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Gýč - Jeff Koons

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Gýč je umelecký prejav bez skutočných umeleckých hodnôt, využívajúci obľubu určitých námetov a motívov. Prejavuje sa nízkym nárokom na umelecký ako aj abstraktno-logický úsudok jeho potenciálneho prijímateľa. Zvláštnosť gýča spočíva v tom, že je príťažlivý. Ľudom sa páči a na trhu úspešne konkuruje ,,serióznemu umeniu“. Na otázku, v čom spočíva umelecká defektnosť gýča, je odpoveď jednoznačná. Gýč neprináša žiadne inovácie, skôr naopak, čo najviac ich eliminuje. Gýč je tiež otázkou vkusu jedinca a doby, relatívna záležitosť (napr. secesia - v tej dobe gýč, dnes umelecký hodnotné). Od druhej polovice 19. storočia sa za gýč označujú nevkusné diela a predmety v oblasti výtvarného umenia a tento výraz sa postupne preniesol aj do ostatných umení. Slovo gýč sa pôvodne vzťahovalo viac menej len k maliarstvu, avšak význam takéhoto pojmu sa postupne rozšíril aj do dalších oblastí umenia. Podľa definícií v Estetickom slovníku (1995) sa v umení vyskytujú gýčové výtvory:

- literatúra ( sentimentálne romány, romány pre ženy…)
- film ( rodinný seriál, sentimentálni vlastenecký film)
- maliarstvo ( jeleň v ruji, kúpajúca sa žena)
- hudba ( opereta, tzv. ľudová hudba)
- architektúra ( napodobeniny Taj Mahal)

Rybár ( Kultúra ako výchova k ľudskosti a tvorivému životu) uvádza, že novosťou modernej doby je bohužiaľ skutočnosť, že umenie samo sa stalo extrémne polemickým. Zároveň s tým, vznikla masová potreba gýča a ochota dodať gýču intelektuálni rozmer. Určiť povahu gýča nie je o nič ľahšie než vysvetliť, čo je umenie. Gýč podobne ako umenie uchvacuje, vyvoláva špecifickú náladu. Nikto z nás nie je celkom imúnni, aby gýču unikol. Určité rozdiely medzi umením a gýčom (ne-umením) však predsa existujú. Gýč vyvoláva okamžitú jednoznačnú emocionálnu odozvou, ktorá svojho konzumenta uisťuje v jeho predpokladoch, nikdy nespochybňuje jeho predstavy o svete. Z tohto dôvodu gýč používa najkonvenčnejší, najštandardnejší a najvyskúšanejšie zobrazovacie prostriedky. To je tiež dôvod prečo je gýč z umeleckého hľadiska nezaujímavý. Gýč nás totiž celkovo uspáva, pretože neobsahuje žiadne nejasnosti, dvojzmyslovosti či skryté významy. Nikdy nezačína ani nekončí otázkou, vždy všetko doslovne prezrádza. Pre svoj nekomplikovaný spôsob je veľmi obľúbený u masovej populácie. Príjemcu gýča tak viac zaujíma, čo je zobrazené , než ako je to zobrazené. Umenie sa odlišuje od gýča predovšetkým svojím presahom, snahou o prekonanie gýča. Zatiaľ čo široké vrstvy obyvateľstva si prajú byť čo najrýchlejšie a najpohodlnejšie ,,naladený“ do určitého citového rozpoloženia, teda bez osobnej angažovanosti, skutočný umelec priamo metodicky odmieta svet prežitkov saturovaných nálad.

Definícia gýču podľa Tomáša Kulku

Gýč zobrazuje témy, ktoré sú všeobecne považované za krásne, alebo ktoré majú silný emocionálny náboj. Gýč substantívne neobohacuje asociácie spojené so zobrazovanou témou. Dej gýčovitého románu má silný emocionálny náboj. Literárny gýč využíva štandardné emocionálne situácie, ktoré vyvolávajú spontánnu nereflektívnu emocionálnu odozvu. Je podriadený morálnym štandardom a společenským ideálom danej doby. Rovnako ako vizuálny gýč väčšinou zobrazuje to, čo je všeobecne považované za krásne, typicky gýčovitý román popisuje to, co je všeobecně považované za dobré, mravné či správne v danom společensko-historickom období.
Literárnou paralelou druhej podmienky je okamžitá zrozumiteľnosť. Jazyk literárneho gýču musí byť dostatečně jednoduchý a štýl rozprávania sa nesmie vymykať dobovým konvenciám. Gýč nepotrebuje výklad. Rovnako ako vo vizuálnom umení je literárny gýč zpravidla explicitný - nič nie je ponecháné na fantáziu.
Tretia podmienka stanovuje, že čítanie literárneho gýču príliš nerozšíri naše obzory a neobohatí našu skúsenosť o nové aspekty reality.

„Buďto musíme priznať, že gýč má určitú mieru pozitívnych estetických kvalít, alebo spochybniť predpoklad, že jednota, komplexnosť a intenzita sú skutočne štandardné a univerzálne pozitívne estetické kvality. Pripustiť však, že gýč je esteticky hodnotný, sa prieči našemu jazykovému citu.“ (Kulka, 1994, str.66)

Dielo Jeffa Koonsa

Jeff Koons (* 21. ledna 1955, York, Pensylvánie, USA) je americký umelec, známy predovšetkým svojimi obrovskými zväčšeninami banálnych predmetov - napríklad zvieracími postavičkami z nafukovacích balonov reprodukovanými v pestrofarebnej leštenej nerezovej oceli. Koonsove práce sa predávajú za značné sumy. Cena cez 25 miliónov dolárov za jednu z jeho Balónových kvetín bola dokonca nejvyššia, za akú bolo kedy vydražené dielo žijúceho umelca. Názory kritikov sú ale často protichodné. Niektorí ho uznávajú ako objeviteľa nových možností a postavu ďalekosiahleho významu, iní naopak považujú jeho práce za obyčajný gýč, primitívne a propagujúce iba seba samého. Aj on sám tvrdí, že jeho diela nemajú žiadne skryté významy.…...

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