Premium Essay

Human Growth and Development

In: Science

Submitted By joe2315
Words 3002
Pages 13
Many aspects of an infant changes as it grows. Infancy is the “period that starts at birth and continues until the second birthday” (Feldman, 2014, p. 113). Some of the biggest changes happen in the realms of physical growth, cognitive development, sensory perception and nutritional needs. All these work together to form a functioning, intelligent, capable human. Although, there can still be some nature/nurture controversy over prenatal development, labor, birth, birth complications and the development of the competent newborn, things are changing. Infants grow at a rapid pace during this time. Non quiet as obvious as the physical growth of the infant. “Average newborns weigh just over 7 pounds, and measure 20 inches long” (Feldman, 2014, p. 114). They go from being helpless to dynamic moving, eating, talking experimenting children. “By the end of his or her second year, the average child weighs around four times as much as he or she did at birth and average a height of 3 feet” (Feldman, 2014, p. 114). Infants go through four principles of growth from birth to their second year. The cephalocaudal principle states that growth follows a direction that begins with the head and then proceeds to the rest of the body. The proximodistal principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward. The principle of hierarchical integration states that simple skills develop separately, but that these skills are integrated into more complex ones. The principle of the independence of systems suggests that different body systems grow at different rates (Feldman, 2014, p. 115). This means that the infant can see clearly before they walk, the body grows before the extremities along with the arms before the hands and fingers, grabbing a small toy can’t be accomplished before the infant learns how to integrate the limbs and fingers to work…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Human Growth

...1 Population Growth William DiCarlo SCI/230 November 12, 2012 Casey Bulaclac 2 Population growth has increased rapidly due to the vast advancements in food production, medical technology, and sanitation infrastructure. Human births have drastically outpaced human deaths to a level which is unprecedented in human history(Petryni, 2012). It has become very important for individuals to understand this phenomenon of human growth by understanding the two main growth curves that are practiced by scientists. The first human growth is the exponential growth curve. With this curve, scientists believe that the population growth will remain fairly constant and the population will increase by double in a short period of time(Petryni, 2012). The reasoning behind this curve is that it plots an output of an exponential equation, hence the name exponential growth(Petryni, 2012). The second human growth curve is the logistic growth curve. Scientists that study this curve predict that the population will eventually level off as the growth rate approaches zero(Petryni, 2012). Scientists call this human growth curve the S- curve because of its strong resemblance to a large capital S when plotted correctly. The population growth rate does have a significant effect on our population. The more people brought into this world creates a strong demand for other resources. The demand for food, water, and shelter...

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Human Development

...Human Growth and Development Cherese Murphy CJA/280 October 18, 2012 Altovise Boyd Human Growth and Development The way in which humans grow and develop has been in question for many years. However, theorists have developed numerous theories pertaining to the growth and development, of humans. All of these theorists had the same question how and what causes humans to behave, grow and develop in different ways. Human development consists of how a person grows and develops physically, intellectually, and socially. However, this process began taking place from the time a person is conceived in its mother’s womb, birth, childhood, teenager, adult, and up until death (Kathleen Stassen Berger (2010).). Erikson’s psychosocial development consists of eight stages. These stages of development consist of various development particular objectives to be mastered in different stages and time frames. The main focus of the theory pertains to how internal and external forces affect ones development by life stages (Hutchinson (2003).). However, Erikson eight stages of development consist of hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom. The Cognitive development is a comprehensive theory pertaining to human intelligence and nature and is better known as the Piaget’s theory. Piaget’s theory involves how humans obtain knowledge and later how it is utilized. The Piaget’s theory of cognitive development consists of six stages assimilation and accommodation,......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Growth and Development

...Growth and Development Sophie Evans Jill Windes ECE205 11/19/12 Growth and Development Many people use growth and development interchangeably when they are actually two separate things. Growth is physical changes leading to increase in size (Allen, 2009). Growth is measured; “the growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood” (Scibd, 2012). In comparison, development refers to an increase in complexity-a change from the relatively simple to the more complicated and detailed (Allen, 2009). Development is not growth as in when a child increases in size, but it is the growth of behavior;”development is also influenced by heredity, environmental factors, culture, and family values unique to each individual” (Allen, 2009). Growth is measured by charts whereas there are domains of development that are met to measure the growth of development. In this paper I am going to discuss the six major areas of development domains, an analysis of developmental milestones, and explain factors of what can contribute to atypical development. There are six major areas of developmental domains: physical, motor, perceptual, cognitive, speech and language, and social-emotional. Allen (2009) states, “Each is integrally related to and interdependent with each of the others in the overall developmental process” (pg. 35). Basically, one area of development is influenced by another area of development and so on and so......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Human Growth and Development

...HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 2012/2013 MODULE LEADER: FIONA BOYD STUDENT NUMBER: N0371372 WORD COUNT: 2450 This assignment is aimed to discuss a case study using child development and adult development theories to explain the relevance of these theories to health and social care practice. It is going to briefly summarise the of major theories used by health care professionals to provide care and determine practice related decisions. The discussion is going to focus mainly on the attachment theory, Bowlby, J (1969), Levinson, D (1986) theory of life structures and Erikson, E (1963)stages of life theory. According to Banks (2001), these theories are there to help health professionals describe or predict patterns and behaviour considered to be within the parameters of normality for human beings and assess the need for intervention. Some major theories used by health care professionals today embrace the works of Freud (1856) and Bandura (1925) who challenged the view of human development and human nature by suggesting that humans are driven largely by emotions and motives of the unconscious and , a social cognitive theorist who believed humans learnt from observation of other people rather than from a pre-disposed notion of biological (nature)......

Words: 2739 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Human Growth and Development

...Psychology is the understanding how and why an individual change and doesn’t change through development. The changes from Germinal to fetal period is miracle; but when you eventually saw the changes occur in a child from ages six through eleven on a daily basis is unbelievable. In this paper, we’ll get to understand how a child grows and developed to understand the environments around them. These changes are well researched and the finding of it is remarkable. The finding is through different domains which these psychologists, Erickson and Freud have made; they are Biosocial, Psychosocial and Cognitive. These domains will explain step by step the different development of six years through eleven years old child. The first domain will describe how a child from age six through eleven motivate and experience their self. This domain is called the biosocial theory. At this age for almost ailment from influenza to cancer they are the healthiest period of their life. This theory will also explain how a child has the skills to undertake their basic care, from brushing their own teeth, prepared their break and walk to school. As one interviewed a ten year old girl; she remembered the age she started to do her laundry. She stated,” I was six when my mom told me to wash my under wear and socks and at that same age I have to clean my room” (Tonian 3/6/2010). They are few children at this age will not start to do these duties. You have parents that spoiled their child so......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Human Development

...Human Development Amber Jones PSY 280-Human Growth and Development October 13, 2012 Linda Baker Human Development The growth and development of humans is a very interesting topic to discuss with anyone. There are so many theories that people have on human development and it always makes for interesting conversations. In this paper, I will put focus on the psychoanalytic theory, the stages of psychosocial development theory, and the stages of faith theory. I will focus on the three theories because I feel that they are extremely interesting to the growth and development of humans. To be more specific, I want to focus on exactly what the theories are and how they are important and/or related to the human growth and development. As well, I want to focus on at least on theorist who is known specifically for the theory I focus on. I also want to identify the aspects of the life span from that theory’s perspective. Last, but definitely not least, I want to discuss in detail how the heredity and the environment have influence on human development. By the end of the paper, you as the reader, should have a better understanding of the three theories of my choosing and how human development works. Psychoanalytical Theory The first theory related to human growth and development that I want to focus on is the psychoanalytical theory. With this specific theory, the personality organization and the development of the personality dynamics is he focus. Probably the......

Words: 973 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Human Growth and Development

...informed me of the play date. Kayla is currently in preschool and her mother states she enjoys it. Currently, Kayla uses five to six word sentences well enough for me to understand. Kayla is chatty and does express her feelings, needs and desires. At one point Kayla was talking about how excited she was about her birthday next month, her mother planned a sleepover. Kayla was telling me what she expected for the party, for instance cake, watch frozen and she also wanted her makeup done. I noticed that Kayla got along with kids her own age. Not only did Kayla play with Julie at the park she also made a couple of new friends while she was there. Peer groups are vital in supporting a child's development, it offers support, encouragement and establishes good behavior throughout their development to adulthood. Peers serve many important roles in the life of a developing child. From toddlerhood through adolescence, peers serve to meet the child’s need for acceptance and belonging. In order for a child to successfully get along in group settings or form lasting friendship, the child must have the necessary social skills, which can be accomplished through interactions in school or play dates. After a while the kids got tired and instead of playing Kayla wanted to play a game on her mother’s iPhone. Kayla’s mother was in the middle of doing something and Kayla kept insisting that she needed her iPhone. Kayla’s mother squatted down to Kayla’s level and started speaking to her in a......

