Free Essay

How Successful Was the Third Crusade

In: Historical Events

Submitted By jwarren101
Words 1040
Pages 5
James Warren DATE \@ "d MMMM y" 19 November 2014

History Essay
How Successful was the Third Crusade?
The Third Crusade’s ultimate objective was to recapture the Holy Land. When they returned without this the overwhelming opinion was that they had failed on there efforts. However, they returned with far more than they had left with, gaining new territories and matching the previously “immortal” Saladin throughout the expedition. They managed to gain a highly useful treaty with him. These successes were met with substantial failures though, including the death of the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa whilst crossing Anatolia and the return of Philip II to France to deal with internal threats. However, the Crusaders took the port of Acre as well as taking Cyprus from the Byzantines. Overall I would say the Crusade failed because they did not retake Jerusalem, but the Crusader’s achievements were still considerable considering how tough the task was originally, and the fact they were fighting a full strength Muslim army.
A major success of the second Crusade was how well prepared the Crusade troops were thanks to Richard I’s vast preparation. Richard was an experienced soldier and he knew exactly what was required for a successful Crusade. As soon as he was crowned king in 1190, he channeled all his resources (Normandy, Aquitaine etc) towards applying the Crusader’s with what they needed to be successful. Richard knew just how tough it was to even get to the Holy Land, let alone reclaim it and attention detail ensured that there were enough supplies to prevent ‘unnecessary deaths’ due to famine and starvation. He was also incredibly aware of the issues that the prior two Crusades faced, which were limited financial resources. To combat the limited finances the ‘Saladin tithe’ was introduced. This was a tax for which all the money would go towards funding the crusade, whether it be ships, food or horses paid for (60,000 horseshoes were purchased). Richard also increased the tax in people who chose not to assist the Crusading movement, as a deterrent to take up the cross, and if they definitely didn’t want to go, more money helped the case. This was a major success as it was the only Crusade with a significant amount of planning prior, making sure they were prepared for every possible eventuality. Without this planning the Crusade could well have been a huge failure, as this was the catalyst for everything that went right for the Frankish army.
One of major things that benefited from this prior planning was the Crusader’s success in battle. Saladin had previously proved to be an ‘immortal’ leader, who was highly distinguished in battle and he had already taken Jerusalem off Frankish hands. Considering the lack of help from the Byzantine’s and Frederick Barbarossa’s army, it was remarkable how well Richard the Lionhearts’s army did with the diminished numbers. 2 years into Guy’s siege of Acre Richard’s army arrived and changed the context of the siege completely. Before his arrival famine was the biggest killer for both sides, but he bought troops, money and equipment to help finish the siege. Within a month it was complete and the coastal port of Acre was under Christian rule. This is highly significant as it made it a prime location for boats to arrive with supplies and men in the future. As well as this the ‘true cross’ was returned to the Christians which gave them a huge boost in morale. Just a few months later, Saladin was defeated at the battle at Arsuf. A cunning counter attack by Richard’s forces led to Saladin’s forces being forced to retreat away from the battlefield, virtually handing Arsuf to the Crusader’s. After this Jaffa was also taken. In the space of less than year Richard had taken the coastal strip and the ports of Jaffa and Acre and beaten Saladin. This was a huge success because even when they came back without Jerusalem future Crusade’s were made far easier because of the coastal strip Richard had created. As well as this it proved Saladin was not by far and away the best military leader, and he received a lot of hassle from his own side for for some poor decisions. After this Saladin chose not to participate in any more pitched battles and changed his defence tactics. This slowed down the Crusading movement drastically. There were too few men to just storm through these tactics, would with a larger army would’ve been easy to get past. This is down to Frederick Barbarossa.
The third Crusade mainly focuses on King of England, however had Frederick Barbarossa, the result could have been highly different. Barbarossa was the most powerful monarch in the Western World, and also the most experienced monarch that went on Crusade, and even went on the disastrous second Crusade, This meant he would have known how to hopefully succeed on the third Crusade, however he unfortunately drowned on the way. Barbarossa was an outstanding military leader, and although he supposedly made the incorrect decision by not sailing to Acre like the rest of the Crusaders. Upon crossing Anatolia, Barbarossa’s army defeated a hostile byzantine force, successfully crossing a majority of Anatolia, and even defeating the Seljuks in 1190. All this time Barbarossa managed to preserver over half his original military force, which still possessed significant numbers. However, when he died, his men were left clueless. A overwhelming majority decided it was best to give up on the Holy Land, and a minor few decided to try and carry his body all the way to Jerusalem out of respect. The soldiers that returned home significantly reduced the Crusader’s manpower. The reasoning Richard gave for not trying to take the holy land and signing the treaty with Saladin is that it would have been impossible to keep, because there were too few men. If Barbarossa’s men had been there then there is a strong chance the increased manpower would have resulted in the taking of Jerusalem, and even the possibly security of the city and protection against future invasion. Overall I think Barbarossa’s death, although unfortunate, was a major failure in the 3rd Crusade, and made Richard’s task a thousand times harder than it was previously.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Successful Was Wolsey’s Foreign Policy in the Years 1515-1525?

