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Room 325 Third Level Robinson Library.

Open during Semesters

11am-3pm Monday to Friday,

11am-4pm Wednesday.

Workbook

Numerical Reasoning tests

V1. August 2004 www.mathcentre.ac.uk Careers Service

Numeric Reasoning and Aptitude Tests

Introduction

These notes are intended to help you with some typical tests that you may encounter in the numeric reasoning part of aptitude tests.

Apart from these notes you can get further advice and guidance from the MATHSAID Centre in the Robinson Library. Details of this now follow.

Maths-Aid Help with Numeracy Skills

If you are worried about any aspect of your basic numeracy skills then the following booklets and leaflets have been designed to help you and they can be read in conjunction with these notes.

•

Numeracy Refresher Booklet (written to help in your numeric reasoning tests)

•

Leaflets on decimals, fractions, percentages and ratios.

as well as other booklets supplied by MATHS-AID.

Copies of this material can be found in the

•

The MATHS-AID Centre in the Robinson Library.

There is a small charge for the Numeracy Refresher Booklet.

Most of the material can also be found at the mathcentre site at www.mathcentre.ac.uk. Free Drop-In Centre

As well as text based help you can get one-to-one help from tutors in the MATHSAID Drop-In Centre in room 325 on the third level of the Robinson Library.

This free service is available to all who want help with basic numeracy and maths as well as those wanting help with aptitude tests.

Times of opening:

Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, 11.00am to 3pm.

Wednesday, 11am to 4pm

2

Contents

Contents .........................................................................................................................3

1. Numeric Reasoning Questions...................................................................................4

1.1. Tables of Data .....................................................................................................4

1.2 Maths Problems ..................................................................................................4

2. Questions on Data Tables .........................................................................................5

2.1 Solutions ............................................................................................................14

2.2 Further Questions on Data Tables......................................................................23

2.3 Solutions ............................................................................................................24

3. Typical Maths Questions with Solutions .................................................................29

3.1 Maths Questions to Try......................................................................................33

3.2 Solutions - Maths Questions to Try ..................................................................34

4. Question on Graphs..................................................................................................37

4.1 Solutions ............................................................................................................38

3

1. Numeric Reasoning Questions

These notes cover two common types of question.

• Answering questions about tables of data.

• Solving maths problems.

1.1. Tables of Data

The first section is to do with reading information from tables of data and answering questions about the data. This section is split into three parts.

1. A series of example questions which you answer. There will be partial help plus guidance to answering the question using Hint Boxes. Typically you will fill in the required information in the Hint Boxes and then this should give you the answer.

2. Full answers to the questions so that you can compare your results.

3. Another new set of questions, without help, for you to do. Solutions are available. Required Numeracy Skills

You will need the following skills in order to tackle these questions:

• Carefully reading of tables of data and understanding what is being asked of you.

• Comparing and making judgements on the basis of numerical values.

• Estimating values quickly to give ball-park figures on which decisions can be made.

• Using percentages and ratios – in particular how to convert ratios to percentages and also how to work out a percentage increase.

The Numeracy Refresher Booklet (NRB) covers all these important skills. For example you may have to brush up on fractions or decimals before you can confidently answer questions about percentages or even estimate ratios. Also you will have know how to write decimals to a given number of decimal places – the NRB covers this as well.

1.2 Maths Problems

You will be asked to solve problems which may involve the use of basic numeracy skills such as calculating and using percentages and/or ratios. So all the basic numeracy skills you needed for analysing data tables will also be used.

These problems are often stated in terms of “real-life” or context specific questions

e.g. case-studies relevant to the employer’s core activities.

It is important to fully understand the question and what it is asking you to do before you start calculating. This type of question is often failed because the student is solving the wrong problem!

In these notes you are given sample questions together with solutions.

Finally you can then attempt a new set of questions – solutions are given.

Note that the Numeracy Refresher Booklet has been designed to help you with these types of questions as well as the data table questions.

4

2. Questions on Data Tables

The following table describes the income of various industries over a five year period.

There are nine questions in this section and each has a Hint Box for you to fill in if you need help. The data table is repeated on each page.

The next section 2.1 contains full solutions to all these problems.

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 1.

Which industry had the largest increase in the euro amount of income from

Year 3 to Year 4?

For example, Financial Services has an increase of 100-92=8 billion euros from year

3 to year 4.

Answer:

Hint Box:

Write the increase (in billions of euros) and find the largest

Financial Services increase= 8 billion euros

Telecommunications

increase=

Engineering

increase=

Agriculture

increase=

Manufacturing

increase=

Transportation

increase=

5

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 2.

Which industry had the smallest increase in the euro amount of income from

Year 1 to Year 5?

For example, Financial Services has an increase of 110-70=40 billion euros from year 1 to year 5.

Answer:

Hint Box

Write the increase (in billions of euros) and find the smallest.

Financial Services increase= 40 billion euros

Telecommunications

increase=

Engineering

increase=

Agriculture

increase=

Manufacturing

increase=

Transportation

increase=

6

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 3.

Which industry experienced the largest percentage increase from Year 4 to

Year 5?

This means that you have to work out the increase from Year 4 to Year 5 as a percentage of the income in Year 4 for each industry and find the biggest percentage increase. For example Telecommunications had an increase of 1 billion dollars from

23 billion euros in year 4 to year 5 and the percentage increase was therefore

1

× 100% = 4.35% to two decimal places.

23

(Calculating to one decimal place would probably have been enough – but it could be possible that there were two industries with the same % increase to one decimal place) Answer:

Hint Box

Find the percentage increase (in billions of euros) and find the largest

Financial Services

% increase=

Telecommunications

% increase= 4.35%

Engineering

% increase=

Agriculture

% increase=

Manufacturing

% increase=

Transportation

% increase=

7

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 4.

Which industry had the least percentage change from Year 1 to Year 4?

This means that you have to work out the increase from Year 1 to Year 4 as a percentage of the income in Year 1 for each industry and find the smallest percentage increase.

For example Manufacturing had an increase of 233-193=40 billion euros from 193 billion euros in year 1 to 233 billion euros year 4 and the percentage increase was therefore 40

× 100% = 20.73% to two decimal places.

193

(Once again taking two decimal places to be on the safe side.)

Answer:

Hint Box

Find the percentage change for each industry and find the least

Financial Services

% increase=

Telecommunications

% increase=

Engineering

% increase=

Agriculture

% increase=

Manufacturing

% increase= 20.73%

Transportation

% increase=

8

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 5.

a)If the trend in the Transportation industry were to continue, write down the most likely income for Year 6.

b) Which of the above industries would you find difficult to predict a reasonably accurate figure for Year 6?

As an example, consider Financial Services.

The differences between successive years are in billions of euro:

Year 2-Year 1

12

Year 3-Year 2

10

Year 4-Year 3

8

Year 5-Year 4

10

These fluctuate between 8 and 12, and have an average value of 10. Since there is no clear trend we can put forward an increase of 10 as a ball-park figure.

So the prediction would be 110+10 =120 for year 6.

