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Impacts of Using Day Care Facility on Children Due to Maternal Employment

In: Business and Management

Submitted By SumbalS
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Impacts of using day care facility on children due to maternal employment

Methods of Business Research

Submitted by Sumbal Syed
MBA 14

Research Title: Impacts of using day care facility on children due to maternal employment.

In the past few years there has been an increase in trend for women to be pursuing a career, and hence, working mothers are bound to use daycare facilities to assist them in managing their children along with other responsibilities. These children therefore get a divided share of family/home atmosphere as being part of bringing up. As part of this research project, I shall study the impact of day care facility on the children of working mothers.

Keywords: Maternal employment, Working mothers, impacts of external child care, daycare facility, child care, career oriented mothers, physiological health factors, personality development.

Problem statement
Our problem statement shall primarily be “The effect of using day care facility on child care due to maternal employment.”

In simpler words, we shall study the impact of the use of day care facilities by working mothers and its effects upon the upbringing of children.


There is a need to identify if this increasing trend is beneficial for the children in the long run or not.
Thus, basic objective of the research shall be to conduct a study and conclude the following: 1. Identify their mental and physiological health factors affecting the children 2. Determine the impact of the above on their childhood and personality development 3. Social complexes developed by them while visiting day care centers 4. Study the Impact on their academic performance in long run 5. Personal development, dependency and mannerism of the child visiting day care and determine lacking personality features 6. Conduct analysis after data collection

Theoretical and practical implications
On the basis of information collected through surveys, interviews and questionnaires, we will make an educated guess (theoretical) about what might result (implication) from using day care facility. Social, physiological and mental stresses for both mother and child resulting from the situation.
The implications are simply the results of any actions performed, thus here, we shall infer the behavioral changes of the children when their mothers prefer to use the day care facility. Thus we shall identify the practical implications of the scenario based on the findings of the surveys and provide recommendations accordingly.
Just as we perform a cost benefit analysis in other researches, we shall try to gauge the results using a similar model, as to what are the benefits opposed to negatives that come as an outcome, for the child and the mother and determine the stakes, be it in terms of time, money or physiological and mental factors. (tangible/intangible)

As per definition, maternal employment refers to the labor force affiliation of mothers with children. It refers to a time period from 0-18 years. It includes full, part-time work, contracting, and working out of the home. Day care center is a place providing care and recreation facilities for those who cannot be fully independent, primarily children. They can take varying forms including not-for-profit, for-profit, family and individual day care centers. And, maternal employment and day care facility are interdependent. This study takes into consideration the impacts of the interdependent relationship of the two variables. Literature review
This chapter of literature review contains information sought from the journals, articles, call for papers prepared by scholars across the globe. It gives an overview of the survey findings, factors affecting the use of day care facilities due to maternal employment in international markets and their implications on child nature as a whole. As well as, it provides an insight to the increasing need for day care facility due to an increasing trend in maternal employment world over and in Pakistan.
A journal, “The impact of maternal employment on infant attachment and cognitive development” reviews and presents opposing views regarding positive and negative opinions in this area. One school of thought suggests that non-maternal care may have a detrimental effect on the quality of infant-parent attachments and later child cognitive outcomes. However, an opposing research suggests that no relationship exists between early maternal employment and the quality of infant parent attachments, and that non-maternal care may prove to be advantageous to infant cognitive development. Conflicting views of different researches suggest further research to be conducted in this area in order to draw clear conclusions about the nature of effects of maternal employment on children in the long run.

With the evolution in literacy over the past three decades, maternal employment has become increasingly popular and thus has become customary for the working women to return to their paid employment after maternity. This has numerous social, emotional and cognitive implications on the developing child and his/her psychological developments with respect to negative and positive aspects. Since the rate of maternal employment is seeing an increasing trend continuously, hence, this subject carries relative importance for health professionals as well.

According to a research, early maternal employment increases the chances of an infant to be doubtfully attached to their parents and incur avoiding behaviors as compared to the mothers of unemployed mothers. Thus they are classified as insecure-avoidant category. It is also observed, that since an employed mother does not have as much physical and psychological interaction with the child, it is likely that the child takes it as constant physical and psychological rejection by the mother and make the child more susceptible to disorganized behaviors in situations of emotional distress later in life. It then allows the child to maintain a sense of control over potentially disorienting experiences. As well as, the number of hours of employment of the mother also produced significantly varying results in terms of insecure attachment of the child to mother, father or both parents.

Another aspect that comes into consideration due to maternal employment is management of maternal roles and responsibilities at home. Due to an increase in responsibility on the other partner, level of frustration and resentment rises causing the father-child relationship to be stressful due to undue pressure, in-turn affecting spouse relationship.

