Quality Management. Vol 11, p.796-799.

Zairi, M & Leonard, P. (1994). Practical Benchmarking. The Complete Guide. Chapman & Hall. United Kingdom 1994.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Term Paper

...AVIATION UNIVERSITY Air Transportation Management Department TERM PAPER On discipline“Basis of systems theory and management” Topic: «Airport as a complex system on the example of Boryspil» Kyiv 2012 NATIONAL AVIATION UNIVERSITY Department of air transportation organization TASK for course paper preparation student Roksolana Novytska Topic of the term paper: “Airport as a complex system”_______________________ 1. Period of term paper preparation: since ________2012 year till_______2012 year. 2. Stages of term paper preparation: * … 3. The task was given by________________________________(_______________________) (signature) (name) “______”____________2012year. 6. The task taken for solving _____________________ (signature of student) The term paper grade ______________________________________ The head of the commission: ________________________________________________”___”__________2012 year. Members of the commission: ___________________________________________________________ Abstract Total volume of course work is 37 pages. Contains 22 figures and 5 references. The aim of the thesis is to investigate Boryspil airport in terms of Systems analysis course. The work includes theoretical studies of all aspects of......

Words: 9002 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Planning Shor Term and Long Term

...solution for companies as emergencies changes will not prioritized. In this modern and technological era, there are softwares that can help people carry out their budget planning. Firstly, it is important to make mental and physical note on your current expenses and then think critically on every penny that is spent. Next, one has to create the budget for the current month observing the expenses done in the previous step. Lastly, proper plans on how to spend need to be made with the help of online planning budget and it can help in the business as well as for the family expenses. There are two budgeting terms. One is long term budgeting other one is short term budgeting. Long term budgeting is looking at the future in order to know what the market needs.Short-term budgeting involves making budgets that is short-term, such as inventory purchases, over-time costs, marketing and one-off expenses such as cash purchases of equipment or buildings. Long term planning are usually used by companies and short term planning are usually used by individuals. Long term budgeting is making decision for more than one year. The company first look at the environment, internal and external factors and then how much profit the company need. This plan need to very cautious and also needs to have proper consideration. Long term budgeting gives different groups of people different plan and also different form of time management. For example, businesses need a longer time to identify......

Words: 761 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Proposal of Term Paper for Hr Planning

...EMBA-520: Human Resource Planning Subject: Proposal for preparing term paper. Dear Sir, With due respect, be informed that, as a part of our course objectives, we listed below our proposals for term paper Proposed Topics: 1. Reasons of HRP Failure in Local Industry (BD). 2. Problems of HR Managers and HR department in Local Industry (BD). 3. Facts those make HR Managers frustrated in Local Industry (BD). Purpose: To find out the reasons behind the failure of HRM practice as well as problem analysis of HR managers and HR department and how HR managers become frustrated in local industries of Bangladesh. Our aim is to prepare a clear, concise, complete term paper which will be very easy to read and very friendly to understand so that every level of employees will feel the importance of HRM. Scope: HRM practice is now at the stage of new born baby in the local companies (Except Bank, large group of companies in Bangladesh) but in multinational company they enjoying the youth of HRM. So, this is the right time to grow up HRM practice in local industries. Strengths: All of our group members are employed in different organization in BD. This is our main strength of our team. Opportunities: As we are employed and we have a network among different professionals, we will get the opportunity to collect data and case from different local area. Weakness: As we are employed we will not get enough time to make this term paper well decorated......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Planning Paper

...TALLEY PLANNING Talley Planning Week 3 Management / 330 Laurel Talley University of Phoenix Complete Paper Title (note Title Caps) [The introduction goes here. It should be one or two paragraphs detailing what the paper will address and generally includes a thesis statement. The introduction should prepare the reader for the content of the paper by previewing the main topics in the paper. Be sure to end with a transition word or sentence to lead into section one of the paper. Triple click anywhere in this paragraph to begin typing your own introduction.] Level One Heading Required (note Title Caps) Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level One Heading Required (note Title Caps) Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level One Heading Required (note Title Caps) Level Three Heading if Needed (note Title Caps) Level four heading if needed. [Begin your text here.] Level......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Term Paper for Social Change