But now consider Manufacturing, we find the differences between successive years:

Year 2-Year 1

5

Year 3-Year 2

8

Year 4-Year 3

27

Year 5-Year 4

34

There is no clear pattern – we need more data. So I would find this difficult to predict other than Year 6 would be an increase on Year 5.

a)Prediction for Transportation in Year 6?

b)Make an estimate for Year 6 for each industry– write a question mark if difficult to predict.

Prediction for Year 6 (billions of euros)

Financial Services

120

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

?

9

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 6.

Which type of industry shows the steadiest rate of growth in income during this period of five years?

Some industries are growing by about the same amount every year. Find the one that in your opinion has the steadiest growth i.e. the increases from one year to another have the smallest fluctuation. For example Agriculture has the following differences from one year to the next:

Year 2-Year 1

2

Year 3-Year 2

0

Year 4-Year 3

4

Year 5-Year 4

21

There is a major fluctuation in the growth of income between years 4 and 5 and so the growth in Agriculture income over the five years is not particularly steady.

Industry with steadiest rate of growth:

10

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 7.

In how many instances did a type of industry make a gain of 10% or more over the previous year listed?

Looking at Financial Services we have

•

•

•

•

Year 1 to Year 2 increase of 12 on 70 - more than 10% increase ( 10% of 70 is 7 and 12 is greater than 7)

Year 2 to Year 3 increase of 10 on 82 - more than 10% increase ( 10% of 82 is 8.2 and 10 is greater than 8.2)

Year 3 to Year 4 increase of 8 on 92 - less than 10% increase ( 10% of 92 is

9.2)

Year 4 to Year 5 increase of 10 on 100 – a 10% increase ( 10% of 100 is 10)

So 3 instances of 10% increases or more for Financial Services.

Now do the same for the other industries. Try not to use a calculator as it is easy to work out 10% of any number – just move the decimal point to the left one place.

Fill in the following table.

For each industry, answer Y if growth is 10% or more, N if less than 10%. Then count the number of Y’s and put in last column.

Do this for all industries.

Finally add up the numbers in the last column and put in the last cell in this column.

Yr1-Yr2 Yr2-Yr3 Yr3-Yr4 Yr4-Yr5 10% or more

Financial Services

Y

Y

N

Y

3

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Total Number of instances of 10% or more increases

11

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 8.

Find all industries that increased their respective incomes by more than 20% from Year 1 to Year 3.

For example, if we take Manufacturing, then we find the following information

Growth in billions

Manufacturing

13

% Increase

13

× 100% = 6.7%

193

Note that I have worked out the % increase to one decimal place – there is no point in being more accurate.

Answer - Which Industries have more than a 20% increase?:

12. Hint Box: following, the greatest percentage

Among the increase in income occurred for

Work out the percentage increases from Year 1 to Year 3 and choose those

A. Agriculture with increases 3 and20%. 4 industries between Year over Year

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

% increase=

% increase=

% increase=

% increase=

% increase= 6.7%

% increase=

12

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 9.

Find the average income of each industry over the first three years and over the last four years. Your answers should be to two decimal places.

Working out averages for Financial Services

(70 + 82 + 92)

First three years, average =

= 81.33 to two decimal places.

3

(82 + 92 + 100 + 110)

Last four years, average =

= 96.00

4

You fill in the rest.

Hint Box:

Work out averages in billions of euros for Years 1, 2 and 3 and then work out averages for Years 2, 3, 4 and 5.

First Three years

Last Four Years

Average

Average

Financial Services

81.33

100.67

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

12. Among the following, the greatest percentage

Manufacturing

increase in income occurred for

Transportation

A. Agriculture between Year 3 and Year 4

13

2.1 Solutions

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 1.

Which industry had the largest increase in the euro amount of income from

Year 3 to Year 4?

Taking away the Year 3 figures from the Year 4 figures we find:

Answer: Manufacturing (increase of 27 billion euros).

Hint Box:

Write the increase (in billions of euros) and find the largest

Financial Services increase= 8

Telecommunications

increase= 2

Engineering

increase= 5

Agriculture

increase= 4

Manufacturing

increase= 27 (the largest)

Transportation

increase= 3

14

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 2.

Which industry had the smallest increase in the euro amount of income from

Year 1 to Year 5?

Taking away the Year 1 figures from the Year 5 figures we find:

Answer: Telecommunications (increase of 7 billion euros).

Hint Box

Write the increase (in billions of euros) and find the smallest.

Financial Services increase= 40

Telecommunications

increase= 7

Engineering

increase= 21

Agriculture

increase= 27

Manufacturing

increase= 74

Transportation

increase= 13

15

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 3.

Which industry experienced the largest percentage increase from Year 4 to

Year 5?

For each industry you take away Year 4 from Year 5 figures to give the increase.

Then you work out the increase as a percentage of the Year 4 figures – all to two decimal places.

Answer: Agriculture – increase of 65.63% (see box below)

Answer Box

Find the percentage increase (in billions of euros) and find the largest

110 − 100

Financial Services

% increase=

× 100% = 10%

100

24 − 23

Telecommunications

% increase=

× 100% = 4.35%

23

54 − 49

Engineering

% increase=

× 100% = 10.20%

49

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

53 − 32

× 100% = 65.63%

32

267 − 233

% increase=

× 100% = 14.59%

233

51 − 47

% increase=

× 100% = 8.51%

47

% increase=

16

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 4.

Which industry had the least percentage change from Year 1 to Year 4?

You have to work out the increase from Year 1 to Year 4 as a percentage of the income in Year 1 for each industry and find the smallest percentage increase.

I have worked out the percentages to two decimal places.

Answer: Manufacturing, increase of 20.73% years 1 to 4 (see below)

Answer Box

The percentage change from Year 1 to Year 4 for each industry is as follows 100 − 70

Financial Services

% increase=

× 100% = 42.86%

70

23 − 17

Telecommunications

% increase=

× 100% = 35.29%

17

49 − 33

Engineering

% increase=

× 100% = 48.48%

33

32 − 26

Agriculture

% increase=

× 100% = 23.08%

26

233 − 193

Manufacturing

% increase=

× 100% = 20.73%

193

47 − 38

Transportation

% increase=

× 100% = 23.68%

38

17

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 5.

a)If the trend in the Transportation industry were to continue, write down the most likely income for Year 6.

b) Which of the above industries would you find difficult to predict a reasonably accurate figure for Year 6?

In order to answer this question I have drawn up a table of the differences between successive years to see if I can spot any trends from which I can make predictions for

Year 6. The last column gives the predicted increase from Year 5 to Year 6 based on these figures. Note that these are tentative figures and there may be more than one possible choice.

Table of Differences in Successive Years

Industry

Yr2-Yr1 Yr3-Yr2 Yr4-Yr3 Yr5-Yr4 Yr6-Yr5 prediction 12

Financial Services

10

8

10

10

3

Telecommunications

1

2

1

2 or 1

7

Engineering

4

5

5

5

2

Agriculture

0

4

21

?

5

Manufacturing

8

27

34

?

3

Transportation

3

3

4

4 or 3

Based on this table I would add the last column to the income for Year 5 to get the prediction for Year 6.

