Free Essay

Grammar Worksheet

In: English and Literature

Submitted By gabiipenagos
Words 107004
Pages 429
GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS

Grammar and Language
Workbook
G RADE 9

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States
Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
936 Eastwind Drive
Westerville, Ohio 43081
ISBN 0-02-818294-4
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 03 02 01 00 99

Contents
Handbook of Definitions and Rules .........................1
Troubleshooter ........................................................21
Part 1 Grammar ......................................................45
Unit 1 Parts of Speech
1.1
Nouns: Singular, Plural, and Collective ....47
1.2
Nouns: Proper and Common;
Concrete and Abstract.................................49
1.3
Pronouns: Personal and Possessive;
Reflexive and Intensive...............................51
1.4
Pronouns: Interrogative and Relative;
Demonstrative and Indefinite .....................53
1.5
Verbs: Action (Transitive/Intransitive) ......55
1.6
Verbs: Linking .............................................57
1.7
Verb Phrases ................................................59
1.8
Adjectives ....................................................61
1.9
Adverbs........................................................63
1.10
Prepositions.................................................69
1.11
Conjunctions: Coordinating, Correlative, and Subordinating; Interjections ................71
Unit 1 Review ..........................................................73
Cumulative Review: Unit 1 .....................................74

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Unit 2 Parts of the Sentence
2.12
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates.....75
2.13
Complete Subjects and
Complete Predicates....................................77
2.14
Compound Subjects and
Compound Predicates .................................79
2.15
Order of Subject and Predicate...................81
2.16
Complements: Direct and Indirect Objects..83
2.17
Subject Complements and Object
Complements...............................................85
Unit 2 Review ..........................................................87
Cumulative Review: Units 1–2 ...............................88

4.30

Kinds of Sentences: Interrogative and Exclamatory........................................121
4.31
Sentence Fragments ..................................123
4.32
Run-on Sentences......................................125
Unit 4 Review ........................................................127
Cumulative Review: Units 1– 4 .............................128
Unit 5 Diagraming Sentences
5.33
Diagraming Simple Sentences ..................129
5.34
Diagraming Simple Sentences with Phrases ..............................................131
5.35
Diagraming Sentences with Clauses.........133
Unit 5 Review ........................................................137
Cumulative Review: Units 1–5..............................138
Unit 6 Verb Tenses and Voice
6.36
Regular Verbs: Principal Parts ..................141
6.37
Irregular Verbs: Principal Parts ................143
6.38
Tense of Verbs: Present, Past, and Future .................................................145
6.39
Perfect Tenses: Present, Past, and Future .................................................147
6.40
Tenses of Verbs ........................................149
6.41
Verbs: Progressive and Emphatic Forms..151
6.42
Verbs: Compatibility of Tenses.................153
6.43
Voice of Verbs: Active and Passive ..........155
Unit 6 Review ........................................................157
Cumulative Review: Units 1–6 .............................158

Unit 3 Phrases
3.18
Prepositional Phrases..................................89
3.19
Participles and Participial Phrases.............91
3.20
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases;
Appositives and Appositive Phrases..........93
3.21
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases ...............95
3.22
Distinguishing Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases .................................97
Unit 3 Review ..........................................................99
Cumulative Review: Units 1–3..............................100

Unit 7 Subject-Verb Agreement
7.44
Subject-Verb Agreement ...........................161
7.45
Subject-Verb Agreement and
Intervening Prepositional Phrases............163
7.46
Subject-Verb Agreement and Linking Verbs .....................................165
7.47
Subject-Verb Agreement in
Inverted Sentences ....................................167
7.48
Subject-Verb Agreement and
Special Subjects ........................................169
7.49
Subject-Verb Agreement and
Compound Subjects ..................................171
7.50
Subject-Verb Agreement and
Intervening Expressions............................173
7.51
Subject-Verb Agreement and Indefinite
Pronouns as Subjects ................................175
Unit 7 Review ........................................................177
Cumulative Review: Units 1–7..............................178

Unit 4 Clauses and Sentence Structure
4.23
Main and Subordinate Clauses.................101
4.24
Simple and Compound Sentences ...........103
4.25
Complex and Compound-Complex
Sentences...................................................105
4.26
Adjective Clauses ......................................107
4.27
Adverb Clauses..........................................111
4.28
Noun Clauses.............................................115
4.29
Kinds of Sentences: Declarative and Imperative ..........................................119

Unit 8 Using Pronouns Correctly
8.52
Personal Pronouns: Case...........................181
8.53
Pronouns with and as Appositives;
After Than and As .....................................183
8.54
Who and Whom in Questions and
Subordinate Clauses..................................185
8.55
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement in Number and Gender .............................187
8.56
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement in Person ...................................................189