...How Successful was Wolsey’s Foreign Policy in the Years 1515-1525? (30 marks) Wolsey became Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor in 1515, he was extremely able and determined; his foreign policy was mainly directed at preserving peace and trying to make England a negotiator between other countries. During the years 1515-1525 Wolsey’s power was undisputed, this was due to the fact that Henry VIII delegated more and more state business to Wolsey including near-complete control of England’s foreign policy. The extent of Wolsey’s success can be measured in several ways; these include the financial stability of the country, loyalty from England’s allies and respect for Wolsey (and Henry VIII) from English subjects and foreigners. Wolsey’s greatest achievement in creating a successful foreign policy was the Treaty of London, in 1518, which was known as a ‘universal’ treaty of peace, it united all of Christendom under Henry VIII’s sponsorship with a mutual non-aggressive pact that provided collective support and aid in the case of conflict. While doing this Wolsey also saw the opportunity to re-unite France and England by betrothing Henry VIII’s first daughter, Mary, to the dauphin (first son of the King), by doing this Wolsey also achieved Tournai for England again for 600,000 crowns. Bishop Fox described Wolsey’s maneuver with France as “The best deed that was ever done for England; and, next to the King, the praise is due to Wolsey”. Many people have questioned whether Wolsey’s......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Successful Was the Nazi Regime in Achieving Its Economic Aims?

...New Plan – 1933-1936 – under Hjalmar Schacht where the focus was on reducing unemployment and the balance of payment deficit – ensuring the government spending matched government income; the Four Year Plan – 1936-1940 – under Goering, that focused more on speedy rearmament as Hitler wanted to go to war and acquire Lebensraum, living space. The economic policies included everything from giving the Mittelstand their required state of lifestyle – which had worsened throughout the years leading to the rise of the Nazis as big business had ousted them from the market – jobs to unemployed people, stabilising the economy, controlling imports into the country, to preventing inflation of the currency and developing autarky – self-sufficiency in producing own goods and raw materials especially in times of war. With such deteriorating economic conditions, it is overwhelming, the amount of pressure that the Nazis put on themselves and the promises they made to the Germans, such that the achievement of these aims seems implausible; this sheds light on the fact that although they sounded reassuring and promising, in actuality these economic policies were not likely to last for very long as another one of Hitler’s major, and probably most important aim was rearmament, and that significantly affected how far the economy progressed during the years 1933-39. Following the New Plan, in the early years, the Nazi economic policy was under the control of Schacht, who, through his deft banking......

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

How Successful Was Russian Industrialisation at Modernising Russia Before 1905?