While examining the effects of maternal employment on the cognitive outcomes of pre-school children, regardless of socio-economic status, it was observed that most negative impact occurs on the children in the second and third quarters of the first year of infancy as they are beginning to form representations of their parents using newly developed cognitive concepts of object and person permanence. A very common behavior observed among children of employed mothers is that a strange situation may not elicit an anxiety response because they are inherently familiar with routine separation from their attachment figures.
Contrary to this point of view, another research conducted to investigate the effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development produced opposite results. It revealed that employed mothers are more likely to engage in reading activities with their children from birth as compared to non-employed mothers. This act of extra attention may attribute to the fact that the working mother is less physically present with her child as compared to an unemployed mother. It is also suggested that benefits of a center-based care may have a greater positive influence on the cognitive development of the child. Center based care allows the children to avail the opportunity to interact with a variety of individuals who have been professionally trained to handle children for positive psychological and physical development. They tend to be didactic and interactive in the process of care and hence the children show better cognitive progress under their influence. This study has been backed by evidence provided by Clarke-Stewart.

However, different child care environment, programs and settings also initiate different behaviors displayed among children and they are counted as important parameters while conducting research on this topic. Infant personality, temperament and well-being are also a major factor to alter the impact of center based or home based care on child development.

As part of analysis, the effects of child care on the development of a child were required to be studied and psychology, sociology and economics literature have been observed to have significant impact on development of a child in a certain child care setting. Three aspects particularly important are: 1. Quality 2. Quantity 3. Type of care

A definite type of child care can affect a child’s development. The quantity of time the child spends in that type of care and determination of the quality of that type is vital. According to significant research, it has been found out that higher-quality care definitely initiates better child development. As well as, the quality of care pertains to the structural features of the child care settings including child-adult ratio, group size, caregivers’ specialized training and formal education level.

Day care and home based child outcomes depend on both the quantity and quality of family and child care inputs. The estimation procedure accounts for non-random selection into different child care types in two steps. First, an ordinary least squares (OLS) model is used with the inclusion of a rich set of explanatory variables that reflect differences among families using different child care types. Second, a multinomial logit-OLS two-stage estimation model, originally developed by Lee (1983), is applied to control for the possible selection bias of child care choice. The results are then used to calculate the difference in child development outcomes between one type of non-maternal care and maternal care.

The research conducted is based on computed quantifiable outcomes which justify certain behaviors that are predicted by the researchers. Certain quantifiable variables are as used by the researchers include:

Child development outcome
The outcomes analyzed are measures of language and social development at a certain age. They include the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and similar other activities to receive scores on the basis of which results are compiled. Evidence shows that PPVT scores in early childhood correlate with literacy outcomes in young adulthood.

The two behavior problems variables measure internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems. The internalizing include anxiousness/depression and withdrawal and externalizing includes aggression and destructive child behavior problems.

Type of childcare
The key explanatory variable for the research is the type of child care, pertaining to maternal or non-maternal care. Therefore, children with working and non-working mothers are included in the sample. Here, a dichotomous scale indicating whether the child has ever experienced any changes in child care type is used to measure instability in child care between age one and three.

Children show less internalizing behavior problems in center care, and more externalizing behavior problems in non-relative setting. Family and child characteristics and measures of home environment are vital for child development. In the models of children’s behavior problems, center care is significantly more beneficial than maternal care for children in their internalizing behavioral development. This study may have significant contradictions as researchers argue upon the behavioral outcomes of children in day care settings.

A change in child care type between age one and age three only has significant impacts on the language development of children in maternal care in the first year. Children who receive maternal care at age of one achieve higher PPVT scores in non-maternal setting at age three, as compared to the children who receive maternal care throughout.
With regard to children’s social development, this research indicates that day care center based care is more beneficial than maternal care during the first year.

Adding on, as this research concludes, the children availing day care center opportunity have greater chances to interact with peers. The caregivers in centers tend to hold non-authoritarian childrearing beliefs (child-centered), which inculcate more positive interactions with other infants. Most importantly, a caregivers’ education is a strong predictor of children’s social development as they possess higher levels of education as compared to maternal level of education in most circumstances.