Table of Contents

1

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement with
Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents ..............191
8.58
Clear Pronoun Reference ..........................193
Unit 8 Review ........................................................195
Cumulative Review: Units 1– 8 .............................196
Unit 9 Using Modifiers Correctly
9.59
Modifiers: Three Degrees of Comparison ...........................................199
9.60
Modifiers: Irregular Comparisons.............201
9.61
Modifiers: Double and
Incomplete Comparisons ..........................203
9.62
Using Good or Well; Bad or Badly ............205
9.63
Double Negatives.......................................207
9.64
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers ..........209
Unit 9 Review ........................................................213
Cumulative Review: Units 1–9..............................214
Part 2 Usage ...........................................................217
Unit 10 Usage Glossary
10.65 Usage: a to altogether ................................219
10.66 Usage: amount to could of ........................221
10.67 Usage: different from to regardless ...........223
10.68 Usage: this kind to reason is because .......225
10.69 Usage: respectfully to where at .................227
Unit 10 Review ......................................................229
Cumulative Review: Units 1–10 ...........................230
Part 3 Mechanics ...................................................233
Unit 11 Capitalization
11.70 Capitalization of Sentences ......................235
11.71 Capitalization of Proper Nouns ................237
11.72 Capitalization of Proper Adjectives..........239
Unit 11 Review ......................................................241
Cumulative Review: Units 1–11 ...........................242
Unit 12 Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers
12.73 End Punctuation: Period,
Exclamation Point, and Question Mark ...245
12.74 Colons ........................................................247
12.75 Semicolons ................................................249
12.76 Commas and Compound Sentences .........251
12.77 Commas in a Series and Between
Coordinate Adjectives...............................253
12.78 Commas and Nonessential Elements .......255
12.79 Commas and Introductory Phrases...........257
12.80 Commas and Adverb Clauses and
Antithetical Phrases ..................................259
12.81 Commas with Titles, Addresses, and
Numbers ....................................................261
12.82 Commas in Direct Address, Tag
Questions, and Letter Writing ..................263
12.83 Commas in Review....................................265
12.84 Dashes to Signal Change and to Emphasize .............................................267
12.85 Parentheses................................................269
12.86 Quotation Marks for Direct Quotations....271
12.87 Quotation Marks with Titles of Short
Works, Unusual Expressions, and with
Other Marks of Punctuation .....................273

12.88 Italics .........................................................275
12.89 The Apostrophe.........................................277
12.90 The Hyphen...............................................279
12.91 Abbreviations ............................................281
12.92 Numbers and Numerals ............................283
Unit 12 Review ......................................................285
Cumulative Review: Units 1–12 ...........................286
Part 4 Vocabulary & Spelling ...............................289
Unit 13 Vocabulary and Spelling
13.93 Building Vocabulary: Learning from Context..............................................291
13.94 Building Vocabulary: Word Roots............293
13.95 Building Vocabulary:
Prefixes and Suffixes.................................295
13.96 Basic Spelling Rules: I ...............................297
13.97 Basic Spelling Rules: II .............................299
Review: Building Vocabulary ...............................301
Review: Basic Spelling Rules ...............................303
Part 5 Composition ..........................................305
Unit 14 Composition
14.98 The Writing Process: Prewriting ..............307
14.99 The Writing Process: Drafting ..................311
14.100 The Writing Process: Revising .................315
14.101 The Writing Process: Editing ...................317
14.102 The Writing Process: Presenting ..............319
14.103 Outlining ...................................................321
14.104 Writing Effective Sentences .....................323
14.105 Building Paragraphs .................................327
14.106 Paragraph Ordering ..................................331
14.107 Personal Letters .........................................333
14.108 Business Letters: Letters of Request or
Complaint ..................................................337
14.109 Business Letters: Résumés and
Cover Letters .............................................339
Index ......................................................................343
TAE Tests
Unit 1: Parts of Speech ..........................................349
Unit 2: Parts of the Sentence .................................351
Unit 3: Phrases .......................................................353
Unit 4: Clauses and Sentence Structure ...............357
Unit 5: Diagraming Sentences ...............................359
Unit 6: Verb Tenses and Voice..............................361
Unit 7: Subject-Verb Agreement ...........................365
Unit 8: Using Pronouns Correctly .........................369
Unit 9: Using Modifiers Correctly.........................371
Unit 10: Usage........................................................373
Unit 11: Capitalization ..........................................375
Unit 12: Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers ...........................................377
Unit 13: Vocabulary and Spelling.........................381
Unit 14: Composition ............................................383
Answer Key ...........................................................387

2 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9, Table of Contents

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8.57

Handbook of
Definitions
and Rules

Handbook

1

Nouns
1. A singular noun is a word that names one person, place, thing, or idea: brother, classroom, piglet, and joy. A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea: brothers, classrooms, piglets, and joys.
2. To help you determine whether a word in a sentence is a noun, try adding it to the following sentences. Nouns will fit in at least one of these sentences:
I know something about ________.
I know something about a(n) ________.
I know something about brothers.
I know something about a classroom.
3. A collective noun names a group. When the collective noun refers to the group as a whole, it is singular. When it refers to the individual group members, the collective noun is plural.
The class meets two days a week. (singular)
The board of trustees come from all walks of life. (plural)
4. A common noun names a general class of people, places, things, or ideas: soldier, country, month, or theory. A proper noun specifies a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea.
Proper nouns are always capitalized: General Schwartzkopf, America, July, or Big Bang.
5. A concrete noun names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by any of the senses: tuba, music, potato, and aroma. An abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic: courage, sanity, power, and memory.
6. A possessive noun shows possession, ownership, or the relationship between two nouns:
Raul’s house, the cat’s fur, and the girls’ soccer ball.

Pronouns
1. A pronoun takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun.
2. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing. First person personal pronouns refer to the speaker, second person pronouns refer to the one spoken to, and third person pronouns refer to the one spoken about.
First Person, Singular
First Person, Plural
Second Person, Singular
Second Person, Plural
Third Person, Singular
Third Person, Plural

Nominative Case
I
we you you he, she, it they Possessive Case my, mine our, ours your, yours your, yours his, her, hers, its their, theirs

Objective Case me us you you him, her, it them 3. A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence. An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or another pronoun. A demonstrative pronoun points out specific persons, places, things, or ideas.
Reflexive:
They psyched themselves up for the football game.
Intensive:
Freddie himself asked Julie out.
Demonstrative: That is a good idea! Those are my friends.
4. An interrogative pronoun is used to form questions. A relative pronoun is used to introduce a subordinate clause. An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does.
Interrogative:
Which is your choice?
With whom were you playing video games?