...How successful was Russian industrialisation at modernising Russia before 1905? Russian industrialisation was both successful and unsuccessful at modernising Russia, both for a number of ways. On the one hand, it was successful. Factories experienced rapid growth, especially those in St Petersburg, Moscow, Baku and the Ukraine. This provided extra jobs for the society and by 1900 over half of the industrial workforce was employed in such factories. Another thing that rose dramatically was the production of coal, iron and oil, from 1898-1913, Russia had the highest national product growth. Both of these things showed that the industrialisation of Russia was successful, the production of these materials meant foreign investors were more interested in the country. It meant favourable changes in foreign markets; the increased foreign earnings meant they could bring in the latest machines and expertise. Also, the foreign experts guided the bourgeoisie and so growth was seen in these, they could sustain Russia’s industrialisation. Another way that industrialisation was a success was the growth of the railways. They helped many different problems that Russia had been experiencing before industrialisation, for example communication and exploitation of raw materials. The railway also helped strengthen the military as it enables supplies to be transported around Russia. The railway, as well as factories, introduced more jobs for the Russian society and it became a major employer...

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Successful Was Louis Xviii’s Foreign Policy Between 1815 and 1824?

...Q.13 How successful was Louis XVIII’s foreign policy between 1815 and 1824? Louis XVIII’s foreign policy was mostly successful between 1815 and 1824. France had a stable relationship with the Quadruple Alliance to start off with which could be further built upon with successful foreign policy. • The Second Treaty of Paris was more punitive than the first but it is important to notice that France was involved in the Treaty and attended the Congress of Vienna. • France was not treated like a leper within international relations as was Germany a century later. Louis XVIII’s first success in foreign policy was in 1818. • Rapid payment of the indemnity, organised by Richelieu, meant that all foreign troops had withdrawn from France two years ahead of schedule. • This enabled France to resume her independent role in European politics. • The conference of Aix-la-Chappell saw France joining the Quadruple Alliance and made it the Quintuple Alliance. =This meant that France regained some of her international prestige and was no longer ‘the defeated power’ However, the Spanish colonies in South America were an area of failure in foreign policy for Louis • The French regime had strived to establish French influence in South America when the trouble in Spain had allowed some of the areas she had controlled to break away. =France came up against the British foreign minister, Canning, who made it very clear that the French should not meddle in that......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Successful Was the New Deal

...Roosevelt’s New Deal was ultimately a success. Although it did not bring an end to the Great Depression, the New Deal did stimulate the economy and restored confidence, once again, in the American government. Roosevelt and Congress, during his first three months of presidency, designed a new legislation that improved the regulated powers of the federal government and recovered liquidated banks. The Glass-Steagall Banking Act established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This corporation insured a maximum of $5,000 deposit in each bank. This made Americans much more probable to entrust their money into federal banks. This also stimulated a decline in failing banks. Another area in need of dire help was the regulation of stock and bond sales. The Federal Securities Act was established to prevent counterfeit sales of stock. The market was supervised by the Securities Exchange Commission. The Public Utilities Act allowed the commission to regulate the issues of public securities stocks. All of these actions contributed into adding the confidence for investors of the stock market. In hopes of improving housing, the Home Owners’ Refinancing Act, the Federal Housing Administration and the United States Housing Authority were all established. These organizations helped mortgage debt and issued low interest rates for mortgage loans. The United States House Authority alone aided in the construction of 650,000 new housing units. An inflation program was established......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Successful Is the Warner Leisure Hotel Business Model of Targeting the Third Age Market