According to certain researches, in cases of non-maternal care, the children who spent a significant amount of time in day-care, keeping in view the age of the child, an increased likelihood of behavioral and socio-economic problems arises. Lower academic achievement, increased chances of childhood diseases and long term behavioral problems are most common among children with non-maternal care.
According to an article “Center-Based Daycare and Children’s Behavior.” Children in a day care setting exhibited increased behavioral problems as compared to their peers. In comparison of the maternal care, children who attended a daycare center lacked in social skills, primarily including weak self-control, poorer interpersonal skills, and have a greater tendency to externalize problematic behavior. They exhibit increased instances of fighting, arguing, and expression of anger, impulsive action and disturbance in classroom activity.1

Another study shows that behavioral problems shown by children tend to relate to the age of antrance into the day care setting. The article “Age at Entry in Daycare” Explains that these problems were more pronounced in the children who were admitted at an early age as compared to the children who entered later. As well as, variations existed among children spending different number of hours at the day care. 2
“Hours Spent in Non-Parental Care” suggests a similar view. According to this article, Children who spend more time in daycare are more likely to exhibit negative behavior. Researchers provided a controlled environment keeping socioeconomic status, family stress, and child gender constant and found out that the amount of time spent in day care played an important role in increasing scores on negative roles and behaviors and decreasing scores on positive roles and behaviors for children who reached the age of entering kindergarten.3

“Non-Parental Care of Infants” suggests that utilization of daycare during infancy is a major determinant of children’s cognitive skills and levels of behavioral problems. Contrary to the research presented earlier in the review, this article suggests the opposite of the study conducted. It states that the children of mothers employed before they were one year old exhibited lower levels of cognitive scores (assessed through Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R) and higher levels of behavioral problems (assessed through the Behavioral Problems Index) at age of three and four.4

In consistency with the journal referred to earlier, “Maternal Attachment” also suggests that Admission of infants to daycare in the first year of life increases probability of infants having an insecure attachment with their mothers. Quoting a few statistics from a study, infants who experienced more than 20 hours a week of non-maternal care, 43 percent were classified as “insecure,” whereas 26 percent of infants who experienced less than 20 hours per week of non-parental care (including none) were classified as insecure. Similarly, sons who experienced more than 35 hours per week of non-maternal care were more likely to have insecure attachments to their fathers.5

Catering to emotional development differences arising due to a difference in child care setting due to maternal employment, researches imply differing conclusions. The article “Maternal Employment” says that children of full-time working mothers are more likely to exhibit disturbed emotional and behavioral problems. Children reaching the ages of Four and six whose mothers work a significant number of hours each week tend to exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties and problem behaviors than other peers. Early and extensive maternal employment is however, associated with increased behavioral problems, less compliance, and insecurity among chilren.6

Another aspect of concern highlighted in “Daycare and Parenting in At-Risk Families” states that as compared with other parents in at-risk families, parents who rely extensively on daycare for their infants tend to pay less attention to their children and thus provide less parental guidance and control. Researchers correlated subsequent family problems with extensive reliance on day care centers due to non-availability of maternal guidance. As a result, as the children grow up, they exhibit defiant behavior as in the longer run they become used to less frequent guidance and control.7

Article “Long-Term Effects of Daycare in Centers” also supports the earlier claim of researchers suggesting that the amount of time spent in a daycare center is related to children’s long-term behavioral problems. Children who spend more time in daycare centers in early childhood are more likely to exhibit behavioral problems, even through the sixth grade.8

In relation to this article and supporting the study presented earlier, a similar study “Cumulative Effect of Daycare” also explains daycare and behavior relationship phenomenon in the longer run. It says that the quantity of time spent in daycare in infancy and preschool years is assumed to be linked to children’s subsequent school performance and behavior when they grow up. Children who have a greater day care experience since infancy exhibited poorer work habits, peer relationships, and emotional health, and as being more difficult to discipline in comparison to maternal care children.9

Taking other aspects into consideration, “Daycare and Children’s Health” highlights the health care problems faced by center based child care children. As compared to children raised at home, pre-schoolers who attend daycare centers are more likely to utilze health care services as compared to home based child care children. Daycare children are at greater risk of contracting both minor communicable illnesses and more significant medical problems. These might include hepatitis, injuries, viral infections and chronic otitis media (ear infections). According to statistics, their per week visit to the doctor and recieveing a prescription medicine is three times more, and two time greater likelihood of visiting an emergency than a maternal care child.10