2 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

PARTS OF SPEECH

Handbook

Relative:
Indefinite:

The cake that we baked was delicious.
Everyone has already voted.
No one should enter without knocking.

5. The antecedent of a pronoun is the word or group of words referred to by the pronoun.
Ben rode his bike to school. (Ben is the antecedent of his.)

Verbs
1. A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement.
Most verbs will fit one or more of these sentences:
We _________.
We _________ loyal.
We ________ it.
It _________.
We sleep.
We remain loyal.
We love it!
It snowed.
2. An action verb tells what someone or something does. The two types of action verbs are transitive and intransitive. A transitive verb is followed by a word or words that answer the question what? or whom? An intransitive verb is not followed by a word that answers what? or whom? Transitive: Children trust their parents.
The puppy carried the bone away.
Intransitive: The team played poorly.
The light burned brightly.
3. A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun.
The concert was loud. (adjective)
I am a good card player. (noun)
4. A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping, verbs.
My stomach has been growling all morning.
I am waiting for a letter.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. Verbs have four principal parts or forms: base, past, present participle, and past participle.
Base: I eat.
Present Participle: I am eating.
Past:
I ate.
Past Participle:
I have eaten.
6. The principal parts are used to form six verb tenses. The tense of a verb expresses time.
Simple Tenses
Present Tense:
She eats. (present or habitual action)
Past Tense:
She ate. (action completed in the past)
Future Tense:
She will eat. (action to be done in the future)
Perfect Tenses
Present Perfect Tense: She has eaten. (action done at some indefinite time or still in effect)
Past Perfect Tense:
She had eaten. (action completed before some other past action)
Future Perfect Tense: She will have eaten. (action to be completed before some future time)
7. Irregular verbs form their past and past participle without adding -ed to the base form.
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF IRREGULAR VERBS
Base Form be beat become begin bite blow break bring

Past Form was, were beat became began bit blew broke brought Past Participle been beaten become begun bitten or bit blown broken brought Base Form catch choose come do draw drink drive eat

Past Form caught chose came did drew drank drove ate

Past Participle caught chosen come done drawn drunk driven eaten

Handbook

3

have know lay lead lend lie lose put ride ring rise

Past Form fell felt found flew froze got gave went grew hung or hanged had knew laid led lent lay lost put rode rang rose

Past Participle fallen felt found flown frozen got or gotten given gone grown hung or hanged had known laid led lent lain lost put ridden rung risen

Base Form run say see set shrink sing sit speak spring steal swim take tear tell think throw wear win write Past Form ran said saw set shrank or shrunk sang sat spoke sprang or sprung stole swam took tore told thought threw wore won wrote Past Participle run said seen set shrunk or shrunken sung sat spoken sprung stolen swum taken torn told thought thrown worn won written 8. Progressive forms of verbs, combined with a form of be, express a continuing action. Emphatic forms, combined with a form of do, add emphasis or form questions.
Kari is scratching the cat.
Loni has been washing the walls.
We do support our hometown heroes. (present)
He did want that dinner. (past)
9. The voice of a verb shows whether the subject performs the action or receives the action of the verb. The active voice occurs when the subject performs the action. The passive voice occurs when the action of the verb is performed on the subject.
The owl swooped upon its prey. (active) The ice cream was scooped by the cashier. (passive)
10. A verb can express one of three moods. The indicative mood makes a statement or asks a question. The imperative mood expresses a command or request. The subjunctive mood indirectly expresses a demand, recommendation, suggestion, statement of necessity, or a condition contrary to fact.
I am overjoyed. (indicative)
Stop the car. (imperative)
If I were angry, I would not have let you in. (subjunctive)

Adjectives
1. An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by giving a descriptive or specific detail. Adjectives can usually show comparisons. (See Using Modifiers Correctly on pages 9 and 10.) cold winter colder winter coldest winter
2. Most adjectives will fit this sentence:
The _________ one looks very _________.
The dusty one looks very old.
3. Articles are the adjectives a, an, and the. Articles do not meet the above test for adjectives.

4 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

Base Form fall feel find fly freeze get give go grow hang

Handbook

4. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.
Marijka wore a Ukrainian costume.
He was a Danish prince.
5. An adjective used as an object complement follows and describes a direct object.
My aunt considers me funny.

Adverbs
1. An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Most adverbs can show comparisons. (See Using Modifiers Correctly on pages 9 and 10.)
a. Adverbs that tell how, where, when, or to what degree modify verbs or verbals.
The band stepped lively. (how)
Maria writes frequently. (when)
Put the piano here. (where)
We were thoroughly entertained. (to what degree)
b. Adverbs of degree strengthen or weaken the adjectives or other adverbs that they modify.
A very happy fan cheered. (modifies adjective)
She spoke too fast. (modifies adverb)
2. Many adverbs fit these sentences:
She thinks ______.
She thinks ______ fast.
She thinks quickly.
She thinks unusually fast.

She ______ thinks fast.
She seldom thinks fast.

Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
1. A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to some other word. A compound preposition is made up of more than one word.
The first group of students arrived.
They skated in spite of the cold weather.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Some common prepositions include these: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but, by, concerning, down, during, except, for, from, into, like, near, of, off, on, out, outside, over, past, round, since, through, till, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without.
3. A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words. A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight. A subordinating conjunction joins two clauses in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other.
Coordinating conjunction: He and I talked for hours.
Correlative conjunctions:
Russ wants either a cat or a dog.
Subordinating conjunction: We ate lunch when it was ready.
4. A conjunctive adverb clarifies a relationship.
He did not like cold weather; nevertheless, he shoveled the snow.
5. An interjection is an unrelated word or phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation.
Wow, that was cool!
Aha! You fell right into my trap!

PARTS OF THE SENTENCE
Subjects and Predicates
1. The simple subject is the key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about. A compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and have the same verb.
My father snores.
My mother and I can’t sleep.
Handbook

5

3. The complete subject consists of the simple subject and all the words that modify it.
The bright lights of the city burned intensely. The cheerful, soothing fire kept us warm.
4. The complete predicate consists of the simple predicate and all the words that modify it or complete its meaning.
Dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago.
The sun provides heat for the earth.
5. Usually the subject comes before the predicate in a sentence. In inverted sentences, all or part of the predicate precedes the subject.
There are two muffins on the plate.
Over the field soared the glider.

Complements
1. A complement is a word or a group of words that complete the meaning of the verb. There are four kinds of complements: direct objects, indirect objects, object complements, and subject complements. 2. A direct object answers what? or whom? after an action verb.
Sammi ate the turkey. (Sammi ate what?)
Carlos watched his sister in the school play. (Carlos watched whom?)
3. An indirect object receives what the direct object names.
Marie wrote June a letter.
George Washington gave his troops orders.
4. A subject complement follows a subject and a linking verb and identifies or describes the subject.
A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and further identifies the subject. A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and further describes the subject.
Predicate Nominative: The best football player is Jacob.
Predicate Adjective:
The people have been very patient.
5. An object complement describes or renames a direct object.
Object Complement:
Ami found the man handsome.
Object Complement:
Carlo thought the woman a genius.

PHRASES
1. A phrase is a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech.
2. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition. A prepositional phrase can modify a noun or a pronoun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
One of my favorite meals is pigs in a blanket. (modifies the noun pigs)
The supersonic jet soared into the sky. (modifies the verb soared)
The love of a household pet can be valuable for a family. (modifies the adjective valuable)
The child reads well for a six-year-old. (modifies the adverb well)
3. An appositive is a noun or a pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify it or give more information about it. An appositive phrase is an appositive plus its modifiers.
My grandfather Géza takes me fishing.
C.S. Lewis, my favorite author, lived in England.

6 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

2. The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that expresses the essential thought about the subject of the sentence. A compound predicate is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.
The night was cold.
The guests sang and danced in the flower garden.

Handbook

4. A verbal is a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A verbal phrase is a verbal plus any complements and modifiers.
a. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective: Gary comforted the crying baby.
b. A participial phrase contains a participle plus any complements or modifiers: Thanking everyone, my uncle began to carve the turkey.
c. A gerund is a verbal that ends with -ing. It is used in the same way a noun is used: Skiing is a popular sport.
d. A gerund phrase is a gerund plus any complements or modifiers: Singing the national anthem is traditional at many sports events.
e. An infinitive is a verbal that is usually preceded by the word to. It is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb: I never learned to dance. (noun) She has an errand to run. (adjective) I will be happy to help. (adverb)
f. An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive plus any complements or modifiers: My father woke up to watch the news on television.
5. An absolute phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase but has no grammatical relation to the sentence.
His legs terribly tired, Honori sat down.

CLAUSES AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE
1. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence. There are two types of clauses: main and subordinate. A main clause has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate clause has a subject and a predicate, but it cannot stand alone as a sentence. main sub.
The book bored me until I read Chapter 5.
2. There are three types of subordinate clauses: adjective, adverb, and noun.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

a. An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
The students who stayed after school for help did well on the test.
b. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions.
When the sun set, everyone watched from the window. (modifies a verb)
Today is warmer than yesterday was. (modifies an adjective)
c. A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun.
Who will become president has been declared.
I now remember what I need to buy.
3. Main and subordinate clauses can form four types of sentences. A simple sentence has only one main clause and no subordinate clauses. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses.
A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A compoundcomplex sentence has more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause. main Simple:
The stars fill the sky. main main
Compound:
The plane landed, and the passengers left. sub. main
Complex:
Although the children found the letter, they couldn’t read it. main main sub. Compound-Complex: The earth is bountiful; we may destroy it if we abuse it.
Handbook

