Premium Essay

Health Policy Brief

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bellomy10
Words 738
Pages 3
Running head: PATIENT SELF DERTERMINATION ACT POLICY BRIEF

Patient Self Determination Act
H.R. 5067 (101st)

Patient Self-Determination Act Policy Brief United States Congress passed the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) in 1990 as an amendment to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1990. In effect December 1, 1990 the PSDA legislature required many hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, home healths and other health care organizations to be responsible for giving information about advances health care directives to patients upon their admission to the facility. The objectives of the Patient Self Determination Act were first, to provide education concerning an individual’s rights in state laws to make their own decisions with regards to their healthcare, as well as the right to refuse treatment. Second, to encourage better preparation of advanced directives (ADs) to be used should the person/ patient become incapacitated. Lastly, to decrease end of life cost by avoiding unwanted or unnecessary care (Patient Self Determination Act, 1990).
History of the PSDA A noteworthy motivation for the development and eventually the passing of the PSAD was a 1990 Supreme Court decision (Cruzan v Director, 1990). In this case, the parents of Nancy Cruzan, a comatose girl, requested that her nutrition and hydration be terminated but the hospital employees refused. The court acknowledged that there are right to refusal of care, however Nancy Cruzan was incompetence. The complexities came when deciding whether a surrogate (i.e. Nancy’s parents) can make the decisions under such circumstances. The court ruled in favor of the Hospital, nonetheless, the impact of the case was a major contributor to the PSDA legislation. Under the Patient Self-Determination Act, healthcare providers are required to provide written information to patients…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Health Policy

...OMAN- Country Profile Mid-Population-2008 Population 2.8 m Update Dr. Ali Mohammed Hussain Leprosy focal point, TB/Leprosy Control Program, DCDSC,DGHA, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman Expatriates Regions Wilayat 61 31.4% 11 Ministry of Health Policy The Leprosy diagnosis & treatment are carried out by all hospitals. In each hospital, the dermatologist & one nurse should be given responsibility of LCP activities in addition to their regular activities. Where dermatologist is not available, LCP should be integrated with the TB Control Program. The treatment is offered as an OP basis, only complicated cases & cases with gross deformity should be admitted or referred for admission. Treatment is fully decentralized. Ministry of Health Policy All MOH and non-MOH institutions should carry on using these well proven standardized procedures & reporting systems in all their health facilities. That all house hold contacts of an indexed Leprosy case should be promptly screened and needs to be followed up annually for a period of 5 years. That retrieval & follow up of leprosy defaulters should be followed up by the catchment area were the patient lives. Leprosy Control Program Leprosy has been a public health problem in Oman, in earlier years and is considered an age old scourge. With the implementation of the Leprosy Control with MDT from 1992 following the decision of WHA setting the goal of elimination of leprosy by the year 2000, the epidemiological......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Health Policies and Health Determinants

...the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society. What are the determinants of health in humans? What is the connection between how a society defines health and how it pursues health? Has increased access to technology changed that perception over the last decade? Discuss the connection between health policies, health determinants, and health. Abstract Health policies, health determinants and health are all categories that are intertwined with one another. As technology becomes more advanced within the health industry, society’s perception on healthcare may change for the better or for the worst. And with the new technology, new policies arise. Deliberate the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society. The World Health Organization makes a concept of health in a way that a patient should be cared for in all aspects of their well-being. This not only includes the physical concepts but also the social and psychological components of their health. What this means is that society should not only conceptualize health but also pursue health in all of the areas mentioned. There are many influences to our health whether it is our beliefs, the economy, social and cultural way of living, physical environment and the circumstances that we are dealt with. With that being said, health is the basic and dynamic force that affects the way we live our life. An example of factors that impact health positivity is:...

Words: 1446 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Policy Brief on Poverty

...There are many important key issues that affect international development such as ethnic conflicts, democracy, health, etc. However, this policy brief will focus on the issue of poverty in international development. It will define poverty and the causes of poverty such as unemployment, political instability and rapid urbanization. As well as, the impact these causes have on international development. Lastly, this policy brief will offer suggestions to eliminate poverty. Poverty is defined as the condition of having insufficient resources to live and is one of the largest problems in developing countries. In the poorest of developing countries, almost eighty percent of the population lives in absolute poverty; which has a variety of serious consequences on human lives (Handelman, 2011). With the rising rates of poverty, many face problems of famine and lack of lodging. Over half of the population of developing countries, live in urban slums. Urban slums are generally self-made homes of brick and tin close together where there is no access to clean drinking water, sanitation or urban services including health care. Sanitation is poor, if there is any at all, and the water is contaminated because of the sewage running through it. The immediate danger with this type of environment is the risk to the people’s health. This degree of poverty and lack of clean water leads to poor personal hygiene resulting in the proliferation of various harmful bacteria which results......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Policy Brief