Present knowledge about the effects of day care can therefore be summarized in relatively brief scope. Experience in high-quality, center-based day care (1) has neither salutary nor deleterious effects upon the intellectual development of the child. It is not disruptive factor of the child's emotional bond with his mother and it increases the degree to which the child interacts, both positively and negatively, with peers.
Findings of behavioral development in children attending day-care centers are differentiated into four major areas including cognitive development, emotional development, social development, and the effects of day care on the family.
Cognitive development
The effects of day care upon the intellectual development of the child is still a debate among researchers. Relying on measures based on naturalistic observations, Macrae and Herbert-Jackson (1975) argue that early entry into day care is incurs higher levels of problem solving, abstraction abilities, and playfulness abilities in children. Therefore, as far as intelligence as measured by standardized tests is concerned, experience in day-care has little positive or negative effect on children.
Emotional development
As understood, any arrangement that deprives the child of continuous access to his mother affects the development of a strong maternal attachment and hence adversely affects the child's emotional security. Since day care, by its inherent nature, entails the daily separation of mother from child, a good deal of attention has been devoted over an argument whether child care in a day care center does disrupt the child's emotional bond with the mother or not.
However, the researches purporting either claims are available. Blehar's (1974), Ricciuti's (1974), and Cochran's (1977) data claims that the emotional development of home-reared children is better however, Moskowitz et al. (1977) and Doyle and Somers (Note 2) data, in contrast, favors day care reared children.
Social development
Considering their relation to peers, it is suggested by Cornelius and Denny (1975) note that the children having a day-care experience exibit elimination of the sex differences in proximity seeking behavior which is found to be present in home based children. It also suggests that at earlier ages (12-18 months), day-care children are more likely to interact with peers than home-reared children.
Finkelstein and Wilson (Note 24), for example, reported that when day-care and non-day-care 2-year-olds were brought together they, present no differences in vocalizing, initiating interaction, or leading interactive play with peers were found. Therefore, a differing opinion is suggested in this journal as opposed to a different opinion presented earlier.

Critical review
While studying the impact of day care centers on children due to maternal employment, in light of the literature already present, certain psychological, social, emotional factors have been observed to recieve varying opinions. Positive and negative impacts on the physical and mental health of children, behavioral problems, academic performance while growing up are a major part of the deciding factor in favor or against the utilization of day care facility and maternal employment.
While discussing intellectual developments of children left at day care centers by their mothers, contradictions in studies have been found. Some studies suggest higher intellect to be inculcated in children attending day care since they receive exposure to peers at day care as well as at home after the mother takes over. For children, experience in center-based care does appear to attenuate the declines in IQ thus influencing positively.
With regard to emotional development, there seems to be a contradiction. In light of the journal referred to as above, there is solid evidence indicating that day care is not disruptive of the child's emotional bond with his mother initiating it at any stage of his life starting at birth. In addition, exposure to day care does not decrease the child's preference for his mother even if they meet with a gap due to work engagement of the mother. As seen in the literature studies mentioned above, there are theories showing that maternal employment weakens the bond between child and mother due to constraints in availability of the mother. They have been referred to as insecure attachments in the text above.
Finally, with respect to social development, the existing data indicates that day-care-reared children, when compared with age-mates reared at home, interact more with peers in both positive and negative ways. Studies mentioned above show that children enrolled in day care for longer periods of time show increased aggression toward peers and adults. They also exhibit instances of decreased cooperation with adults and involvement in educational activities as soon as they enter school. However, as discussed above, there are mixed opinions depending upon the social values, cultures and environments.
The differences between children attending day care centers and brought up in maternal care must be interpreted with caution keeping in mind the external factors. Such research should therefore highlight the impact of day care at the levels of the micro and macro systems. In this way, we may move beyond the narrow viewpoint.
And, most profoundly, if we see the broader picture, we would be able to understand the ways in which a day care system affects our cultural and sub-cultural patterns. The serve as a bridging factor between information, ideology and customs. Such analysis contribute to establishing societal attitudes towards better care of children and role of women in our culture. As well as, they encourage or hinder the entrance of women into the labor force in turn affecting the welfare system and influencing other economic indicators.
On the basis of the limited knowledge and researches studied, it is apparent that the present state of knowledge regarding impacts of day care centers on children due to maternal employment, is clearly inadequate to form solid opinions regarding overall impact on the upbringing and mindset of children with working mothers. Therefore, a local study accompanied with recommendations for future investigations, conducted from a broader, ecological perspective on human development, are offered.