...How successful is the Warner Leisure Hotel business model of targeting the Third Age market? Although holiday camps have been in existence in the UK since the early 1900s, their prominence in the hospitality industry was not established until the 1950s. Holiday camps thrived until the availability of package tours in the 1970s, where due to a subsequent decrease in demand, many were closed down shortly afterwards (Ward and Hardy, 1984). Warner Leisure Hotels identified a potential opportunity in concentrating on one particular sector (Mintel, 2013), the Third Age market. Carr and Komp (2011) describe the Third Age as the period of life which occurs after retirement but prior to the onset of disability, in which individuals are capable of remaining actively engaged. Warner initially launched a marketing campaign “Just for Adults”, in order to attract their target clientele, and cater for guests over the age of 21 only. Warner now run 13 hotels and resorts in various countryside and coastal locations across the UK (Warner Leisure Hotels, 2013).Their hotels are historical or grade I and II listed buildings which appeal to this market, and have manicured gardens with pathways suited for short walks to take exercise. Short breaks of either three or four days are offered, tied in with coach packages for ease of transportation. Guest hosts are employed to encourage guests to participate in a range of group activities such as swimming, bowls, archery and ballroom dancing.......

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Why Was There a Crusade in 1095?

...Assess the reasons why there was a crusade in 1095 The first crusade began in 1095 following the Council of Clermont, although the official crusade forces didn’t leave until 1097. It was at the Council of Clermont that Pope Urban II first talked about the idea of a crusade. He explained that the Byzantine emperor, Alexius, had appealed for help as his land was constantly under attack from Muslim forces. Many people answered the appeal and took part in the crusade, however many embarked for different reasons. Some devout Christians, such as Peter the Hermit, will have taken part due to religious zeal and a desire to help the Christians in the East. Others, such as Baldwin of Boulogne or Bohemond of Taranto may have also desired the chance to gain land and material rewards in the East. Whatever their reasons, over 100,000 people took part in the crusade, final taking Jerusalem in 1099. The factor that sparked the whole idea of a crusade was Emperor Alexius’ appeal to Pope Urban II in 1095. Alexius saw an opportunity to take back some land lost to the Seljuk Turks as the Norman leader, Robert Guiscard, had recently died and the Muslim forces were focusing on internal conflicts. Although Emperor Alexius needed military assistance, his appeal to Pope Urban II focussed more on the suffering of the Christians in the East at the hands of the Muslims as opposed to fighting. He put emphasis on the fact that Christians were being slaughtered and that Muslims and Seljuk Turks......

Words: 1542 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

How Successful Was the Regime in Overcoming the Opposition to the Regime

...How successful was the regime in overcoming the opposition to the regime? Opposition was slowly growing within the Tsars Empire and Alexander II felt threatened and took action that in fact reversed some of his reforms. He was very disgruntled that people were actually going against him, as he considered himself to have done so much for them, the biggest being emancipation. What he did not realise was this made people greedy and gave them a taste for freedom, and gave many the incentive to spur on for further reform. Due to this, he went back on his words and tightened up many reforms in an attempt to clamp down on those who opposed him, succeeding in the process. The most important measure to overcome growing opposition was tightening up the education reforms he had made. Alexander II saw that student radicals were emerging many were associated with populism. As a result he increased university fees, making it extremely difficult for peasants to receive a higher education. Also, while before he in the past he had given universities the control to appoint professors, Alexander II changed this and instead gave Tolstoy more control over this and Tolstoy made sure to choose the more reserved professors. The Zemstvos powers over schools reduced and churches reasserted control over rural schools, resulting in an education being more centred around religion, as it had been in the past. The tsar discouraged history, literature and modern languages as he felt these encouraged......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Apprenticeship in Jamaica: Was It Successful?

...Curry Apprenticeship in Jamaica: Was it successful? The Emancipation of the British West Indies was anticipated as early as 1787, but was not achieved until the Abolition Act of 1833. However, in 1833 emancipation was not as complete as these words would suggest, as there were clauses in the Act about an Apprenticeship system which delayed complete emancipation until 1838. The Apprenticeship system was originally applied to the plan instituted in the interval between slavery and emancipation to prepare the slaves to assume the duties of freemen. The new law freed immediately those slaves under the age of six years old; however older slaves were to be ‘apprenticed’ for up to eight years. There were many justifications given for Apprenticeship; it was used to soften the blow of emancipation by giving the planters a few more years of free labour, while conceding to the slaves their right to freedom. The earlier proposals of an Apprenticeship period of twelve years show clearly that it was designed to appease the planters and persuade the slaves into thinking that they were free. What the British colonial government really wanted before full emancipation was to reduce the amount of slaves leaving the plantation, ensure sugar productions remain constant and prevent major disturbances in all British colonies that were under the Apprenticeship system. However, although the British colonial government anticipated for this to happen, their resolve was thwarted by the disgruntle......