...Policy Brief to address the issue of South Korean access to rare-earth minerals Eleonora Nam 201232133 "China controls about 95% of the global supply of rare-earth minerals, which are used in everything from consumer electronics to batteries to defense systems. In recent years the government has reduced its export quotas to secure greater control over prices...China's export restrictions on rare earths have been the focus of the international policy and market pressures in recent months." - Wall Street Journal Issue: China is the "world leader" in the reserves and "production" of rare earth minerals - raw material for the production of metals. It produces 95-97% of all rare earth elements on earth. Moreover, China does not allow the export of rare earth elements as raw materials, only finished products that are made ​​in China. China's monopoly power in the REE market allows to influence "international affairs". As Elliot Brennan pointed out, with the increasing demand, reduced exports of Beijing in recent years is forcing high-tech companies to move to China and governments to invest in their "exploration" and "production." Most importantly, this power allows China to manipulate the prices of the rare earths, for the demand is increasing each year. Nowadays, none of the technology industry can do without the use of the rare earths, which are necessary for the production of products such as smart phones, wind turbines, batteries for electric vehicles, as well......

Words: 3437 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Policy Brief

...they crossed the red line: * One last call for the Syrian President to seize the attacks and a thoroughly accepting the international sanctions and treaties. * Presuming the call will be ignored, organizing a quick military response to the Syrian Government through aerial and maritime militias. * The attack will not target civilians or military personnel, only chemical warfare warehouses or insignificant non-human targets. * It will be a strong but brief attack on the Governments military supplies, military equipment end even free spaces just to induce immediate fear into the officials. The above mentioned efforts aim to induce fear to the target and concretely abolish any other intention of breaching international customs or treaties. Fear has been used as a weapon throughout history and I believe by waking it up inside the belligerents, can have the expected results. The Syrians cannot afford after such an action to keep pushing forward and ignore the world’s response. The policy mentioned can propose some miss laps as well. If we decide to act accordingly, the risk of protracting the issue in the region is also at a large scale. Iran clearly stated for example their trenchant decision of intervening for the Syrian counterparts, in case we use force. Another weakness can be perceived as the danger of injuring/killing innocent civilians. Though our mission in to hit only non-human entities, there is always a slim chance of a......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Policy Brief on Principal Evaluations

...Policy Brief: Are Principal evaluations a true assessments of their leadership abilities? EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Are principals’ evaluations a true assessment of their leadership abilities? Throughout this policy brief, justifications for principal evaluations are given, and the evaluation model is explained. Furthermore, a case is built to justify why the evaluation model needs to be reexamined to better represent a principal’s ability to positively lead a school. In addition, suggestions are given to adequately reflect principals’ abilities as leaders and to improve the overall effectiveness of the Tennessee evaluation process of administrators. Justifications for Evaluations Just as teachers should be rated by the performance of their students, principals should be rated by the performance of their schools. Quality school leaders can set high expectations for instructional practices and for creating positive learning environments. They can help improve instruction, and they can build a climate where teachers trust and find value in their own evaluations. In contrast, weak school leaders can wear away the overall school quality by not demanding or supporting excellence. “Principals exert indirect influences on student achievement through their effect on school climate”(Leeper, Tonneson & Xu, 2013). Assessing a school principal’s performance is both necessary and challenging. A principal’s impact is extremely significant because the actions a leader take......

Words: 1227 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Health Policy

...Health Policy Unit 4 IP Cassandra Nunnelly AIU Online October 25, 2013 Abstract The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act 2003, was signed into existence by President Bush on December 8, 2003. To approve the H.R. 1, the Medicare Prescription drug and modernization conference agreement, on November 22, 2003, the House of Representatives voted 220 to 215 and on November 25, the Senate voted 54 to 44 in order to approve the conference agreement. This Act over the years is intended to provide prescription drug benefits to seniors. It will also provide subsidies to insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and would allow private plans to compete with Medicare 2003.  Health Policy The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act 2003, was signed into law by President Bush on December 8, 2003. To approve the H.R. 1, the Medicare Prescription drug and modernization conference agreement, on November 22, 2003, the House of Representatives voted 220 to 215 and on November 25, the Senate voted 54 to 44 in order to approve the conference agreement. This Act is created to provide prescription drug benefits to seniors. It will also provide subsidies to insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and would allow private plans to compete with Medicare 2003(Jennifer O’Sullivan, Hinda Chaikind, Sibyl Tilson, Jennifer Boulanger, and......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Health Policy Brief