Research Design and Methodology
Research design includes formulation of overall strategy to integrate various components of the study coherently and logically, ensuring that the research problem is addressed properly. It includes an outline of the collection, measurement and analysis of data. The research problem determines the type of research design to be used.
The length and complexity of description of research design varies as per the problem however, a well-developed research shall aim to achieve the following components: 1. Clear and explicit hypotheses identification [i.e., research questions] central to the research problem, 2. Effective description of data necessary for adequate testing of the hypotheses proposed and explanation of how such data will be obtained, and 3. Description of the methods of analysis to be applied to the data while determining if the hypotheses are true or false.
Hypothesis 1: Maternal employment generates negative behavious
Hypothesis 2: Upbringing in a daycare facility environment develops psychological and behavioral problems
Hypothesis 3: Upbringing In a day care facility helps better development of a child
Hypothesis 4: No negative or positive implications develop due to the environment

Type of Research
Basic Research
This is a basic research project which shall aim at identifying dependent and independent variables as determinants of the impacts of using daycare facility due to maternal employment. As well as this study aims at identifying the relationship among the variables and the extent to which the variables are interdependent and affecting the subject in question. Here, however, the impacts on and development of children is the subject and dependent variable of the problem statement and the independent variables are maternal employment, daycare facility and the conditions available. It aims to expand the knowledge of the processes of the daycare management. It also aims to develop universal principles relating to the daycare facility and its relationship to the outcomes/impacts. The project has been undertaken by a post graduate student with the intent of making an advanced case study for evaluation purposes. The choice of topic has been made by the researcher as discussed with the supervisor and has relative and flexible time scales. This shall be a mode 3 study, incorporating knowledge production focus on an issue of human relevance.
Primary and secondary Data collection research process:
This study shall undertake the findings using primary and secondary data sources. The psychological theories and behaviors associated with the topic shall be studied as per the prior theories and information contained in research articles, journals and text books elaborating human behaviors. As well as, prior conclusions drawn from local and foreign populations will also be taken from secondary data sources. However, the collection of fresh data from the current population sample will be collected and used as the primary data source by the researcher.
Research study type: Explanatory/causal
This study shall be undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships amongst the dependent and independent variables identified as per the topic. Normally a causal study is preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research studies and in this case as well, extensive exploratory and descriptive studied have been conducted to identify the charachteristics and phenomenon of working mothers, conditions and circumstances created to utilize those facilites necessarily and the negative and positive behaviors identified as part of child psychological study.
Research Strategy and tools
The primary mode of research data collection shall be conduction of surveys and interviews with the relative sample population and their representatives. Sample population shall include working mothers from all professions within the age segment of 24-45. Questionnaires shall be drafted in order to distribute among the mothers and concerned population. As well as separate questionnaires shall be made to be distributed to the daycare heads in order to record their opinions regarding the behaviors displayed by the children admitted at the facility and to gauge the variation in behavior.
This shall help the researcher to determine if there exists any similarity among the display of characteristics of all the children or not, thus helping conclude if admitting to a day care facility is the cause of development of that certain behavior or if there is no relationship between the displayed behaviors and admitting to day care facility.
Interviews of employed mothers shall also be conducted and questionnaires shall be drafted before the interviews.
Time Horizon: Cross sectional
This study shall be taking a cross-sectional approach to collect data. The data shall be collected at one certain time instead of a longer period of time by distribution of questionnaires in multi-national organizations, schools, NGO’s, banks, beauty salons and hospitals. Interviewers shall also visit these institutions and interview selected individuals for representation from each group. As well as, day care facilities shall also be visited for interviews and filling of questionnaires.

Research choice: Multi method research
This research shall take a multi-method study approach to study the qualitative factors and variables affecting the upbringing of the children and will use the quantitative results to determine and conclude if it is positively or negatively affecting them. The numeric values will act as an evidence to support the argument, positive or negative.
Unit: Individuals, organizations
The unit of analysis shall be individuals. I.e the mothers between the ages of 24 and 45 and the daycare facilitators/caretakers/owners of the facility. The children being of minor age cannot be interviews but they will be a unit of analysis as they are the subject of the problem and it is them on whom the impacts are being studied and whose behaviors are in consideration. Culture shall also be a part of the unit analysis as it has a great impact on the societal thinking and can completely can completely change the practical perspective.

Measurement scales
All four measurement scales, nominal, ordinal, ratio and interval shall be used in the questionnaires as the questions shall be carrying a variety based on the intent of question.
Validity: construct validity
Parallel form reliability

Sample size of the population
The researcher shall use the current statistics available and as per the data available according to the latest census, following sample size is supposed to be interviewed and questioned for data collectiuon and conclusion.
Total population of Islamabad: 508,190
Female population: (371,000)
Average maternal population employed: 100,000
Confidence Interval: 4
Confidence level: 95%
Sample size: 597