...Standard 1: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community. The effective administrator: 1.1 Uses research about best professional practice. Cooperative Learning       "Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students         work together to maximize their own and each other's learning." WHAT IS IT? Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. WHY USE IT? Documented results include improved academic achievement, improved behavior and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, and increased liking of school and classmates. Cooperative learning is also relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive. HOW DOES IT WORK? Here are some typical strategies that can be used with any subject, in almost any grade, and without a special curriculum: Group Investigations are structured to emphasize higher-order thinking skills such as analysis and evaluation. Students work to produce a group project, which they may have a......

Words: 52057 - Pages: 209

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...TERM PAPER Lara Zeyna Altinok BACKGROUND This paper will present answers to the following questions: 1. Provide a description of the company that you work for. As part of your description include a discussion of the type of organizational structure. 2. Describe an agency problem within the firm and discuss what you think is causing the problem and how the problem might be better controlled. 3. Describe the job dimensions of the firm and discuss whether or not you believe the current design is appropriate for the firm. Discuss any suggestions you might have for improving the job design. Grouped by function or by product or geography or a matrix organization? Provide a diagram if helpful to illustrate. Is this organization effective? 4. Describe the compensation package for executives and employees within the firm. Discuss whether or not you believe that the compensation package is effective and any suggestions that you might have for improving the compensation package. ANSWERS Citigroup is a global financial organization that operates in hundreds of countries offering both institutional and consumer business services. For its institutional business, it offers full range of products from investment banking through sales, trading, transaction services, and private banking. For the consumer business services, it offers cards, retail banking and mortgages. It is a publicly traded organization with its symbol C in New York Stock Exchange. Citigroup Inc.......

Words: 1047 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Siddika1 Abstract: Presently the rapid growth and diversification of the gigantic NGO sector of Bangladesh has given rise to questions and concerns, about their trade-offs between sustainability and pro-poor orientation; the impact and quality of services; corporate governance; management and accountability. The paper is based on a proposal to introduce a modern management system viz. value based management (VBM) in the NGOs of Bangladesh. Value-based management can be defined as an integrated management control system that measures, encourages and supports the creation of net worth. The report of Transparency International Bangladesh ‘Problems of Governance in the NGO Sector: The Way Out’ (TIB) 2007 is used here as an information source of finding out the flaws of existing management techniques. Finally the paper recommended implementation techniques of VBM in order to regain the image of the NGOs as a pioneer of social welfare in Bangladesh. Keywords: NGO, Transparency, Governance, Management, Strategies, Value Addition, Value Based Management etc. 1. Introduction Bangladesh has largely failed to assist the poor or reduce poverty because of limited resources and faulty planning, while Non Government Organizations (NGOs) have grown dramatically and ostensibly to fill up this gap. There are more and bigger NGOs here than in any other country of equivalent size. Bangladesh’s NGO sector is remarkable for the speed with which it grew to its present size and prominence (World......

Words: 7065 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Term Paper on“BERGER” Submitted to: Lecturer BRAC Business School BRAC University Submission Date: 29th July 2015 29th July 2015 Lecturer BRAC Business School BRAC University Subject: Letter of Transmittal Dear Madam, With due respect we, the undersigned students of BRAC Business School of Summer 15 semester have reported on a survey of the "Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited. It is important to note that the survey report is under the course of Management Principles and Practices. Though we are in learning curve, this report has enabled us to gain insight into the core fact of the Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited. It was an extremely challenging and interesting experience. Thank you for your supportive consideration for formulating an idea. Without your Inspiring this report would have been an incomplete one. Lastly, I would be thankful once again if you please give your judicious advice on effort. Yours’ sincerely, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first, we want to express our gratitude to Almighty Allah for giving us the strength, ability and opportunity to complete this report within the schedule time successfully. We would like to express our debt of gratitude to Lecturer, Mrs. Tanzin Khan, Department of BRAC Business School of BRAC University, who assigned us to prepare this report. Her valuable suggestions and important guidelines help us a lot to prepare this report. Moreover, her valuable instructions, constant inspiration, enormous patience......