7

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
1. A verb must agree with its subject in person and number.
Doli runs. (singular)
Doli and Abay run. (plural)
He is singing. (singular) They are singing. (plural)
2. In inverted sentences the subject follows the verb. The sentence may begin with a prepositional phrase, the words there or here, or the verb form of do.
Out of the bushes sprang the leopard.
There is never enough time.
Do those pigs eat leftover food?
3. Do not mistake a word in a prepositional phrase for the subject.
The boss of the employees works very hard. (The verb works tells the action of the boss.)
4. Make the verb in a sentence agree with the subject, not with the predicate nominative.
Her problem was the twins.
The twins were her problem.
5. A title is always singular, even if nouns in the title are plural.
The War of the Worlds was a radio broadcast that caused widespread panic.
6. Subjects combined with and or both use plural verbs unless the parts are of a whole unit.
When compound subjects are joined with or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject listed last.
Chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla are common ice cream flavors.
Peanut butter and jelly is a good snack.
Neither books nor a briefcase is needed.
7. Use a singular verb if the compound subject is preceded by the words many a, every, or each.
Every dog and cat needs to be cared for.
Many a young man has stood here.
8. A subject remains singular or plural regardless of any intervening expressions.
Gloria, as well as the rest of her family, was late.
The players, accompanied by the coach, enter the field.
9. A verb must agree in number with an indefinite pronoun subject.
Always singular: each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, and something.
Always plural: several, few, both, and many.
Either singular or plural: some, all, any, most, and none.
Is any of the lemonade left?
Are any of the biscuits burnt?
10. When the subject of an adjective clause is a relative pronoun, the verb in the clause must agree with the antecedent of the relative pronoun.
He is one of the singers who dance. (The antecedent of who is singers, plural: singers dance.)

USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY
1. Use the nominative case when the pronoun is a subject or a predicate nominative.
She eats cake.
Is he here?
That is I. (predicate nominative)

8 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

4. A sentence that makes a statement is classified as a declarative sentence: The Cleveland
Browns are my favorite team. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request:
Please go to the dance with me. An interrogative sentence asks a question: Who would abandon a family pet? An exclamatory sentence expresses strong emotion: Look out!

Handbook

2. Use the objective case when the pronoun is an object.
Clarence invited us. (direct object)
Chapa gave me a gift. (indirect object)
Spot! Don’t run around me! (object of preposition)
3. Use the possessive case to replace possessive nouns and precede gerunds. Never use an apostrophe in a possessive pronoun.
That new car is hers.
They were thrilled at his playing the violin.
4. Use the nominative case when the pronoun is a subject or a predicate nominative.
We three—Marijian, his sister, and I—went to camp.
5. Use the objective case to rename an object.
The teacher acknowledged us, Burny and me.
6. When a pronoun is followed by an appositive, choose the case of the pronoun that would be correct if the appositive were omitted.
We the jury find the defendant guilty. That building was erected by us workers.
7. In elliptical adverb clauses using than and as, choose the case of the pronoun that you would use if the missing words were fully expressed.
Kareem is a better sprinter than I. (I am)
It helped you more than me. (it helped me)
8. Use a reflexive pronoun when it refers to the person who is the subject of the sentence. Avoid using hisself or theirselves.
Jerry found himself in a mess. The candidates questioned themselves about their tactics.
9. In questions, use who for subjects and whom for objects. Use who and whoever for subjects and predicate nominatives in subordinate clauses. Use the objective pronouns whom and whomever for objects of subordinate clauses.
Who roasted these marshmallows?
Whom will you hire next?
This medal is for whoever finishes first.
The newspaper will interview whomever the editor chooses.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. An antecedent is the word or group of words to which a pronoun refers or that a pronoun replaces. All pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number, gender, and person.
Colleen’s friends gave up their free time to help. The Senate passed its first bill of the year.
11. Make sure that the antecedent of a pronoun is clearly stated.
VAGUE: The people who lost their dogs stayed in their yards, hoping they would return.
CLEAR: The people who lost their dogs stayed in their yards, hoping the dogs would return. INDEFINITE: If you park the car under the sign it will be towed away.
CLEAR:
If you park the car under the sign the car will be towed away.

USING MODIFIERS CORRECTLY
1. Most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees of form. The positive form of a modifier cannot be used to make a comparison. The comparative form of a modifier shows two things being compared. The superlative form of a modifier shows three or more things being compared. The year went by fast. This year went by faster than last year.
I expect next year to go by the fastest of all.

Handbook

9

3. For adverbs ending in -ly and modifiers with three or more syllables, use more and most or less and least to form the comparative and superlative degrees.
He was the least exhausted of the group.
She spoke more caringly than some others.
4. Some modifiers have irregular forms.
POSITIVE:
good, well badly, ill
COMPARATIVE: better worse SUPERLATIVE: best worst far farther farthest

many, much more most

little less least

5. Do not make a double comparison using both -er or -est and more or most.
INCORRECT: That musical was the most funniest I have ever seen.
CORRECT:
That musical was the funniest I have ever seen.
6. Do not make an incomplete or unclear comparison by omitting other or else when you compare one member of a group with another.
UNCLEAR: Joey has missed more school than any kid in the ninth grade.
CLEAR:
Joey has missed more school than any other kid in the ninth grade.
7. Avoid double negatives, which are two negative words in the same clause.
INCORRECT: I have not seen no stray cats.
CORRECT:
I have not seen any stray cats.
8. For clarity, place modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify.
MISPLACED: The fire was snuffed out by the storm that we accidentally started.
CLEAR: The fire that we accidentally started was snuffed out by the storm.
DANGLING: To avoid the long walk, a friend drove us.
CLEAR: To avoid the long walk, we were driven by a friend.
9. Place the adverb only immediately before the word or group of words it modifies.
Only Afi wants choir rehearsal next week. (No one but Afi wants rehearsal.)
Afi wants only choir rehearsal next week. (She wants no other rehearsal.)
Afi wants choir rehearsal only next week. (She does not want rehearsal any other week.)