Words: 2405 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

How Successful Was the Usa’s Policy of Containment?

...How successful was the USA’s policy of containment? The policy of containment was not a success, As after the war, The USA aimed to quarantine communism to the only place it existed, Russia. However soon despite this, communism spread and communist dictatorship controlled most of Eastern Europe, soon after this the most populated state on earth, China, fell to a communist regime, as well as the creation of communist states in Vietnam and Korea. This consistent creation of communist states and the failure of the USA to prevent this, shows how ultimately, despite apparent success in some of Europe and Asia, the Policy of Containment failed in its primary function, to contain and prevent the spread of communism and therefore it was not a success. However it is arguable that in some ways the USA’s Policy of Containment was a great success in preventing the spread of communism early on during the Cold War. One piece of evidence that supports the argument that the USA had early success with their policy of containment is The Greek Civil War. The USA’s decision to intervene due to the “strategic significance of Greece in the Balkans and the Mediterranean” arguably was successful. With this clear threat of communist expansion into Western Europe, Truman called for congress to uphold the Truman Doctrine and provide funding to aid the battle against the spread of communism that clearly threatened the USA’s interests in Europe. This resulted in $400 million dollars of funding......

Words: 2612 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

How Successful a Military Leader Was Sir Douglas Haig

...How successful a military leader was Haig? Explain your answer. I think Sir Douglas Haig was not a very successful military leader. Although he did have some achievements, but compared to his mistakes on leadership, I think it’s not enough to say he was a great leader. Some people argue that death is a part of the war, and that “British generals were not uncaring but they accepted, as they had to, that the very nature of the war, would lead to many deaths however hard they tried to avoid them. ” However we might want to question this statement. Did Haig really try hard to avoid death? If we look closely at the battle plan for the Battle of Somme one would hardly agree. Firstly, Haig assumed a seven-day-bombardment would make the German trenches so deserted that “not even a rat would live”, however he was proven wrong. Also he told the soldiers to walk towards the German trenches; they did, however the Germans simply aimed the machine guns at them and this turned into a suicidal mission. In order to minimize the casualties, he could’ve talk to the soldiers at the front and would know right away that machine gun shells will not beat barbed wire into pieces. In fact, it would only pick it up and through it onto the floor, often in a bigger mess than before… No, he didn’t do any of that. He simply sat kilometers behind the frontline, knowing nothing about the real trenches save the limited intelligence he gets daily. Another piece of evidence that one may argue is Haig’s......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Successful Was Henry Vii in Achieving Foreign Policy Objectives

...How successful was Henry VII in fulfilling his foreign policy objectives? Generally speaking, overall, Henry VII was successful in fulfilling his foreign policy objectives. Although he did not achieve a number of things in the way he endeavoured to, Henry VII achieved the majority of his foreign policy objectives one way or another. Firstly, Brittany, a part of Europe where Henry spent a large part of his life, was under attack by the French and faced losing their independence, following an invasion in 1487. Henry felt as though he had a duty and sense of obligation to the Britons, and therefore summoned Parliament to grant him extraordinary revenue in order to raise an army sufficient enough to battle against the French. Crushing the potential French control of Brittany was very important to Henry, as by doing so would decrease the possibility of France invading England. This soon became one of Henry's main foreign policy objective, to defend Brittany and potentially, England. Additionally, England and Brittany signed the Treaty of Redon in 1489, in which, Duchess Anne would pay for a small English army to defend Brittany. Henry strived to strengthen is position by forming an alliance with Maximilian. Maximilian had contracted a marriage-by-proxy with Anne, and had no desire fro the Duchy of Brittany to fall into the French hands. The army went to Brittany to support their freedom, but Anne had lost her motive, and reluctantly married Charles VIII. To make things......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How Successful Was Harold Macmillan as Conservative Party Leader?