Answer:

a)Prediction for Transportation in Year 6? 55 or 54

Answer:

b)Make an estimate for Year 6 for each industry– write a question mark if difficult to predict.

Prediction for Year 6 (billions of euros)

Financial Services

110

Telecommunications

26 or 25

Engineering

59

Agriculture

?

Manufacturing

?

So we see that making predictions on Agriculture and Manufacturing is not possible without more data e.g. data on the economic cycle etc..

18

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 6.

Which type of industry shows the steadiest rate of growth in income during this period of five years?

In order to answer this question I use the table of the differences between successive years from the last question to see if there are any industries with steady increases in income over the five years. Apart from Agriculture and Manufacturing (which are industries subject to large fluctuations) the others are fairly consistent in their increases. However, Transportation does seem to have the steadiest rate of growth.

Table of Differences in Successive Years

Industry

Yr2-Yr1 Yr3-Yr2 Yr4-Yr3 Yr5-Yr4 Yr6-Yr5 prediction 12

Financial Services

10

8

10

10

3

Telecommunications

1

2

1

2 or 1

7

Engineering

4

5

5

5

2

Agriculture

0

4

21

?

5

Manufacturing

8

27

34

?

3

Transportation

3

3

4

4 or 3

Answer:

Industry with steadiest rate of growth: Transportation

19

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

82

20

40

28

198

41

70

17

33

26

193

38

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 7.

In how many instances did a type of industry make a gain of 10% or more over the previous year listed?

I have filled in the following table.

For each industry, I have answered Y if growth is 10% or more, N if less than 10%.

Then I have counted the number of Y’s and put this number in the last column. This is done for all industries.

Finally I have added up the numbers in the last column and put the total in the last cell in this column.

Yr1-Yr2 Yr2-Yr3 Yr3-Yr4 Yr4-Yr5 10% or more

Financial Services

Y

Y

N

Y

3

Telecommunications

Y

N

N

N

1

Engineering

Y

Y

Y

Y

4

Agriculture

N

N

Y

Y

2

Manufacturing

N

N

Y

Y

2

Transportation

N

N

N

N

0

Total Number of instances of 10% or more increases

12

So we have found that there are 12 instances of an increase of 10% from one year to the next across all industries.

20

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 8.

Find all industries that increased their respective incomes by more than 20% from Year 1 to Year 3.

We form a table of percentage increases for each of the industries for Years 1 to 3.

Note all calculations are to one decimal place as there is no need to be any more accurate. Answer - Which Industries?:

From box below we have

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

All have increased by more than 20% from Year 1 to Year 3

Answer Box:

12. Among the following, the greatest percentage

These are the percentage increases from Year 1 to Year 3. All to one increase in income occurred for decimal place. I then chose those industries with increases over 20%.

A. Agriculture between Year 3 and Year 4

Financial Services

% increase=

Telecommunications

% increase=

Engineering

% increase=

Agriculture

% increase=

Manufacturing

% increase=

Transportation

% increase=

92 − 70

× 100% = 31.4%

70

21 − 17

× 100% = 23.5%

17

44 − 33

× 100% = 33.3%

33

28 − 26

× 100% = 7.7%

26

206 − 193

× 100% = 6.7%

193

44 − 38

× 100% = 15.8%

38

21

INCOME OF INDUSTRIES (in billions of euros)

Industry

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

Year 1 Year 2

70

82

17

20

33

40

26

28

193

198

38

41

Year 3

92

21

44

28

206

44

Year 4

100

23

49

32

233

47

Year 5

110

24

54

53

267

51

Question 9.

Find the average income of each industry over the first three years and over the last four years. Your answers should be to two decimal places.

Answer Box:

Averages in billions of euros for Years 1, 2 and 3.

Averages for Years 2, 3,4 and 5.

All calculations to 2 decimal places.

Financial Services

Telecommunications

Engineering

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Transportation

First Three years

Average

81.33

19.33

39

27.33

199

41

Last Four Years

Average

96.00

22.00

46.75

35.25

226.00

45.75

22

2.2 Further Questions on Data Tables

NEWSPAPER READERSHIP

Readership

Percentage of copies

(millions)

Sold in Year 3, by outlet

Daily Newspapers Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Subscription Newsagents

Daily Herald

5.2

4.9

4.4

52%

38%

Reynolds News

2.7

2.9

3.1

48%

40%

The Echo

6.2

6.1

5.2

32%

50%

Daily Planet

8.3

10.2

10.3

38%

49%

Daily Spin

9.7

9.9

10.5

25%

72%

Study this table of data and answer the questions below. Solutions can be found in the following pages.

The first three columns tell us how many readers (in millions) each newspaper has in each year. Each of these readers may have different ways of purchasing any one paper and also read the paper on a very regular or semi-regular basis. Another complicating factor is that a reader may read and subscribe to more than one of these papers.

The last two columns give information on selling of copies in Year 3. For example,

52% of the Daily Herald copies were sold by subscription.

Questions

1. What is the average readership for each newspaper over the three years?

2. Has the total readership for the five newspapers fallen from Year 1 to Year 3?

Is the total readership in any year the same as the number of different people buying at least one of the five newspapers in that year?

3. If the Daily Planet sold 75 million copies by Subscription in Year 3, how many copies (to the nearest hundred thousand) were sold at the newsagents in Year 3?

4. If the Echo sold 220 million copies in total in Year 3, how many copies (to the nearest hundred thousand) were not sold at the newsagents nor were sold by

Subscription?.

5. The Daily Herald, Reynolds News and Daily Spin are all part of the same group

MadeUp which only has these three papers.

The sales in Year 3 were in the ratios

Daily Herald:Reynolds News:DailySpin= 2:3:4

The total paper sales in Year 3 for the MadeUp group were 873 million.

How many of each of the Made Up papers were sold in Year 3?

How many copies of the Daily Spin were bought at the newsagents in Year 3?

6. Which newspaper showed the largest percentage change in readership from Year

1 to Year 2?

7. Which newspaper showed the smallest percentage change in readership from Year

2 to Year 3?

23

2.3 Solutions

Question 1

What is the average readership for each newspaper over the three years?

Solution

We simply take the averages of the three years

Yr1 Yr2

Yr3

All calculations to 2 decimal places

Daily

Herald

5.2

4.9

4.4

Reynolds

News

2.7

The Echo

6.2

6.1

5.2

Daily

Planet

8.3 10.2

10.3

Daily Spin

9.7

Average=(5.2+4.9+4.4)/3=4.83

2.9

3.1

Average=(2.7+2.9+3.1)/3=2.9

Average=(6.2+6.1+5.2)/3=5.83

Average=(8.3+10.2+10.3)/3=9.60

9.9

10.5

Average=(9.7+9.9+10.5)/3=10.03

Question 2

Has the total readership for the five newspapers fallen from Year 1 to Year 3?

Is the total readership in any year the same as the number of different people buying at least one of the five newspapers in that year?