USAGE GLOSSARY a, an Use the article a when the following word begins with a consonant sound. Use an when the following word begins with a vowel sound. a house an understudy an hour a united front a lot, alot Always write this expression, meaning “a large amount,” as two words.
With his help, we will learn a lot about photography. a while, awhile In or for often precedes a while, forming a prepositional phrase. Awhile is used only as an adverb.
Let us listen to the forest for a while.
The students listened awhile.

10 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

2. One- and two-syllable adjectives add -er to form comparative and -est to form superlative.
POSITIVE:
bold happy strong
COMPARATIVE: bolder happier stronger
SUPERLATIVE: boldest happiest strongest adapt, adopt Adapt means “to adjust.” Adopt means “to take something for one’s own.”
Species survive because they adapt to new situations. My church will adopt a needy family. advice, advise Advice, a noun, means “helpful opinion.” Advise, a verb, means “to give advice.”
I must advise you to never take Jakel’s advice. affect, effect Affect, a verb, means “to cause a change in, to influence.” Effect may be a noun or a verb. As a noun it means “result.” As a verb it means “to bring about.”
Is it true that the observer can affect the results? (verb)
I have no idea what effect that may have. (noun)
How can the president effect a good approval rating? (verb) ain’t Ain’t is unacceptable in speaking and writing. Use only in exact quotations. all ready, already All ready means “completely ready.” Already means “before or by this time.”
We had already purchased our plane tickets, and we were all ready to board. all right, alright Always write this expression as two words. Alright is unacceptable.
Because she is your friend, she is all right with me. all together, altogether The two words all together mean “in a group.” The single word altogether is an adverb meaning “completely” or “on the whole.”
The hikers gathered all together for lunch, and they were altogether exhausted. allusion, illusion Allusion means “an indirect reference.” Illusion refers to something false.
Mr. Lee made an allusion to The Grapes of Wrath.
The magician performed illusions. anyways, anywheres, everywheres, somewheres Write these words and others like them without a final -s: anyway, anywhere, everywhere, somewhere. bad, badly Use bad as an adjective and badly as an adverb.
We watched a bad movie.
He sang the national anthem quite badly.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

being as, being that Use these only informally. In formal writing and speech, use because or since. beside, besides Beside means “next to.” Besides means “moreover” or “in addition to.”
Who, besides Antonio, will offer to sit beside the window? between, among Use between to refer to or to compare two separate nouns. Use among to show a relationship in a group.
I could not choose between Harvard and Princeton.
Who among the class knows me? borrow, lend, loan Borrow is a verb meaning “to take something that must be returned.” Lend is a verb meaning “to give something that must be returned.” Loan is a noun.
People borrow money from banks.
Banks will lend money to approved customers.
People always must apply for a loan. bring, take Use bring to show movement from a distant place to a closer one. Use take to show movement from a nearby place to a more distant one.
Bring in the paper, and take out the trash. can, may Can indicates the ability to do something. May indicates permission to do something.
Anyone can use a credit card, but only the cardholder may authorize it. can’t hardly, can’t scarcely These terms are considered double negatives. Do not use them. Use can hardly and can scarcely.
Handbook

11

Handbook

accept, except Accept, a verb, means “to receive” or “to agree to.” Except may be a preposition or a verb. As a preposition it means “but.” As a verb it means “to leave out.”
I will accept all of your terms except the last one.

could of, might of, must of, should of, would of Do not use of after could, might, must, should, or would. Instead, use the helping verb have.
That must have been the longest play ever! different from, different than The expression different from is preferred to different than.
Baseball is different from the English sport of cricket. doesn’t, don’t Doesn’t is the contraction of does not and should be used with all singular nouns.
Don’t is the contraction of do not and should be used with I, you, and all plural nouns.
My dog doesn’t like the mail carrier.
Bobsled riders don’t take their job lightly. emigrate, immigrate Use emigrate to mean “to move from one country to another.” Use immigrate to mean “to enter a country to settle there.” Use from with emigrate and to with immigrate.
Refugees emigrate from war-torn countries.
My great-grandfather immigrated to America. farther, further Farther refers to physical distance. Further refers to time or degree.
Traveling farther from your home may further your understanding of different places. fewer, less Use fewer to refer to nouns that can be counted. Use less to refer to nouns that cannot be counted. Also use less to refer to figures used as a single amount or quantity.
If fewer crimes were committed, there would be less misery in the world.
The box measured less than 100 cm2. good, well Good is an adjective, and well is an adverb.
That spot is a good place for a picnic.
We dined well that day. had of Do not use of between had and a past participle.
I wish I had eaten my sundae when I had the chance. hanged, hung Use hanged to mean “put to death by hanging.” Use hung in all other cases.
In the Old West, many were convicted and hanged.
I hung my coat on the hook. in, into, in to Use in to mean “inside” or “within” and into to indicate movement or direction from outside to a point within. In to is made up of an adverb (in) followed by a preposition (to).
The fish swim in the sea.
We moved into a new house last year.
The student walked in to see the principal for a meeting. irregardless, regardless Always use regardless. Irregardless is a double negative.
Root beer tastes great regardless of the brand. this kind, these kinds Because kind is singular, it is modified by the singular form this or that.
Because kinds is plural, it is modified by the plural form these or those.
I love these kinds of desserts!
I do not feel comfortable with this kind of situation. lay, lie Lay means “to put” or “to place,” and it takes a direct object. Lie means “to recline” or “to be positioned,” and it never takes an object.
I taught my dog to lay the paper at my feet and then lie on the ground. learn, teach Learn means “to receive knowledge.” Teach means “to impart knowledge.”
I want to learn a new language and later teach it to others. leave, let Leave means “to go away.” Let means “to allow” or “to permit.”
My guest had to leave because his parents do not let him stay up too late. like, as Like is a preposition and introduces a prepositional phrase. As and as if are subordinating