...Health Policy Brief Statement of the Issue: Becoming sick without health insurance can be physically and financially devastating. The working class people and those who have been recently terminated from their employment unfortunately cannot buy health insurance due to its expensive nature. Self-employed workers and small business owners also lack the resources to buy this provision. In order to help the 41 million uninsured Americans, Congress passed the Health Care Reform Bill called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Supporting Data and Information The issue of health care reform is not a novelty in the United States. One of the earliest health care reform proposals at the federal level was the 1854 Bill for the Benefit of the Indigent Insane, proposed by Dorothea Dix but was eventually vetoed by president Franklin Pierce. The bill was intended to establish asylums for the insane, blind, deaf, and dumb through land grants given by the government to the individual states. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson created Medicare and Medicaid, insurance programs that provided health insurance to people aged 65 and over and that partially funded a program for those with low income respectively. In 2010, President Barack Obama enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Through the PPACA, the government will be able to provide a system of mandated health insurance over four years and eliminate “some of the worst practices of insurance......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Policy Brief Final Assignment

...Policy Brief Final Assignment Sisseritta Demps PP504: Professor Thomason August 11, 2014 Abstract: Marijuana legalization has been a controversial topic requiring a public policy solution in the political realm. There have been various arguments made for and against the legalization of marijuana. There are several states that have legalized marijuana use for medicinal purposes while others have let their guards down completely allowing citizens to use it not only medicinally, but recreationally as well. While the use of marijuana is still illegal at the federal level, there is much discussion by other states regarding policies to support marijuana legalization and many policy makers proactively planning for the possibility of such policies. Such discussion is necessary to ensure the policy implemented supports the intended use of the drug and to reduce illegal use that is not specified in the policy. Currently, there are a total of 21 states that have laws governing the use of marijuana in some form. The state of Florida has a policy in place that is closely monitored as it applies to patients suffering from severe medical conditions such as AIDS, cancer, and other diseases that leave patients in excruciating pain. This paper will discuss the great controversy of legalizing marijuana pointing out policies that are currently in place for the state of Florida and the need for small municipalities to establish policies to ensure proper monitoring of the drug. ...

Words: 2248 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Health Policy

...Patient-Centered Health Care Home Many people in the United States do not have access to high quality primary care. There is substantial evidence indicating that sufficient access to high quality primary care results in lower overall health care costs and lower use of higher cost services, such as specialists, emergency rooms, and inpatient care. A large amount of the nation’s dollars are spent on health care. This large budget affects providers, patients, employers, and payers such as Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurers. This is a primary concern in many states including, Minnesota. There are significant gaps in the quality of health care that patients in the United States receive. The current health care payment and delivery system is particularly poor at providing care for people with chronic conditions. As a result of these factors, policy makers debated over proposals that can actually be effective. Some of these proposals aimed for reducing cost, focusing on patient, and improving quality of care. An example of a proposal that focused on patient-centered care and increased quality of care is the creation and introduction of Patient-Centered Health Care Home (PCHCH), also known as “Medical Home.” The introduction of the PCHCH in Minnesota will increase patients’ accessibility to health care services, give them power to be involved in decisions regarding their care, have continuity of care with their physicians, prevent duplication of services, reduce health care......

Words: 2668 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Policy Brief

... which will seriously affect the global markets (Pifer, 2014; Lorber and Gottlieb, 2014). Recommendations 1 Russian invasion does not pose a serious security threat; rather it stands isolated. Indeed, the emergence of new international players limit US’s strategic and political interests, but it is important to note that our strength has always been rooted in our long standing commitment to principles, institutions, and alliances, which Moscow undoubtedly lacks (Nexon, 2014). Therefore, our priority must be to have close relationship with allies and strengthening of institutions such as UN. 2 Targeting close elites to Putin and stopping Western technology has already expressed our strong displeasure (BBC, 2014). However, a long term policy of addressing economic challenges faced by East Asian and energy dependent states will be key in defining our alliances. Therefore, export of LNG from other sources than Russia should be considered (Pifer, 2014). But putting visa ban on Putin’s inner circle must continue until the resumption of diplomatic talks. 3 Finally, it is likely that the crisis in Ukraine will continue, but Russia will want to de-escalate the situation as it has overplayed its hand (Nexon, 2014). An article written by Russian ambassador to the UK gives an indication of that, but it also summarizes the legitimate interests that Russia have in Ukraine (Yakovenko, 2014). Addressing Russian concerns will improve our image, not theirs. Bibliography BBC News......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Policy Brief