Solution

Summing up the columns we have

Year 1 Year 2

Year 3

Daily Herald

5.2

4.9

4.4

Reynolds

News

2.7

2.9

3.1

The Echo

6.2

6.1

5.2

Daily Planet

8.3

10.2

10.3

Daily Spin

9.7

9.9

10.5

Total readership 32.1

34

33.5

24

So the total readership has increased from Year 1 to Year 3 and not fallen (although it has fallen from Year 2 to Year 3).

Is the total readership in any year the same as the number of different people buying at least one of the five newspapers in that year?

No – because you can have people buying more than one paper and so adding the readership figures together gives double counting of these people and so over estimates the number of different people reading one of the five papers.

Question 3

If the Daily Planet sold 75 million copies by Subscription in Year 3, how many copies

(to the nearest hundred thousand) were sold at the newsagents in Year 3?

Solution

Year 3 copies sold by subscription

75 million

The

Daily

Planet

% sold by

Number of copies sold subscription In Year 3 (to three decimal places) in Year 3

38%

100

× 75 = 197.368 million

38

The table above shows how to calculate the total number of copies sold in Year 3 given that 38% of the total is 75 million i.e. 197.368 milliion.

We still have to calculate the total sold at the newsagents in Year 3.

49

This is 49% of the total i.e. 49% of 197.368 million =

× 197.368 = 96.71 million.

100

Hence to the nearest hundred thousand the total sold at the newsagents is 96.7 million.

Question 4

If the Echo sold 220 million copies in total in Year 3, how many copies (to the nearest hundred thousand) were not sold at the newsagents nor were sold by

Subscription?.

Solution

This is the information the table gives us for Year 3

% sold by % sold at

Subscription newsagents

The

Echo

32%

50%

The percentage not sold by subscription nor at the newsagents is

100%-32%-50%= 100%-82%=18%

18

And 18% of 220 million is given by

× 220 = 39.6 million. (This is to the nearest

100

hundred thousand already).

25

Question 5

The Daily Herald, Reynolds News and Daily Spin are all part of the same group

MadeUp which only has these three papers.

The sales in Year 3 were in the ratios

Daily Herald:Reynolds News:DailySpin= 2:3:4

The total paper sales in Year 3 for the MadeUp group were 873 million.

How many of each of the Made Up papers were sold in Year 3?

How many copies of the Daily Spin were bought at the newsagents in Year 3?

Solution

We use the ideas of shares. Since the ratios of the sales is 2:3:4 we can allocate

2+3+4 =9 shares and each share gets 873/9=97 million.

The Daily Herald has 2 shares = 2 × 97 = 194 million copies bought in Year 3

The Reynolds News has 3 shares = 3 × 97 = 291 million copies bought in Year 3

The Daily Spin has 4 shares = 4 × 97 = 388 million copies bought in Year 3

Now according to the table 72% of the copies of the Daily Spin were bought at the newsagents in Year 3.

72

This is given by

× 388 = 279.36 million copies in Year 3.

100

26

Question 6

Which newspaper showed the largest percentage change in readership from Year 1 to

Year 2?

Solution

For each paper we find the percentage change from Year 1 to Year 2 by finding the difference of the readership Year 2-Year 1 as a percentage of Year 1 readership. Note that this can be a negative % difference – but we find the largest in magnitude as the answer (i.e. forget about the minus sign and only take account of how big a change we have). We take all our answers to two decimal places.

Yr1

Yr2

%change

Yr1 to Yr 2

Daily

Herald

5.2

4.9

Reynolds

News

2.7

2.9

The

Echo

6.2

6.1

Daily

Planet

8.3 10.2

Daily

Spin

9.7

4 .9 − 5 .2

× 100% = −5.77%

5 .2

2 .9 − 2 .7

× 100% = 7.41%

2. 7

6.1 − 6.2

× 100% = −1.61%

6 .1

10.2 − 8.3

× 100% = 22.89%

8 .3

9.9 − 9.7

× 100% = 2.06%

9.7

9.9

We see that the Daily Planet has had the biggest % change from Years 1 to 2, an increase of 22.89% in the readership.

27

Question 7

Which newspaper showed the smallest percentage change in readership from Year 2 to Year 3?

Solution

For each paper we find the percentage change from Year 2 to Year 3 by finding the difference of the readership Year 3-Year 2 as a percentage of Year 2 readership. Note that this can be a negative % difference – but we find the largest in magnitude as the answer (i.e. forget about the minus sign and only take account of how large a change we have). We take all our answers to two decimal places.

Yr

2

Yr

3

%change

Yr2 to Yr 3

Daily

Herald

4.9

4.4

Reynolds

News

2.9

3.1

The

Echo

6.1

5.2

4 .4 − 4 .9

× 100 = −10.20 %

4 .9

3.1 − 2.9

× 100 = 6.90 %

2 .9

5.2 − 6.1

× 100 = −14.75 %

6 .1

10.3 − 10.2

× 100 = 0.98 %

10.2

Daily

Planet

10.2 10.3

Daily

Spin

9.9 10.5

10.5 − 9.9

× 100 = 6.06 %

9 .9

The Daily Planet has gained 0.98% readers and this is the smallest percentage change from Year 2 to Year 3 amongst all the papers.

28

3. Typical Maths Questions with Solutions

Question 1

The selling price of a box of chocolates is £6.00.

This price was 20% greater than the cost to produce the box.

How much did it cost to produce a box and what was the profit?

Solution

Think of the cost to produce as being 100%. The price is 20% greater, so is 120% of

120

of the cost. the cost i.e.

100

Hence the cost is

100 5

5

= of the price= × £6 = £5 pounds

120 6

6

The profit=selling price-cost = £6-£5=£1.

Question 2

A picture on a page was reduced on a copier to 60% of its original size, and this copy was then reduced by 20%.

What percentage of the size of the original picture was the final copy?

Solution

The picture area has been reduced by 60% or 3/5 (=60/100).

So to find the new size we multiply the original size by 3/5.

If we further reduce the new size by 20% =1/5 then we are have to multiply again by

1 3 3 of the original size we started off with.

1/5 i.e. another we have × =

5 5 25

Now to express this as a percentage we multiply by 100 and we obtain:

3

× 100 = 12% .

25

So the final copy is 12% of the original picture.

Question 3

In a certain department, 15% of the females and 25% of the males are working on a project. 60% of the department is female.

What percentage of the department is working on the project?

Solution

Idea is to add together the % of females in the department working on the project to the % of males in the department working on the project.

29

1. Females

60% of the department is female and 15% of females are working on the project, hence the proportion of females on the project is 15% of 60% of the workers.

15 60

900

9

In terms of fractions this is of the workers i.e. 9%.

×

=

=

100 100 10000 100

Hence 9% of the departmental staff on the project are female.

2. Males

40% of the department is male and 25% are working on the project, hence the proportion of males on the project is 25% of 40% of the workers.

25 40

1000

1

In terms of fractions this is

×

=

= of the workers, which is 10%.

100 100 10000 10

Hence 10% of the departmental staff on the project are male.

So the total percentage is 10%+9%=19% of the department working on the project. Question 4

The total cost for three items of work on a car was £154.

These items were: overhaul of the carburettor, replace brake pads and a tuneup.

Overhaul of the carburettor cost twice as much as the tune-up.