12 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

continual, continuous Continual describes repetitive action with pauses between occurrences.
Continuous describes an action that continues with no interruption in space or time.
We make continual trips to the grocery.
Continuous energy from our sun lights the sky.

loose, lose Use loose to mean “not firmly attached” and lose to mean “to misplace” or “to fail to win.”
You don’t want to lose your nice pair of loose jeans. passed, past Passed is the past tense and the past participle of the verb to pass. Past can be an adjective, a preposition, an adverb, or a noun.
He passed the exit ramp because he could not see the sign past the bushes. precede, proceed Precede means “to go or come before.” Proceed means “to continue.”
We can proceed with the plans.
From a distance, lightning appears to precede thunder. raise, rise Raise means “to cause to move upward,” and it always takes an object. Rise means “to get up”; it is intransitive and never takes an object.
Raise the drawbridge!
For some, it is difficult to rise in the morning. reason is because Use either reason is that or because.
The reason he left is that he was bored. He left because he was bored. respectfully, respectively Respectfully means “with respect.” Respectively means “in the order named.” We respectfully bowed to the audience.
Abla, Héctor, and Shelly, respectively, play first, second, and third base. says, said Says is the third-person singular of say. Said is the past tense of say.
Listen carefully to what she says.
I love what the keynote speaker said. sit, set Sit means “to place oneself in a sitting position.” It rarely takes an object. Set means “to place” or “to put” and usually takes an object. Set can also refer to the sun’s going down.
Sit anywhere you would like.
Set the nozzle back in its slot before paying for the gas.
Today the sun will set at seven o’clock. than, then Than is a conjunction that is used to introduce the second element in a comparison; it also shows exception. Then is an adverb.
Julio hit more home runs than Jacob this year. Call for help first, and then start CPR.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

this here, that there Avoid using here and there after this and that.
This bunk is yours. who, whom Who is a subject, and whom is an object.
Who first sang the song “Memories”? To whom should I throw the ball now?

CAPITALIZATION
1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence, including direct quotes and sentences in parentheses unless they are contained within another sentence.
Shakespeare asked, “What’s in a name?” (This is from Romeo and Juliet.)
2. Always capitalize the pronoun I no matter where it appears in a sentence.
Because I woke up late, I had to race to school.
3. Capitalize the following proper nouns.
a. Names of individuals, titles used in direct address or preceding a name, and titles describing a family relationship used with a name or in place of a name
President Nixon
George Burns
Sis
Sir Anthony Hopkins Uncle Jay
Handbook

13

Handbook

conjunctions and introduce subordinate clauses. Never use like before a clause.
I felt like a stuffed crab after the feast. The pigeons flew away, as they always do when scared.

c. Names of organizations, institutions, firms, monuments, bridges, buildings, and other structures National Honor Society
Vietnam War Memorial Brooklyn Bridge
Parliament
d. Trade names and names of documents, awards, and laws
Kleenex tissues
Declaration of Independence
Academy Award
e. Geographical terms and regions or localities
North Carolina Arctic Ocean Nile River
f. Names of planets and other heavenly bodies
Jupiter
Horsehead Nebula

West Street

the South

Bill of Rights
Central Park

the Milky Way

g. Names of ships, planes, trains, and spacecraft
Challenger
Spirit of St. Louis
USS George Washington
h. Names of most historical events, eras, calendar items, and religious terms
Fourth of July
Jurassic
Gulf War
Friday
Yom Kippur

Protestant

i. Titles of literary works, works of art, and musical compositions
“The Road Less Traveled” (poem)
The Old Man and the Sea (book)
Venus de Milo (statue)
The Magic Flute (opera)
4. Capitalize proper adjectives (adjectives formed from proper nouns).
Socratic method Jungian theory
Chinese food
Georgia clay

Colombian coffee

PUNCTUATION, ABBREVIATIONS, AND NUMBERS
1. Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence and at the end of a polite command.
Robin Hood was a medieval hero.
Pass the papers to the front.
2. Use an exclamation point to show strong feeling or to give a forceful command.
What a surprise that is!
Watch out!
That’s just what I need!
3. Use a question mark to indicate a direct question. Use a period to indicate an indirect question.
DIRECT:
Who ruled France in 1821?
INDIRECT: Gamal wanted to know how much time was left before lunch.
4. Use a colon to introduce a list or to illustrate or restate previous material.
For my team, I choose the following people: Zina, Ming, and Sue.
In light of the data, the conclusion was not hard to obtain: Earth is not flat.
5. Use a colon for precise time measurements, biblical chapter and verse references, and business letter salutations.
10:02 A.M.
John 3:16
Dear Ms. Delgado:
6. Use a semicolon in the following situations:
a. To separate main clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction
My computer isn’t working; perhaps I need to call a technician.
b. To separate main clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or by for example or that is
Cancer is a serious disease; however, heart disease kills more people.
c. To separate items in a series when those items contain commas
I have done oral reports on Maya Angelou, a poet; Billy Joel, a singer; and Mario van
Peebles, a director and actor.