Words: 5945 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Term Papers

...The Blueprint for Professional and Personal Growth -Managing Business Information Systems Christina Flemens Walden University 8/23/2015 Executive Summary Managing Business Information Systems is a course that gave insight on essential things many should know or be aware of in business. The topics covered were the roles and actions business systems play in an organization, the utilization of data resources, how mangers can drive value from business information systems, the effects of establishing a process-oriented organization, the importance of security, ethical issues and business continuity planning, as well as the trends that will make up the future of business information systems. These were the major topics covered and thoroughly discussed during the course that help in acquiring new knowledge regarding this area of business. I have learned a great deal from all the above mentioned topics but the ones I believed to learn from the most was how business managers can drive value from business information systems, the potential ethics, privacy, and security risks that are faced in a business, and the trends that will shape the future. The content in those matters improved my understanding of managing business information systems within the organization I choose to create in this course as well as the organization I work for presently. The influence of this course and the knowledge I have acquired has inspired me in a more innovative and creative way. The better......

Words: 1594 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Term Paper on Physical Planning

...and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes Essays Resource Center Sign Up Sign In Products Home Research Drive Answers About Company Legal Site Map Contact Advertise ©2015 HOME > LITERATURE > PERIODICALS > PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IN... Physical Environment in Counseling and Planning Only available on StudyMode Topic: Feeling, Office Pages(s): 7 (1656 words) Download(s): 99 Published: October 18, 2008 READ FULL DOCUMENT SAVE TO MY LIBRARY Please sign up to read full document. TEXT PREVIEW Physical Environment in Counseling and Planning I have recently read an interesting article about the impact of physical environment on the financial counseling and planning relationship and process. The publication raised my great interest because I have noticed before that our offices have several deficiencies that may have negative effects on the quality of our relationships with clients. The physical environment includes many aspects of our surrounding, including furniture and room design, color, accessories, lighting, sound, smell, thermal conditions and others. I have learned that all of these aspects can have bigger impact on relationships and the quality of our work that most people would expect. Therefore I took the initiative and researched the topic a little further to get a better understanding of the issue. Although there’s not a lot of a material available that refers strictly to financial planning, I was able to......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...PROJECT MANAGEMENT (THE NETHERLANDS) Abstract th Originally developed in the mid-20 century, project management has become a distinctive way to manage business activities nowadays. Another important development is virtually universal recognition of the role of innovation and technology in the corporate change, growth and profitability. It is unsurprising that development of innovation is often run as a project. Yet, theoretically both project management and innovation studies have evolved over time as distinctively separate disciplines. In this paper we make an attempt to conceptualise the innovation project management and to specify the idiosyncratic nature of innovation projects as opposed to conventional projects. By doing so, we contribute to the nascent academic debate on the interplay between innovation and project management. Key words: project management, innovation, technology 1. Introduction This paper is concerned with three topics and the interplay between them, namely “Innovation”, “Research and Development (R&D)” and “Project Management”. The interest in these topics has exploded recently as they emerged both on the policy agenda and in the corporate strategies. The contribution of technological innovation to national economic growth has been well established in the economic literature. In the last couple of decades, new technologies, new industries, and new business models have powered impressive gains in productivity and GDP growth.......

Words: 9508 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Letter of Submission To Dr. Harunur Rashid Professor Department of Accounting and Information Systems University of Chittagong. Subject: Submission of Term Paper report on “CVP analysis in Bank.” Sir, With the greatest pleasure, I would like to submit my report on “CVP analysis in Bank” I have tried my best to gain practical experience and also tried to reflect the same in report with my limited scope and knowledge. I wish your hearty consideration, if there is any deviation in my report. I wish to thank for your friendly co-ordination to make the program success. Yours truly, ____________________ (Md. Ariful Hoque) B.B.A. (Hons.): 4th Year. Class Roll: 4541 Exam Roll: 2004 /42 Session: 2003-2004 Department of Accounting and Information Systems University of Chittagong PREFACE The Term Paper is a program that is common for the B.B.A. student. As students of the Commerce Faculty we got adventurous touch of the program under our department of AIS. The program intends to provide practical training in handling of jobs as well as to integrate the knowledge of theories, formulas, frameworks and models with current management practices in business community. This paper tiled “CVP analysis in Bank” is conducted as a part of Term Paper program arranged by department of AIS, University of Chittagong. As a student of AIS I am so grateful to my honorable teacher Prof.......