Brake pads cost one-third as much as the carburettor overhaul.

What did the tune-up cost?

There are two solutions given. The first uses idea of shares and the second uses elementary algebra.

Solution 1

We are given that cost carburettor overhaul=cost of 2 tune-ups=cost of 3 brake pads

We can represent the ratios of the costs for the carburettor, tune-up and brake pads by giving cost shares to each of the repairs in the ratios 6:3:2 i.e.

Give the carburettor repair 6 shares, tune-up 3 shares and the brake pads 2 shares.

Then the relative costs are preserved.

Hence there are 6+3+2=11 shares to add up to £154.

So each share is worth £14 and the tune-up gets 3 shares i.e. costs £42.

(I could have given the carburettor 12 shares, tune-up 6 shares and the brake pads 4 shares – all that matters is that the ratios of the shares are the same.

In that case there would be 12+6+4=22 shares each worth £154/22=£7 and the tuneup with 6 shares would still cost 6 × £7 = £42 )

30

Solution 2

We will work out the cost of tune-up as follows

Let C=cost of carburettor work, T=cost of a tune-up, B=cost of brake pads

We are given that C= 2T, and C=3B. So 2T=3B and B=2/3T

So cost repair work = £154 = C+ T+ B

= 2T+T+2/3T=(2+1+2/3)T

= 11/3T

Hence

3

11

T = £154 gives us T =

× £154 = £42 .

11

3

Question 5

A certain preparation consists of liquids x, y, and z in the proportion 5:2:1.

How many gallons of the preparation can be made from a stock of materials consisting of 25 gallons of x, 20 gallons of y, and 8 gallons of z?

Solution

The proportions 5:2:1 have to be preserved.

So if we use G gallons of z then we must use 2G gallons of y and 5G gallons of x. to get 8G gallons of the preparation.

So G has to be as big as possible.

As we have 8 gallons of z, G is not more than 8.

As we have 20 gallons of y, 2G not more than 20 i.e. G not more than 10.

As we have 25 gallons of x, 5G not more than 25 i.e. G not more than 5.

.

So maximum value of G is 5 and we get 8*5=40 gallons of preparation.

31

Question 6

A product costing 60 cents per unit to produce had been selling at the average rate of 1,200,000 units per month.

After the product was improved, sales increased to an average of 2,000,000 units per month.

However, the new product cost five percent more to produce. If the manufacturer's selling price in each instance was 75 cents per unit, what was the manufacturer's added profit per month with the newer product?

Solution

First we work out the cost of production of the new product.

Original production cost =60cents per unit. Profit per unit was 75-60=15cents

Production cost of new product costs 5% more.

Now 5% of 60 =1/20 of 60 =3 cents.

So new production costs = 60+3cents =63cents. Profit per unit is now 75-63=12 cents.

Old profit = 1,200,000*15=18,000,000 cents = $180,000

New profit = 2,000,000*12=24,000,000cents = $240,000

So added profit=$240,000-$180,000=$60,000

32

3.1 Maths Questions to Try

Question 1

Bob has a salary of £35,000.

He has a tax allowance of £5,000 and he pays income tax at 22% on the rest.

He pays into a pension and for this his salary is deducted 8% after tax has been deducted. How much does he get per month assuming that these are the only deductions?

Question 2

An item costs £8.50 to produce. How much should the manufacturer sell these items for if wants to realise a profit of 15% on these items? Give your answer to the nearest penny. Question 3

In a department 10% of the staff have a salary of £20,000, 30% a salary of £25,000,

50% a salary of £30,000, 10% a salary of £40,000.

What is the average salary?

Question 4

Bob, Cilla and Terrence agree to buy ten pounds worth of lottery tickets with Bob contributing £5, Cilla £3 and Terence £2.

They agree that if they win anything with any of these tickets that it should be shared out in the same ratio as their contributions.

They win £250. How much does each get?

Question 5

A product costing 75 p per unit to produce had been selling at the average rate of

650,000 units per month.

After the product was improved, sales increased to an average of 1,000,000 units per month. However, the new product cost 10 percent more to produce. If the manufacturer's selling price in each instance was 105p per unit, what was the manufacturer's added profit per month with the newer product?

Question 6

Same information as in Question 5.

It is projected that if a new marketing campaign for a year is focused on the improved product then sales could be further raised as follows.

£700,000 spent on the campaign then a further 150,000 units per month are projected to be sold in the first year of the campaign. After the campaign has finished it is projected that in the next year sales will be 1,100,000 per month and that in subsequent years sales will also be 1,100,000 per month.

Assuming that all prices and costs stay as they are, how many months are predicted from the beginning of the campaign before the cost of the campaign is recouped?

33

3.2 Solutions - Maths Questions to Try

Question 1

Bob has a salary of £35,000.

He has a tax allowance of £5,000 and he pays income tax at 22% on the rest.

He pays into a pension and for this his salary is deducted 8% after tax has been deducted. How much does he get per month assuming that these are the only deductions?

Solution

Bob is taxed on £35,000-£5,000=£30,000

Income tax is at 22% on this £30,000 and is

22

× 30,000 = £6,600 .

100

Leaving £35,000-£6,600=£28,400.

8

× 28,400 = £2.272

100

The amount left is then £28,400-£2,272=£26,128

26128

Take home per month is

= £2,177.33 .to nearest penny.

12

8% of this is for his pension contributions i.e.

Question 2

An item costs £8.50 to produce. How much should the manufacturer sell these items for if wants to realise a profit of 15% on these items? Give your answer to the nearest penny. Solution

The price of an item is 115% of the production cost in order to realise a profit of 15%.

115

This price is

× 8.5 = £9.775 . Clearly a decision has to be made whether the price

100

is £9.77 or £9.78. Usually numbers such as 9.775 which end with a 5 are rounded up and so we take the price to be £9.78

Question 3

In a department 10% of the staff have a salary of £20,000, 30% a salary of £25,000,

50% a salary of £30,000, 10% a salary of £40,000.

What is the average salary?

Solution This is a weighted average.

The average value is given by

1. For each salary value multiplying the frequency (in fraction form) of the salary amongst the staff by the salary value.

10

2. For example, the salary £20,000 has a frequency of 10% which is

= 0.1

100

and we multiply this by £20,000.

3. Adding these numbers together across all salary values.

34

For this question we have 4 salary values and the weighted average is

10

30

50

10

× 20,000 +

× 25,000 +

× 30,000 +

× 40,000

100

100

100

100

= £2000+£7500+£15000+£4000

=£28,500

Question 4

Bob, Cilla and Terry agree to buy ten pounds worth of lottery tickets with Bob contributing £5, Cilla £3 and Terry £2.

They agree that if they win anything with any of these tickets that it should be shared out in the same ratio as their contributions.

They win £250. How much does each get?

Solution

Their agreement means that the winnings should go to Bob, Cilla, Terry in the ratio

5:3:2. Think of these as being shares in the winnings.

There are 5+3+2 =10 shares in all for the £250.

Hence each share is worth £250/10=£25.

So Bob gets 5 shares = £125, Cilla 3 shares = £75 and Terry 2 shares = £50.