Sample population category
Sample population shall include working mothers in offices, school, hospitals, banks, multinational organizations, universities, departmental stores, hotels and all employment sectors. As well as the day care facilitators shall also be a part of population. For comparison purposes, unemployed mothers shall be questioned and interviewed as well.
Sampling Technique
Stratified sampling technique shall be used to collect data from the above mentioned population categories. It shall be determined that at least 50 working mothers are questioned/interviewed from each sector as of health, education, corporate, retail etc.
Since it is an extensive research study and the population sampling of almost 600 individuals has to be carried out, lots of resources shall be required. 1. Stationary items [paper, pens, diaries etc] for data recording 2. Computers and laptops for data entry/analysis 3. Printer for questionnaire printing 4. Journals, articles and books for literature review 5. Energy resources as used for computer/laptop 6. Internet access 7. Analysis software including SPSS 8. A team of around 10 individuals for interview process and questionnaire distribution and collection.
Since it is a wide scope research comprising of a large number of resources incorporated. The researcher shall need a budget of around PKR 100,000 for the purchase of necessary items required for the project.
Proposed Data Analysis
After the selection of topic, of research, literature review and research design and data collection, data analysis is supposed to be conducted. The use of data analysis procedure shall help the researcher to put the research project in perspective and assist in testing the hypotheses drawn while starting the research. By doing this proposed analysis, the researcher shall be able to convert the raw data into knowledge and explore the relationship between the variables which are maternal employment and child upbringing.
Based on the collection of data, it will be seen if the inductive or deductive approach shall be taken. Since the research topic here hypothesizes, it is imperative that the researcher takes a deductive approach in data analysis.

Since, results from questionnaire shall be needed to be analyzed so statistical analysis will be performed to reach worthwhile conclusions. This shall be a quantitative analysis and the data statistics shall be entered into the tools/software used and results shall be obtained. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used in order to measure research objective and test the hypotheses. Anova, SPSS, regression and co-relation formulas will be applied and results will be obtained by applying various statistical techniques including mean, standard deviation to find out relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Time Table
The timeline for the research project shall be made using a software MS Project and the project timeline shall be shown using a gantt chart.
It shall span over a period of 11 months, research timeline starting from 7th September 2014 as part of first semester project carried to the next semester as final year project. The final submission shall be made in August 2015.
The important timeline headings include: 1. Brainstorming of Research Idea and topic 2. Hypothesis Development 3. Finalization of Topic 4. Preparation and submission of brief 5. Feedback on brief 6. Refinement of topic and improvement 7. Draft Literature review 8. Literature Review submission 9. Research design construction 10. Formulation of Research Methodology 11. Data collection 12. Data analysis 13. Report writing 14. Submission of report 15. Presentation on report 16. Feedback and Review
The proposed gantt chart sample shall be attached in the appendices.
The proposed study shall be very useful because it shall provide concrete justification to the behaviors associated with children being administered in the day care facilities regardless of them being positive or negative. It shall highlight the social, psychological, developmental factors lacking or accessing in children utilizing the day care facility due to maternal employment. It shall determine the hidden aspects which might prove to be harmful for effective functioning and psychological well-being of children.
The study shall enable to stress upon the factors adversely affecting the upbringing and the ones needed to be looked upon and altered. It shall also become an addition to the present literature and provide guidance to other individuals conducting a related study.
As well as, this study shall teach the researcher 1. Effective methods of data collection 2. Correct process of research design 3. Use of data analysis software [SPSS, excel, MS project] 4. Optimized usage of resources 5. Consultation of Journals and articles prior to conducting research 6. Data structuring and relevancy 7. Correct allocation of dependent and independent variables 8. Hypothesis formation and rejection
Apart from the learning outcomes, this research shall allow the researcher to reach a conclusion on the impacts on children due to maternal employment based on quantitative and authentic evidences which shall play as the backbone of the study.