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Growth and Development

...Child Growth and Development Home and Family Life June 10, 2009 Growth and Development For every human being, the process of growth and development begins at birth and continues until we die. Growth is defined as the process of increasing in physical size, while development is the process of maturation and the refinement of body systems, thought processes and judgment. Child development unfolds in a complex manner as he or she interacts with the surrounding environment. Although some children may grow and develop a little earlier or later than others, they tend to follow a general pattern of progression. A child's development can be followed by how they play, learn, speak, and behave. The tasks and skills the child learns during the different stages of development are referred to as developmental milestones. Milestones develop in a sequential fashion. This means that a child will need to develop one set of skills before he or she can develop new skills. For example, children must first learn to crawl and to pull up to a standing position before they are able to walk. Each milestone that a child acquires builds on the last milestone developed. I had the opportunity to observe a two year old female child at Home and Family life. The child at this age is growing at a rapid pace and usually gains approximately 8 oz or more per month. The child I observed was able to demonstrate some fine motor skills such as stacking blocks on top of each other and then knocking them......

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Growth and Development

...Growth and Development of a Future Superstar Growth and Development of a Future Superstar Introduction “I will be an extremely successful performer.” This is Cassy’s reply when she is asked about what she wants to be in the future. At age eleven, she already has a youtube channel with fifty-seven uploaded videos. She covered songs such as “Arms” by Christina Perri and “Price Tag” by Jessie J. Her most watched song cover has 6,703 views already. In this paper, Cassy’s (1) physical development, (2) nutrition status, (3) motor development, (4) cognitive abilities, and (5) psychosocial development will be explored to see any specific factors that may contribute to her exceptional talent. Physical Development Cassy is a Filipino-American girl with black hair and dark brown eyes. Her height is 150 cm and weight is 86 lbs. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cassy is at the 77th percentile for height and 58th percentile for weight (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2013, pg 1127). This means that she has the same height or taller than 77 percent of the children of her age, and she weighs the same or more than 58 percent of the reference population. It is important that Cassy’s height and weight is somewhat in the middle of what is considered to be usual for her age since school-age children are aware of their deviations away from the norm. If they are too different from their peers, it may affect their body......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Human Growth and Development Review Sheet

...DEP 2000 – EXAM 1 REVIEW SHEET CHAPTER 1 1. The pattern of movement that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. Each of us develop: * Party like some individuals i.e. with those whom we share similar genetic makeup example our parents, siblings. * Partly like no other individuals i.e. the genetic recombination and environment factors which makes us unique. * Partly like all other individuals with those whom we share similar gender, age, and other such physiological factors. 2. Development includes Growth and Decline (see page 5) * Consider a 75 year old man, his goal will not be able to improve his golf swing, but to maintain his independence and to play golf at all. 3. Traditional vs Life-Span Approach (see page 2) * Traditional Approach suggests that, most if not all changes occur from birth to adolescence (infancy), no change in adulthood and decline in old age. * Life-Span Approach suggests that we undergo changes throughout the course of our life, i.e. all stages of life, from birth till death. 4. Life Span vs. Life Expectancy * Life Span is the longest recorded age a human has lived, which is to be 122 years. Life Span has not changed since the beginning of recorded history. * Life Expectancy is the average number of years an individual born in a particular year/era is expected to live. Life Expectancy has gone up by 30 years in the 20th century. 5. Characteristics of...

Words: 2040 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Human Growth and Development

...adolescents. Physical growth, intellectual/cognitive growth, psychosocial changes, social development, moral development, and the personality all changes and evolves as the infant makes its way through these stages of life. During infancy, children attach to others. “Attachment, a strong, positive emotional bond that forms between an infant and one or more significant persons, is a crucial factor in enabling individuals to develop social relationships” (Feldman, 2014, p. 198).They normally form their initial primary relationship with their parents and other family members. “Research suggests an association between an infant’s attachment pattern and his or her social and emotional competence as an adult” (Feldman, 2014, p. 198). Through the process of “reciprocal socialization, in which infants’ behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers,” infant’s social world starts to take form (Feldman, 2014, p. 188). Infants express their sociability, at first, in nonverbal ways. They smile, laugh, stare, and with age make vocalizations and imitate others. A mothers’ interactions with her baby is important for the babies’ social development. As mothers’ respond appropriately to their babies’ social cues, the infant’s attachment is strengthened. A father’s expression of positive emotions is also important to the infant’s social well-being. Personality includes those stable psychological characteristics and temperaments that define each human being......