Question 5

A product costing 75 p per unit to produce had been selling at the average rate of

650,000 units per month.

After the product was improved, sales increased to an average of 1,000,000 units per month. However, the new product cost 10 percent more to produce. If the manufacturer's selling price in each instance was 105p per unit, what was the manufacturer's added profit per month with the newer product?

Solution

The improved product costs 10% more to produce.

110

i.e. 110% of original production cost of 75p =

× 75 = 82.5 p.

100

Profit was originally 105-75=30p.

Now with the improved product the profit is 105-82.5= 22.5p

The original profit per month was 650,000 × 30 = 19,500,000 p = £195,000

The new product profit per month is 1,000,000 × 22.5 = 22,500,000 p = £225,000

Hence the added profit per month is £225,000-£195,000=£30,000

35

Question 6

Same information as in Question 5.

It is projected that if a new marketing campaign for a year is focused on the improved product then sales could be further raised as follows.

£700,000 spent on the campaign then a further 150,000 units per month are projected to be sold in the first year of the campaign. After the campaign has finished it is projected that in the next year sales will be 1,100,000 per month and that in subsequent years sales will also be 1,100,000 per month.

Assuming that all prices and costs stay as they are, how many months are predicted from the beginning of the campaign before the cost of the campaign is recouped?

Solution

The profit is 22.5p per item. In the first year there is projected to be an extra profit of

150,000 × 12 × 22.5 p = 40,500,000 p = £405,000

Each year after that the projected extra profit is

100,000 × 12 × 22.5 p = 27,000,000 p = £270,000 with each month contributing

£22,500.

In the first two years it is projected that £405,000+£270,000=£675,000 will be recouped. A further £25,000 is needed and so it will take a further two months at

£22,500 per month to recoup the full amount.

So it is predicted that in 26 months the campaign costs will be recovered and that an extra £22,500 of profit per month thereafter will be realised.

36

4. Question on Graphs

The above graph gives the sales of lager and beer per month in thousands of pints.

The prices of lager and beer does vary from month to month.

However, it is always the case that beer’s price per pint is 20% more than that of lager’s price per pint.

Answer the following questions. Solutions are found in following pages.

Question 1

What was the selling price for lager in July if the income for lager in July was

£28,800? What was the income from beer sales in July?

Question 2

If the selling price of beer was £2.10 per pint in January, what was the selling price of lager? Also what was the total income in that month (both beer and lager)?

Question 3

If the total income for both beer and lager in May was £ 62,700 find the price charged for a pint of lager.

Question 4

Surprisingly, there is always a large amount of lager and beer consumed in October.

Past years has shown that a good predictor for consumption of lager and beer in

October is given by adding 50% on to the consumption of lager in September, and by adding 40% on to the consumption of beer in September.

What price for lager should the Union charge, based on this prediction, so that the predicted total income in October for beer and lager sales is £110,000?

37

4.1 Solutions

Question 1

What was the selling price for lager in July if the income for lager was £28,800?

What was the income from beer sales in July?

Solution

Looking at the graph we see that the 18,000 pints of lager were sold in July.

Hence the price per pint is

28,800 288

=

= £1.60

18,000 180

In order to find the income from beer sales we need to find the price of a pint of beer.

We know that this is 20% more than a pint of lager so:

120

So the price of a pint of beer =

× 1.60 = £1.92

100

Looking at the graph we see that 13,000 pints of beer were sold in July.

So the income from beer sales is 13,000 × 1.92 = £24,960

Question 2

If the selling price of beer was £2.10 per pint in January, what was the selling price of lager?

Also what was the total income in that month (both beer and lager)?

Solution

The price of beer is 20% higher than that of lager, which means that to convert from the price of beer to lager we need to multiply by 100/120=5/6.

100

Hence the price of lager in January is

× 2.10 = £1.75 .

120

Looking at the graph for January we see that

27,000 pints of beer

30,000 pints of lager were sold.

Income from beer sales = 27,000 × 2.10 =£56,700

Income from lager sales = 30,000 × 1.75 = £52,500

Total income =£56,700+£52,500=£109,200

38

Question 3

If the total income for both beer and lager in May was £ 62,700 find the price charged for a pint of lager.

Solution

The graph tells us that

20,000 pints of lager and 15,000 pints of beer were sold in May.

Remember that beer is 20% more expensive than lager.

It follows that 15,000 pints of beer are in price terms the same as

120

× 15000 =18,000 pints of lager.

100

So the total income is obtained by selling the equivalent of

20,000+18,000 =38,000 pints of lager

Since the total income is £62,700, the price of a pint of lager is

62,700

= £1.65

38,000

Question 4

Surprisingly, there is always a large amount of lager and beer consumed in

October. Past years has shown that a good predictor for consumption of lager and beer in October is given by adding 50% on to the consumption of lager in

September, and by adding 40% on to the consumption of beer in September.

What price for lager should the Union charge, based on this prediction, so that the predicted total income in October for beer and lager sales is £110,000?

Solution

The September consumption of lager was 22000 pints. Hence the predicted

150

consumption in October is 150% of 22000=

× 22000 = 33,000 pints of lager.

100

The September consumption of beer was 25000 pints. Hence the predicted

140

consumption in October is 140% of 25000=

× 25000 = 35,000 pints of beer.

100

Remember that the price of a pint of beer is 20% more than that of a pint of lager.

Convert the35,000 pints of beer to the price equivalent number of pints of lager.

120

This is given by

× 35000 = 42,000 pints of lager.

100

Hence the total predicted income for October is price equivalent to

33000+42000=75000 pints of lager.

In order to achieve a predicted income of £110,000 we need to charge

110000

= £1.47 for a pint of lager on taking 2 decimal places

75000

39

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...[pic] __________________________________________________________ UNIVERSITY COMPULSORY SUBJECT EXAMINATION FOR THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) BUSINESS MANAGEMENT BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) BUSINESS STUDIES YEAR OF STUDY: YEAR 1 UCS 1000: STUDY SKILLS FEBRUARY 2009 Reading time: 15 minutes Writing time : 2 Hours _________________________________________________________ INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES This paper contains three sections: Section A, Section B and Section C. Answer ALL questions in the answer booklet provided. This paper makes up 40% of the total assessment of this subject. This paper is printed on FOUR (4) pages Section A [20 marks] There are TEN questions for Section A. Answer ALL questions in complete sentences. |1. |State TWO reasons why it is important to set goals in learning. | | |(2 marks) | |2. |Why is it important for college students to do prior reading before lectures or tutorials? | | |(2 marks) | |3. ...