Questionnaire for Daycare facilitator 1. Do caregivers have first-aid/CPR and child development training? 2. Is each child assigned to a primary caregiver? 3. How many children do you serve, and what are their ages? 4. What is the range of activities in which the children participate? 5. How large is the center? (There should be 35 square feet per child in order for each child to have enough room to play comfortably.) 6. Is the center licensed? 7. What happens if one needs to bring their child early or pick him up late? 8. Do you let kids attend if they're not potty-trained or if they have a runny nose or a cough? 9. How do you discipline kids? 10. Is there an outside play area? Do kids use it every day? 11. Do you ever take children on outings off-site? 12. Will one be charged if they take a vacation or the child is sick? 13. Are you licensed? 14. What are your hours? 15. What are your fees? 16. Are you an inclusive daycare setting? 17. How many children are currently at the centre? 18. Do you have a wait list? 19. Can you provide me with three references? 20. What are your policies on parents visiting? 21. Are parents able to stay for a period of time with their child on their first day? 22. Can someone other than immediate family pick up my child? 23. Are parents required to call beforehand to let the centre know that someone other than themselves is picking up the child? 24. Is part-time care available? 25. What is the cost associated with part-time care? 26. For what part of the day is part-time care available? 27. Are children required to provide immunization records? 28. Environment & Safety: 29. How is the diapering area sanitized? 30. Who does the cleaning at the centre? 31. Are staff members responsible for cleaning the centre, or is there a janitorial staff that cleans the centre? 32. How often are the materials cleaned? 33. What types of cleaning products do you use? 34. Are there smoke detectors and visible fire extinguishers? 35. Is there a play area indoors and outdoors? 36. Is the room separated into different areas? 37. Are there a number of materials available to promote all areas of development (fine motor, gross motor, coginitive, and social and emotional)? 38. Is the centre child friendly? 39. Is there a sleep schedule posted? 40. Are the materials and equipment safe and age-appropriate? 41. Is there a first aid kit in each room? 42. Staff 43. What kinds of qualifications do staff members have? 44. How many staff members are trained in Early Childhood Education? 45. What is your staff to child ratio for different ages? 46. Are staff members trained in CPR and First Aid? 47. Are all staff members required to provide a criminal background check and immunization records? 48. What is your staff turnover rate? 49. Are staff members required to take any outside professional development courses? 50. How often are staff members evaluated? 51. Is there a staff communication binder? 52. Are staff members trained in emergency exit procedures? 53. What is the policy for dealing with sick children? 54. How will my child’s medical needs be met? 55. Nutrition 56. Do you provide children with meals? If so, when is morning snack, lunch, and afternoon snack? 57. Is the food nutritious? 58. How do you accommodate children with special food allergies? 59. Are parents given a monthly menu? 60. Programming 61. Describe what an average day is like at the centre? 62. How are accidents at the centre dealt with? 63. How will my child’s feeding and napping schedule be adhered to? 64. Who does the programming? 65. How often does the programming change? 66. 67. Is the centre child-directed or staff-directed? 68. Do children lead the activities and choose their own learning experiences? Or do staff members enforce a strict schedule? 69. Does the centre follow the Day Nurseries Act? 70. Are there written daily updates for parents? As per behavior etc 71. How are new children eased into daycare? 72. Are all types of play promoted? 73. What is the policy for managing challenging behaviour? 74. Is music included in daily activities? 75. How do you ensure that all developmental needs are met?

Questionnaire 2
When visiting a child-care facility, host will be asked the following questions from a parent’s perspective:
____ Is the center licensed or registered with the local government? If so, may I please see a copy of the latest inspection report?
____ Can I visit the center during operating hours before registering my child in the program?
____ Can I examine all the areas my child will use?
____ Once my child is registered, will I be able to visit at any time?
____ Is there a written daily schedule that includes active play, quiet play, rest time, and snacks and meals?
____ Are there regular opportunities for indoor and outdoor play, and are children supervised at all times?
____ Is TV viewing limited to short times and appropriate programming?
____ Does the center offer parenting classes or other family support?
____ Is each child assigned to one caregiver who is primarily responsible for her care?
____ Does the caregiver meet with parents regularly?
____ Is there a written policy about discipline? If so, may I please read it?
____ Is smoking banned from the facility?
____ Are there written policies for the care of ill children that include the responsibilities of the parents?
____ Will the caregivers give prescribed medication to my child?
____ Is there a pediatrician or a nurse who serves as a consultant for the program?
____ Do staff members have training in child development and in providing a learning environment for children?
____ Have staff members received up-to-date first-aid training and CPR training?
____ How long have the caregivers been working there?
____ Are there arrangements if a caregiver gets sick or has to be away?
____ May I get recommendations from parents whose children are currently in the program?

Journal 1:
Belsky, and Laurence D. 1987. “The Effects of Day Care: A Critical Review.” Wiley on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development Vol. 49. No. 4(Dec 1987): 929-949.
(Belsky and D 1987)

Article references in Journal 1:
Saunders, M., & Keister, M. E. Family day care: some observations. Unpublished manu-script, University of North Carolina at Greens-boro, 1972.

Winett, R. A.; Fuchs, W. L.; & Moffatt, S. An evaluative study of day care and non-day care children and their families. Unpublished manu-script, University of Kentucky, 1974.

Steinberg, L., & Green, C. Three types of day care: causes, concerns, and consequences. Un-published manuscript, University of California, Irvine, 1978

Feine, R. J. The differential structural charac-teristics of sentences formed by preschool chil-dren in family and group day care centers. Unpublished manuscript, n.d.

Doyle, A., & Somers, K. The effects of group and family day care on infant attachment. Un-published manuscript, Concordia University, Montreal, n.d.