Words: 2742 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Hr Planning Mid Term

...CHAPTER ONE: CHAPTER TWO: * Strategy is a planned process whereby organizations can map out a set of objectives and methods of meeting this objectives. * Corporate strategies is a company-wide strategies that are concerned with the long-term view of the organization * Business strategies focus on one line of business; building a strong competitive position * Three corporate strategies (Restructuring, Growth and Stability/Maintenance) * Strategy is like a game plan in sports or an airline’s flight plan. It is important to have a plan that moves towards goal achievement, however, there must be flexibility and adaptability to adjust to internal and external environmental factors * Mission statement: an articulation of the purpose of the organization and the value it creates for customers * Vision: Defines the organization’s long-term goals. The vision statements asks the questions “Where are we going?” * Value Statement: the basic beliefs that govern individual and group behaviour in an organization. * Michael Porter’s Model * Low Cost Provider Strategy: Low cost - in demand in the market * Broad Differential Strategy: High cost - in demand in the market * Best Cost Provider Strategy: Low/High cost - in demand in the market * Focus Niche Low Cost * Focus Niche Broad Differentiation * Competitive Advantage - the characteristics of a firm that enable to earn higher profits that its competitors * Tangible Assets - easiest to value and the only ones......

Words: 2351 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Instructional Planning

...Misty Lindsey 000058743 Objective Instructional Planning It will always be the main responsibility of the Teacher to choose curriculum, materials and resources that align with the standards and goals that are set forth by their state and district. An instructional materials evaluation checklist allows the Educator to identify and select materials and resources that are appropriate for the support and learning of each and every student. An instructional checklist contains the four areas of design, procedures, clarity and efficiency. The checklist outlines certain criteria that each area must meet. In the following paragraphs, I will describe why each area of an evaluation checklist is important as well as discuss why culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive materials criteria may influence the selection process. In addition, I will identify a grade level, subject area and learning objective for a lesson I would want to teach that would contain curriculum materials that I would need to evaluate. Lastly, I will evaluate the curriculum materials and then decide whether or not to use them in my lesson. I will defend my decisions by providing a rationale for each resource. I will begin by discussing how important it is to choose materials that are culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive. Before evaluating any resources by the checklist, one must choose materials to use within the lesson to be taught. And the selection process of......

Words: 2153 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Term Paper

...Term Paper On Disciplines that Contribute to Organizational Behavior Prepared by – Shambhavi Reg. no. 1220759 Class: Ist MBA – V Date : 9th July, 2012 Abstract: This study covers different disciplines that affect the discipline of organizational behavior. Disciplines like psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc are self acclaimed disciplines that contribute to the study of organizational behavior and they determine how an individual would behave in a scenario. It also includes mention of a case study to determine corporate psychological defenses, which explains how organizations try to avoid charges even if it’s their fault. This term paper discusses how different attributes of organizational behavior are affected by disciplines of different nature. Key words: Interdisciplinary, Organizational Behavior, Psychology, Sociology, Social Psychology, Anthropology, Management, Political Science, Medicine. 1 Introduction: 1. Meaning & Definitions: Organizational Behavior is a systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit within organizations, according to P G Aquinas (2006). This study is basically concerned with the psychosocial, interpersonal, and behavioral dynamics in organizations. The term ‘Organizational behavior’ is defined by Stephen P Robbins as “a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structures on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving on Organization’s...

Words: 2179 - Pages: 9