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...http://www.aksnewarkde.com/StudyHabits.html GOOD STUDY HABITS... ...are the key to keeping up your grades Remember: “If you improve your study habits, improving your grades will be easier…” 1. Make a list. It all starts with ‘planning’. Make a list of all the things you have to do. Break it down into smaller chunks. Then check off your accomplishments as you go. 2. Do the hard stuff first…then the easy. Put your energy into the harder assignments…when you have less energy or your brain is tired, you can then tackle the easier tasks. 3. Proper study space. Make a place to study. When you use the same place to study, day after day, your body becomes trained. You will focus your concentration more quickly there. 4. Snack. Don’t try to study on an empty stomach. If you’re hungry, you’ll be distracted. So grab an apple or some carrot sticks. Just avoid dairy products or turkey, which tend to be natural sedatives (make you sleepy). 5. No distractions. Turn off the stereo, TV or radio. Silence is the best environment to study in. 6. Study buddy. Don’t overlook the value of a study partner. Quiz each other, compare notes and practice testing. You can also help one another from becoming bored. But avoid distracting each other from what you are there to do. 7. Write it down. Experts agree that the more senses you use to absorb information, the better you’ll remember it. Don’t just read about what......

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...Ralph Stinebrickner1 please direct correspondence to Todd R. Stinebrickner Dept. of Economics The Social Science Centre The University of Western Ontario London Ontario Canada n6a 5c2 trstineb@julian.uwo.ca phone 519 679-2111 ext. 5293 fax 519 661-3666 Unique new data from a college with a mandatory work-study program are used to examine the relationship between working during school and academic performance. Particular attention is paid to the importance of biases that are potentially present because the number of hours that are worked is endogenously chosen by the individual. A “naive” OLS regression, which indicates that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between hours-worked and grade performance, highlights the potential importance of endogeneity bias in this context. Although a fixed effects estimator suggests that working an additional hour has an effect on grades which is quantitatively very close to zero, we suggest that there are likely to exist causes of endogeneity which are not addressed by the fixed effects estimator. Indeed, an instrumental variables approach, which takes advantage of unique institutional details of the work-study program at this school, indicates that working an additional hour has a negative and quantitatively large effect on grade performance at this school. The results suggest that, even if results appear “reasonable,” a researcher should be cautious when drawing policy conclusions about the relationship......

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...An Analysis of Determinants of Profitability in Public and Private Sector Banks in India Mrs. Somanadevi Thiagarajan Ph.D. Scholar, Management Sciences, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, India Lecturer (on leave) Faculty of Management, University of Belize, Belize Dr. S. Ayyappan Associate Professor in MBA Sakthi Institute of Information and Management Studies Pollachi -642001, India Dr. A. Ramachandran Director, SNR Institute of Management Sciences, SNR Sons College, Coimbatore, India Mr. M. Sakthivadivel Anna University of Technology Coimbatore, India Abstract An analysis was carried out to empirically evaluate the determinants of profitability in the public and private sector commercial banks in India. A combination of statistical tools such as the correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and factor analysis were used to estimate the contribution of select bank specific variables towards profitability which was measured by using Return on Assets (RoA). The study revealed that the cost of borrowing and NPA has a significant negative correlation with profitability for public sector banks. Return on investments, return on advances and operating profit had a significant positive correlation with profitability for both public and private sector banks. The multiple regression analysis highlighted that the return on investments and return on advances has a significant influence on the profitability of private sector banks. The factor analysis has also shown......

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...determined and motivated to continue their studies despite of their undesirable situation. They are trying hard in their studies for them to avail scholarships available in different colleges and universities programmed for deserving students but others unluckily did not avail due to limited slots given. How these students continue with their quest living with quality of life? Are there any options available for them? The most common phrase we heard from common people is: we can continue with our studies later but this time we have to work first, let’s be practical. The focus of today’s students is to enroll for one or two years then apply for work because the minimum requirements is college level but soon they will realize how important is education and most probably the realization came in late of their lives, that’s the real thing. People spend too much in shorter plans and they did not focus on the longer one. Parents also lacks of motivation for them to encourage their students to continue. Why?... because they didn’t have it during their time. So, this time what can we do to resolve this kind of situation? What if there are lots of students who are determined to pursue their dreams. Can they sustain their studies until they have it? It has been observed here in Consolacion Community College since its opening on 2010 that there are lots of students who are poor but deserving students who are willing to continue with their studies despite of living below the average......

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...and let them success. * Sport: educate people more about * Sports are importance to health * Prevent people from ills * Get rid of any drugs * Education: * People value in themselves and society * Educate people to get in touch in study and let them know how importance of learning * People become good citizen and good behavior * Make people respect to their parents and the elder * Educate people to act in good * Prevent people from crime * Health care: provide people more knowledge * People know how to maintain health, living, clean and well-being * Exercise to get rid of any ills * To eat without harm * Environments: give many advantages to people like: * People know how to preserve and protect the environments * People protect the forest * Make environment clean * Products: give importance to people like: * People know how to use product correctively and maintain to the quality and know exactly to the expires of products * Films: educate people in positive ways like: * Respect and gratitude parents * Help people act in good and not to be deal with crime * Educate people to determine their future and let them try to study * Educate people not to violent in their family or in society * Disadvantages: the effects of disadvantages of advertising on television consist of technology, products, news and films. * Technology: the way of this advertise do may give people......

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...ABSTRACT Objective: This qualitative descriptive study investigates how public health nurses working within the child welfare system view the organization and the organizationÕs effect on their case management practice. Design: Semistructured interviews were conducted utilizing the Bolman—Deal Organizational Model. This model identifies four frames of an organization: symbolic, human resources, political, and structural. Sample: A purposive sample of nine nurses and one social worker was selected to participate in comprehensive interviews. Results: Data analysis identified two main themes. The first theme was the presence of organizational structural barriers to providing case management. The second theme was the lack of political influence by the nurses to change the structure of the organization; hence, their skills could be more completely utilized. Conclusions: Public health nurses who work in child welfare will need to systematically analyze their role within the organization and understand how to work in Òhost settings.Ó Nursing educators need to prepare public health nurses to work in non-health care settings by teaching organizational analysis. Key words: child protective services, organization, public health nursing. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative descriptive study was to investigate how public health nurses working in the child welfare system in a large metropolitan county in California view the organization. The study utilized the Bolman—Deal......

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...ARS 100 STUDY GUIDE for QUIZ 2 & EXAM #1 (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4) Questions on the exam are not limited to the content of this study guide. Questions are derived not only from the study guide, but also from lectures, and readings. You should know the definitions and also be able to identify whether they apply to an image listed in the image list. Quiz 2 Focus of Study: What is Art Lecture Visual elements (Chapter 2 & The Visual Elements of Art Lecture) Terms related to color (Chapter 2 & The Visual Elements of Art Lecture) Motion/implied motion (Chapter 2 & The Visual Elements of Art Lecture) Techniques for creating the illusion of three-dimension (Chapter 2 & The Visual Elements of Art Lecture) Techniques for creating the illusion of depth (Chapter 2 & The Visual Elements of Art Lecture) Design principles (Chapter 3 & The Principles of Design Lecture) Exam 1 Focus of Study KEY TERMS: Trompe l’oeil Nonobjective art Representational art Impasto Iconography Chiaroscuro Contrapposto value Linear perspective Emphasis Expressionistic art scale/hierarchical scale Unity & variety Design principles Visual elements Abstract art Hue Overlapping Saturation Realistic/Realism art Analogous colors Atmospheric perspective Complementary colors Visual elements Design principles Form/Content/ Style Volume Primary colors Local color Mass Shade Tint Kinetic art Texture Types of line (implied, contour, outline, spontaneous, gestural, psychological, actual) Function of line (create depth and texture,...