...How successful was Harold MacMillan as Conservative party leader? Harold MacMillan, a man who came from a middle class background studied at Eton. He became a Conservative MP in 1924, six years after serving on the front line during World War One. He held various positions in the Conservative party before becoming the leader. Such positions like: Minster for Housing and Local Government, Minister of Defence, Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1957, Harold MacMillan became the leader of the Conservative party and became Prime Minister after Eden’s retirement. Some would deem MacMillan as a saviour for the Conservative party after the Suez Crisis. Even though he was a supporter of Eden and his plans for the Suez Canal, he somehow deflected the blame from the whole party and passed it to Eden, who was former leader and Prime Minister. This didn’t affect Eden too much as he had already resigned as leader of the Conservative party and Prime Minister. If MacMillan didn’t pass the blame, the party would have struggled to keep their majority vote in parliament. In regards to the Economy, Macmillan was lucky to be voted in during the age of affluence where 60% of the population made it into the middle class (due to the loss of working people during the World Wars). It was a time where, compared to the austerity of the war years, wage, exports and investments were all on the rise. For example wage rose by 72% which could mean the population could spend more money......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

How Successful Was Mussolini's Foreign Policy in the Years to 1939?

...How successful was Mussolini's foreign policy in the years to 1939? During the years 1922-39 Mussolini committed to many different foreign policies. Mussolini’s foreign policy aims for Italy were to build national prestige, increase domestic support for the regime, gain dominance over the Mediterranean, and spread fascism abroad to establish his empire. He had to consider factors whilst formulating his foreign policy plans such as trading, alliances (military back-up/defence), resources within the empire and war to ensure that his regime would be a success. In many ways, Mussolini’s foreign policy was a success in the short term. His foreign policies can be judged whether or not to be successful by looking at his aims, as previously stated, and if these aims were achieved. Mussolini entered the Spanish Civil War in 1936 as part of an anti-Bolshevik campaign and to help spread fascism abroad, one of the clear aims of Mussolini. Italy sent planes and troops to help nationalist General Franco’s revolt against Spain’s socialist government and despite Mussolini expecting a short war it lasted 3 years. Mussolini’s intervention of this war was to achieve dominance over the Mediterranean, to spread fascism abroad, stop French left-wing influence in Spain and to gain an ally in a strategic area. In the battle of Guadalajara, in March 1937, Italian troops were defeated and 400 soldiers were killed and 1,800 wounded, 500 were taken prisoner and 25 artillery pieces, 10 mortars,...

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Successful Was Bismarck as Chancellor of a United Germany?

...How successful was Bismarck as Chancellor of a united Germany? The question of how successful Bismarck was as Chancellor between 1870 and 1890 is a question that has several different levels that each need to be analysed in order to get a well rounded and accurate answer. I will call upon Bismarck’s domestic and foreign policies, using them to illustrate the leaders triumphs and failures in his Chancellorship. I will also use Bismarck’s political ability, decision making and methods to further my understanding of his success in the German political sphere. Furthermore I believe that it is important to get an understanding of his political accomplishments and perhaps downfalls if the question is to be fully answered. Although the iron Chancellor is seen by many historians as responsible for Germany’s unification, I will not allow this variant to alter or effect my position on Bismarck as Chancellor because I will structure my analysis around an already united Germany. Thus, I will simply support my line of argument with relevant information to the precise question as opposed to complicating it using evidence from before the specific era in matter. Although Germany became unified in 1871 I would suggest that this actually only solved the literal problem in regards to bringing the variety of separate states together. It did nothing for uniting the people of these states under one nation. In the early years of Bismarck’s Chancellorship his ‘primary objectives’ so   to speak......

Words: 2579 - Pages: 11