...Policy Brief: Public and Private Partnerships Executive Summary: Public and Private Partnerships (PPP's) describes the partnership between the Public Sector (Government) and the Private Sector (Business) working together through financing, design, constructions, renovation, management or maintenance of infrastructures to provide public services for citizens. National, state, and local governments worldwide all face tremendous budget gaps and therefore are increasingly adopting Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) models as a means to provide critical infrastructure service delivery. As Public Administration Students it will be important for us to understand the role of PPP's as well as how to use them efficiently, relevant to Public Financial Management. It will also discuss the social, economical, and political factors that play a role in PPPs. Overall PPP's should be used because they provide much-needed capital for projects; they can also serve as models of efficiency and reliability and be champions of high levels of accountability and transparency. In addition, PPPs can be cost-effective and time efficient. Statement of Issue: How can Governments use PPP's effectively? Improving the delivery of services for "Wicked Problems" is a critical need for many governments. "Wicked Problems" often include emergency policy challenges in transportation, the environment, and health and human services (Battagilo) Background information: PPPs were initiated in the United......

Words: 1586 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Health Policy

...Discuss the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society When viewing the concept of health by individuals in a society, different answers will surface. Some people may view it in a positive or negative way or may even have both negative and positive perception. Some may conceptualize health as being the absence of diseases and illnesses and on the opposite side; individuals may associate health with disease, hospitalization and possible death. These are also the negative views on health. This is evidence that health does not have a solid definition. In 1948, World Health Organization (WHO) described the word health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. From my perspective, WHO definition of health, tries to include health mental, physical and social well-being into the definition, rather than just viewing health as just an asset. One way to truly understand this definition is by breaking down the key words used. Namely, physical well-being, social well being and mental well being. Physical well being can be defined as the overall physical appearance of different individuals, which includes physical fitness, healthy diet and keeping physically fit. When it comes to social well being, it can be defined as the state in which human beings are able to coexist with other human beings. Adaptation is very important when it comes to social wellbeing because, it is of upmost importance that in......

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Health Policy

...centers and 2 surgery centers, it is crucial that we stay abreast of current policy and changes to policy as they occur, in an effort to stay competitive in the marketplace. This is the most current research as it relates to the development of ACOs in New Jersey and an overview of how this activity may impact our health system. I am providing this to the board of trustees for review. Cantor, J. C., Chakravarty, S., Tong, J., Yedidia, M. J., Lontok, O., & DeLia, D. (2014). The new jersey medicaid ACO demonstration project: Seeking opportunities for better care and lower costs among complex low-income patients. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 39(6), 1185-1211. doi:10.1215/03616878-2822622 This article describes a project broadly similar to Medicare and commercial ACOs, the New Jersey demonstration addresses the unique concerns faced by populations served by Medicaid. It uses hospital all-payer billing data to estimate savings from care improvement efforts among inpatient and emergency department users in thirteen communities that are candidates for participation in the New Jersey demonstration. The project examines their characteristics to examine Medicaid accountable care strategies. It gives a thorough overview of potential savings among Medicaid enrollees to determine if Medicaid ACOs can develop ways to successfully address the high burden of chronic illness and behavioral health conditions prevalent in the prospective demonstration communities. Randell...

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ai Policy Brief

...Policy Brief: A Need for Future American Indian Commercial Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Programs May 24, 2012 Smoking and the American Indian community Every year, more than 440,000 deaths occur from cigarette smoking, or 1 of every 5 deaths is due to a smoking in the United States1. In adults who have never smoked, secondhand smoke can cause heart disease and/or lung cancer. Smoking rates are highest among the American Indian (AI) population when compared to other racial or ethnic groups which puts them at serious risk for disease and death2. Although California’s smoking rate is lowest among the general population, the disparity largely exists with AI smokers. It’s time to take action and develop prevention and cessation services to curb the high rates of smoking among the AI community. Why are smoking rates so high in the American Indian community? 1. The Tobacco Industry markets to youth using cultural images and symbols so they become long-term smokers, which means more money for the Tobacco Industry. 2. Having family and friends who smoke is more likely to influence smoking for the youth. 3. Exposure to secondhand smoke. 4. Youth start smoking as young as age 10, increase likelihood of smoking in adulthood. 5. Limited prevention programs that are culturally specific to reduce initiation of smoking. 6. Limited cessation programs to reduce smoking rates. 7. Perceived low harm value/ lack of awareness about the harmful......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3