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Growth and Development

...Human life starts from a single ferlized cell. This cell is under constant interaction with the environment in the mother’s womb and after birth with the outside world. This interaction leads to the Growth and Development of the child. The increasing of an organ or limb of the baby, in size and weight is Growth. Division of each cell and their growing into thousands in number, or their changing tissues, blood or bone, is part of the process of Development. The primary purpose of studying the growth and development of children is to understand them better. As a teacher or a parent, you, can manage children more effectively if you are aware of how they grow and develop in a systematic manner right from the moment of conception. An orderly pattern is found in the growth of every organ of the body and area of development. Although the development process is continuous, the rate or speed of development varies at different ages of the child. For example, children grow most rapidly during the first three years of life. In their middle childhood, i.e., from 6 - 12 years, their rate of growth is comparatively slow whereas it is accelerated again when they approach adolescence. A knowledge of the trends and patterns of growth and development will enable you to know how children grow and develop; when and what to expect from them, how to guide them in each stage and provide the environment for their optimum development. Let us first understand the meaning of these two important...

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Human Development

...2 THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE Richard A. Jolly Two years ago questions like “what’s new and what’s different in poverty reduction?” would have brought a set of answers different from those that one would give today. Despite the Asian financial and economic crisis, positive new developments within the last two years suggest promising possibilities for poverty reduction and poverty elimination. Poverty Reduction before the Asian Financial and Economic Crisis Three new elements stand out in the approach to poverty reduction in the 1990s. First, there was a new optimism in the mid-1990s over the prospects for rapid reduction of poverty in developing countries. The Human Development Report (HDR) for 1997, which focused on poverty, amply demonstrates this. It showed that the incidence of poverty had fallen more in the last 50 years than in the previous 500 years. Indicators of human development highlighted significant advances in most countries of the world, including countries that had experienced long periods of economic difficulty. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and some 14 other countries, with a population totaling 1.5 billion people, had shown astonishing drops in poverty in less than 20 years. Ten more countries with almost another billion people reduced the proportion of their populations below the poverty line by a quarter or more. All this set the stage for optimism regarding prospects in the rest of the world, with many Asian countries leading the way.......

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Human Growth

...adolescent brain. The development of the adolescence brain has been instructive to cognitive neuroscience. Adolescents are healthy, but show some weird behavior, which is nice if you want to correlate behavior to physical processes in the brain. As such, the studies have been worthwhile to neuroscience as a whole. Yet, we shouldn’t accept any of the neuroscience stories as a full explanation for the behavior of adolescents. It’s true that if the rewiring and maturation of the brain is part of some inescapable, timed cascade of chemical reactions, this program could be at the foundation of adolescent behavior. In every age of history, the unfolding brain would have been noticeable through different sorts of behavior, but its biology would have been the same. However, we don’t know what drives the rewiring and maturation of the brain. It may be that these carefully documented rear-to-front brain that is uncultured in our society and in our society alone. It may be that the way we treat kids is reflected in their own behavior is. Without knowledge on the mechanisms through which brain maturation works, it can’t be accepted as a causal explanation for adolescent behavior. It just allows us to take all these psychological observations that we’re familiar with lack of planning, novelty-seeking and rephrase them as neutral processes. That’s useful to science, but doesn’t answer any questions about how to raise your child, or what kind of society fits best with universal human needs.......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Human Growth

...Abstract This paper analyzes what epigenetics precisely is as well as the effects of epigenetics on our human body throughout time. I further my analysis by going in depth on the effects epigenetics can have on a child going all the way back to their grandparent’s medical history and life experiences. The different articles provide a better understanding on how epigenetics can impede a person drastically, but also ensuring us that scientist are working efficiently to find out ways to manipulate the epigenome. This paper examines my own personal Family History Questionnaire findings and how they are relative to epigenetics. The last part of this paper explores a Bluzone Life Expectancy Questionnaire which identifies the longevity of my life by asking me various questions about everyday experiences and how I can improve my health. Life expectancy Epigenetics is defined as superior to the genome (Epigenetics, 2007). It simply commands the genome on how to work, how much to work and when to react in a specific way. The epigenome tells our cells precisely what type of skin, hair type, and heart we should have. Twins may be born exactly comparable with the same gene structure, but the epigenome is the part of a person’s gene structure that is altered from the day they are born. A genome can be linked to a computer’s hardware that makes up a computer while the epigenome is seen as the software the runs the computer entirely. Epigenome can change a cell just by a person’s......

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6