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...Brief Summary The article “Rethink the Hawthorne Studies: The Western Electric research in its social, political and historical context. Human Relations” attempted to provide an insight about the Hawthorne study conducted to provide an investigation of organisational history for a company named as “Western Electric”. The article primary objective was to understand organisational behavior within range of social, political and historical factors and to address question around identifying the kind of enterprise was Western Electric (Hassad, 2012). The study was conducted at Western Electric's factory at Hawthorne during the period of late 1920s and early 1930s. There were primary study conducted around the two case studies, and was conducted by Elton Mayo, a Harvard professor of industrial research along with fellow researchers. The two cases were related to neglecting the corporate and cultural context respectively and were reviewed in this article while the first one evolve around welfare capitalism and the another one was about Eastland disaster and to understand the impact of both cases from perspective of social organisation and communal experiences. The article also evaluates the viewpoint of other scholars and historical sources to determine the credentials of the findings (Hassad, 2012). What is the Problem? There were primarily two problems were tried to addressed through this article. The first one is related to the neglected corporate context where the Western......

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...Psychology & Educational Studies 2(3) 72-75 Rjopes © Emerging Academy Resources (2013) (ISSN: 2276-8475) www.emergingresource.org STUDY HABITS AS INFLUENCE OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES IN NIGERIA Ayodele, C.S and Adebiyi, D.R Department of Guidance and Counselling, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: Ayodele, C.S __________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study examined study habit as a determinant of academic performance of undergraduates in Nigeria. It also investigated how faculty and gender influence their study habit. The study employed a descriptive research survey type. The research instrument was titled” Study habits determinants Questionnaire”. The face and content validity was ascertained by psychologist and Guidance and Counselling experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using split half method. The population of the study includes all faculties in the university. Samples were selected through stratified and random sampling techniques. Two hypotheses were generated and were tested using student t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive analysis revealed that self concept was very strong determinant of study habit, so also was method of study, family background, socio-economic status, peer group and course of study. Again, gender was found to have no significant difference on undergraduates’ study habit......

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...Q: What is the definition of "study habits"? A: The definition of study habits is the habitual practices one uses to help them study and learn. Good study habits can help students achieve and/or maintain good grades. Q: How do you study better? A: Effective studying requires thinking positively, studying in a quiet area, rewriting notes, playing memory games and remaining healthy. Students also need to take breaks and reward themselves periodically. To think in a positive manner, students must think about their talents and skills. Negative and defeatist attitudes must be dispelled from the mind. Students also need to avoid comparing their achievements and successes with other people. Getting away from distractions is imperative. For instance, using a computer when taking notes can lead to playing games or surfing the Internet. Using a notebook instead of a computer helps a person focus better. However, listening to a favorite song on an iPod can motivate students to study better. Libraries and quiet off-campus spots are suitable places to learn. Eating a healthy diet is important because the vitamins and nutrients ensure maximum energy when studying. Certain herbs, such as ginko and ginseng, may enhance memorization skills. Exercise and healthy eating are effective aids when studying. Studying for an hour and taking a five-minute break fosters a more productive study session. Breaking chapters into sections avoids studying for long periods. Rewards can come in......

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...It is possible for students to achieve success in the examination if the correct strategies and study skills are used. Studying effectively does not depend so much on how long one spends with book and notes but how effectively one has been studying. One of the most important recipes for success in examination is to study regularly and consistently. After all ‘Rome was not built in a day’. It is necessary, therefore to draw up a timetable with time set aside for recreation, exercise or television. Equally important is the discipline to stick to the period timetable. Without a study plan or timetable, some subject me be inadequate focus and attention. Another factor that is crucial for examination success is the need to do homework and assignments. Homework and assignments reinforce learning and helps students to identify what they do not know so that remedial work can be done immediately. In addition, homework helps students to practice and reinforce classroom learning. Preparing mind maps is another study skills that can be used to make learning more effective and more meaningful. For subject with a lot of content matter such as History and Biology, mind maps are essential for various reasons. For one, mind maps helps students to focus on the important elements as well as to see relationship between the element more clearly. Next, mind maps are useful tools for revision because the mind can see and remember more easily if ideas and concepts are presented in pictures and......

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...The Hawthorne Experiments The Hawthorne experiments were groundbreaking studies in human relations that were conducted between 1924 and 1932 at Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works in Chicago. Originally designed as illumination studies to determine the relationship between lighting and productivity, the initial tests were sponsored by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1927 a research team from the Harvard Business School was invited to join the studies after the illumination tests drew unanticipated results. Two additional series of tests, the relay-assembly tests and the bank-wiring tests, followed the illumination tests. The studies assumed the label Hawthorne experiments or studies from the location of the Western Electric plant. Concluded by 1932, the Hawthorne studies, with emphasis on a new interpretation of group behavior, were the basis for the school of human relations. ILLUMINATION TESTS In the early 1920s Chicago's Western Electric Hawthorne Works employed 12,000 workers. The plant was a primary manufacturer of telephones, and in 1924 the company provided a site to cooperate with the NRC on a series of test room studies to determine the relationship between illumination and worker efficiency. The basic idea was to vary and record levels of illumination in a test room with the expectation that as lighting was increased, productivity would too. In another test room, illumination was decreased, with the......

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...other. We could not let electronic products to make us become a “dumb” in the real world. Electronic products not only impact on our communication, it also serious influences our work and study quality. It tend to distract our attention, cause we could not focus on our work and study. As a result, we likely to waste a lot of time on meaningless things, rather than complete our homework in time or review for our important exams. I know many people like to check their Facebook or watch TV show while they are working and studying. I want to talk about myself. Last semester, I was addicted in social app and TV for an extended period. I could not control myself to play my phone and check the update of my favorite TV when I plan to do my homework. Sometimes, I spent a whole weekend to watch my favorite TV. Finally, my grade woke me up. Electronic products could let people forget the time and their work. Put away your electronic product is really important if you don’t have a good self-control and strong perseverance. In the end, I really want to tell you guys that we really need to forget about electronic products sometimes, and come back to the most original and real life. To enjoying the best time with your family and friends, and to enjoying the best result after seriously work and study. Those are the really most important things for us right now. Those things will be more meaningful in our life....

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...................16 Mathematics, Reading, and Time Preferences ..................................................... 17 Musical Talent....................................................................................................... 17 Physiological Elements and Achievement............................................................. 18 Reading and Sound .............................................................................................. 19 Reading and Light ................................................................................................. 19 Reading Comprehension and Design (Study Area) .............................................. 20 Rural/Inner City Student Background....................................................................20 Science Achievement with Computer-Assisted Instruction ................................... 21 Social Studies ....................................................................................................... 21 Sociological Elements and Achievement .............................................................. 22 Time of Day Preferences and Achievement.......................................................... 23 Vocational Education/Industrial Arts ..................................................................... 25 Word-Pair Recognition and Mobility ...................................................................... 26 Word Recognition and Temperature ..................................................

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