Kagan, J.; Kearsley, R.; & Zelazo, P. The effects of infant day care on psychological develop-ment. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, February 1976.
Lippman, M. A., & Grote, B. H. Socio-emo-tional effects of day care: final project report. Mimeographed. Western Washington State College, 1974.

Lally, R. The family development research pro-gram. Progress report. Mimeographed. Syra-cuse University, 1973.

Journal 2:
O’Reill, Erin. 2012. “The impact of maternal employment on infant attachment and cognitive development: A Literature Review.” Medical Student Journal of Australia. Volume 4 Issue 1(June 2012): 29-32

Articles references in journal 2:
Barglow P, Vaughn BE, Molitor N. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample. Child Dev. 1987;58:945-54.

Main M, Weston DR. Avoidance of the attachment figure in infancy: Descriptions and interpretations. In: Parkes CM, Steven-son-Hinde, editors. The place of attachment in human behaviour. New York: Basic; 1982. p. 31-59.

Belsky J, Rovine MJ. Nonmaternal care in the first year of life and security of infant-parent attachment. Child Dev 1988;59:157-67.

Chase-Lansdale PL, Owen MT. Maternal employment in a family context: Effects of infant-mother and infant-father attachments. Child Dev. 1987;58:1501-12.

Harvey E. Short-term and long-term effects of early parental employment on children of the national longitudinal survey of youth Dev Psychol. 1999;35(2):445-59.

Zick CD, Byrant WK, Osterbacka E. Mother’s employment, parental involvement, and the implications for intermediate child outcomes. Soc Sci Res. 2001;30:24-49.

Zaslow MJ, Pederson EA, Suwalsky JTD, Cain RL, Fivel M. The early resumption of employment by mothers: Implications for parent-infant interaction. J Appl Dev Psychol. 1985;6:1-16. (Cited by: Hoffman LW. Effects of maternal employment in the two-parent family. Am Psychol.1989;44(2):283-92.)

Clarke-Stewart KA. A home is not a school: The effects of child care on children’s development. J Soc Issues. 1991;47(2):105-23

Articles reviewed for Literature review: 1. Hickman, Lisa N. 2006. “Who Should Care for Our Children?.” Journal of Family Issues 27, No. 5 (2006): 652-684. 2. Loeb, Susanna., Margaret Bridges, Daphna Bassok, Bruce, Fuller, and Russell W. Rumberger. 2007. “How Much Is Too Much? The Influence of Preschool Centers on Children’s Social and Cognitive Development,” Economics of Education Review 26, (2007): 52-66. 3. Bates, J. E., D. Marvinney, T. Kelly, K. A. Dodge, D.S. Bennett, and G. S. Pettit. 1994. “Child Care History and Kindergarten Adjustment,” Developmental Psychology 30, (1994): 690-700. 4. Baydar N., and J. Brooks-Gun, “Effects of Maternal Employment and Child Care Arrangements on Preschoolers’ Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth,” Developmental Psychology 27, (1991): 932-945. 5. Jay Belsky, “Infant Day Care and Socioemotional Development: The United States,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 29, No. 4 (1988): 397-406. 6. Belsky J., and D. Eggebeen, “Early and Extensive Maternal Employment and Young Children’s Socioeconomic Development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, (1991): 1083-1110. 7. Belsky J., S. Woodworth, and K. Crnic, “Trouble in the Second Year: Three Questions About Family Interaction,” Child Development 67, (1996): 556-578. 8. Belsky, Jay., Margaret Burchinal, Kathleen McCartney, and Deborah Lowe Vandell, “Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?“ Child Development. 78, No. 2. (March/April 2007): 681-701. 9. Vandell, D. L., and M. A.Corasiniti, “Variations in early child care: Do they predict subsequent social, emotional, and cognitive differences?“ Early Childhood Research Quarterly 5, (1990): 555-572. 10. Silverstein, Michael., Anne E. Sales, and Thomas D. Koepsell, “Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated with Child Care Attendance: A Nationally Representative Sample” Pediatrics 111, No. 4 (April 2003): e317-e375.

Becker, G.S. 1991. A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Belsky, J. 1988. The ‘effects’ of infant day care reconsidered. Early Childhood Research (Sept 1988): 235-273.

Bornstein, M., C.S. Hahn, N.F. Gist, and O.M. Haynes. 2006. “Long-term cumulative effects of child care on children’s mental and socioemotional development in a non-risk sample: The moderating effects of gender.” Early Child Development and Care 176, (2006): 129-56.

Child development. 1987. “The effects of day care: A critical review.” Research design and Methodology…...

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