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Hello

In: Business and Management

Submitted By tahmidchoyon
Words 527
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Bypassing Web Application Firewalls (WAFs)
Ing. Pavol Lupták, CISSP, CEH Lead Security Consultant

www.nethemba.com www.nethemba.com

Nethemba – All About Security


Highly experienced certified IT security experts (CISSP, C|EH, SCSecA) Core business: All kinds of penetration tests, comprehensive web application security audits, local system and wifi security audits, security consulting, forensic analysis, secure VoIP, ultra­secure systems OWASP activists: Leaders of Slovak/Czech OWASP chapters, co­authors of the most recognized OWASP Testing Guide v3.0, working on new version We are the only one in Slovakia/Czech Republic that offer:








Penetration tests and security audits of SAP Security audit of smart RFID cards Unique own and sponsored security research in many areas (see our references – Vulnerabilities in public transport SMS tickets, cracked the most used Mifare Classic RFID cards) www.nethemba.com





What are WAFs?


Emerged from IDS/IPS focused on HTTP protocol and HTTP related attacks Usually contain a lot of complex reg­exp rules to match Support special features like cookie encryption, CSRF protection, etc. Except of free mod_security they are quite expensive (and often there is no correlation between the price and their filtering capabilities) www.nethemba.com







WAFs implementations


Usually they are deployed in “blacklisting mode” that is more vulnerable to bypasses and targeted attacks Application “context” (type of allowed inputs) is necessary to know for deploying of more secure “whitelisting mode” All WAFs can by bypassed WAF is just a workaround, but from the security point of view it can be cost­effective www.nethemba.com







WAF filter rules


Directly reflects WAF effectiveness For most WAF vendors they are closely guarded secrets – most determined attackers are able to bypass them without seeing the actual rules Open­source WAFs (mod_security, PHPIDS) have open source rules which is better for more scrutiny by skilled penetration testers





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Typical WAF bypasses
Blocked Attack 'or 1=1-alert(0) alert(0) Undetected modification ' or 2=2-%00alert(0) MsgBox(0)

' or ''''='r alert(0) 1 or 1=1 eval(name)

'/**/OR/**/''''=' (1)or(1)=(1) x=this.name X(0?$:name+1) www.nethemba.com

Yes, WAF may be also be vulnerable!


WAF also increases the attack surface of a target organization WAF may be the target of and vulnerable to malicious attacks, e.g. XSS, SQL injection, denial­of­service attacks, remote code execution vulnerabilities These vulnerabilities have been found in all types of WAF products(!)





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Typical bypass flow
1. Find out which characters / sequences are allowed by WAFs 2. Make an obfuscated version of your injected payload 3. Test it and watch for the WAF/application response 4. If it does not work, modify it and try step 2.

www.nethemba.com



Javascript has very powerful features

Javascript obfuscation



Javascript payload is used in XSS attacks It is full of evals, expression closures, generator expressions, iterators, special characters and shortcuts Supports a lot of encodings (unicode – multibyte characters, hexadecimal, octal, combination of all of them) Supports XOR, “Encryption”, Base64 www.nethemba.com







Non­alphanumeric javascript code


Even if only few characters are allowed it is possible to construct fully functional code:
_=[]|[];$=_++;__=(_…...

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