14 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

b. Names of ethnic groups, national groups, political parties and their members, and languages
African Americans
Mexicans
Republican party
Hebrew

Handbook

d. To separate two main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction when such clauses already contain several commas
According to Bruce, he spent his vacation in Naples, Florida; but he said it was a business, not a pleasure, trip.
7. Use a comma in the following situations:
a. To separate the main clauses of compound sentences
She was a slow eater, but she always finished her meal first.
b. To separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series
Apples, oranges, grapefruit, and cherries are delicious.
c. To separate coordinate modifiers
The prom was a happy, exciting occasion.
d. To set off parenthetical expressions
He will, of course, stay for dinner.

Mary, on the other hand, is very pleasant.

e. To set off nonessential clauses and phrases; to set off introductory adverbial clauses, participial phrases, and long prepositional phrases
Adjective clause:
The bride, who is a chemist, looked lovely.
Appositive phrase:
The parade, the longest I’ve ever seen, featured twelve bands.
Adverbial clause:
After we had eaten, I realized my wallet was still in the car.
Participial phrase:
Laughing heartily, Milan quickly left the room.
Prepositional phrase: At the sound of the final buzzer, the ball slid through the hoop.
f. To separate parts of an address, a geographical term, or a date
1640 Chartwell Avenue, Edina, Minnesota
September 11, 1982
g. To set off parts of a reference
Read Slaughterhouse-Five, pages 15–20.

Perform a scene from Hamlet, Act II.

h. To set off words or phrases of direct address and tag questions
Sherri, please pass the butter. How are you, my friend? We try hard, don’t we?
i. After the salutation and close of a friendly letter and after the close of a business letter
Dear Richard,
Sincerely,
Yours,
Dear Mother,

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. Use dashes to signal a change in thought or to emphasize parenthetical matter.
“Remember to turn off the alarm—oh, don’t touch that!”
9. Use parentheses to set off supplemental material. Punctuate within the parentheses only if the punctuation is part of the parenthetical expression.
I saw Bill Cosby (he is my favorite comedian) last night.
10. Use brackets to enclose information inserted by someone besides the original writer.
The paper continues, “The company knows he [Watson] is impressed.”
11. Ellipsis points, a series of three spaced points, indicate an omission of material.
The film critic said, “The show was great . . . a must see!”
12. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation. When a quotation is interrupted, use two sets of quotation marks. Use single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation.
“This day,” the general said, “will live on in infamy.”
“Yes,” the commander replied. “The headlines today read, ‘Allies Retreat.’”
13. Use quotation marks to indicate titles of short works, unusual expressions, and definitions.
“The Gift of the Magi” (short story)
“Ave Maria” (song)
Large speakers are called “woofers,” and small speakers are called “tweeters.”

Handbook

15

15. Italicize (underline) titles of books, lengthy poems, plays, films, television series, paintings and sculptures, long musical compositions, court cases, names of newspapers and magazines, ships, trains, airplanes, and spacecraft.
The Last Supper (painting)
Bang the Drum Slowly (film)
Roe v. Wade (court case)
Titanic (ship)
Time (magazine)
Boston Globe (newspaper)
16. Italicize (underline) foreign words and expressions that are not used frequently in English and words, letters, and numerals used to represent themselves.
Please discuss the phrase caveat emptor.
Today, Sesame Street was sponsored by the letters t and m and the number 6.
17. Add an apostrophe and -s to all singular indefinite pronouns, singular nouns, plural nouns not ending in -s, and compound nouns to make them possessive. Add only an apostrophe to plural nouns ending in -s to make them possessive. anyone’s guess the dog’s leash the women’s club students’ teacher singers’ microphones runners’ shoes
18. If two or more people possess something jointly, use the possessive form for the last person’s name. If they possess things individually, use the possessive form for both names. mom and dad’s checkbook
Carmen’s and Sumil’s projects
19. Use a possessive form to express amounts of money or time that modify a noun. a day’s pay fifty dollars’ worth a block’s walk
20. Use an apostrophe in place of omitted letters or numerals. Use an apostrophe and -s to form the plural of letters, numerals, and symbols. cannot is can’t do not is don’t
1978 is ’78
Mind your p’s and q’s.
21. Use a hyphen after any prefix joined to a proper noun or a proper adjective. Use a hyphen after the prefixes all-, ex-, and self- joined to a noun or an adjective, the prefix anti- joined to a word beginning with i-, the prefix vice- (except in vice president), and the prefix re- to avoid confusion between words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. all-inclusive ex-wife self-reliance anti-immigrant vice-principal re-call instead of recall
22. Use a hyphen in a compound adjective that precedes a noun. Use a hyphen in compound numbers and in fractions used as adjectives. a green-yellow jersey a red-hot poker jet-black hair ninety-nine one-fifth cup of sugar
23. Use a hyphen to divide words at the end of a line. daz-zle terri-tory
Mediter-ranean
24. Use one period at the end of an abbreviation. If punctuation other than a period ends the sentence, use both the period and the other punctuation.
Bring me the books, papers, pencils, etc.
Could you be ready at 2:00 P.M.?

16 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

14. Always place commas and periods inside closing quotations marks. Place colons and semicolons outside closing quotation marks. Place question marks and exclamation points inside closing quotation marks only when those marks are part of the quotation.
“Rafi told me,” John said, “that he could not go.”
Let me tell you about “Piano Man”: it is a narrative song.
He yelled, “Who are you?”
Did she say “Wait for me”?

Handbook

25. Capitalize the abbreviations of proper nouns and some personal titles.
U.K.
C.E.O.
R. F. Kennedy
B.C.
A.D.
Ph.D.
26. Abbreviate numerical measurements in scientific writing but not in ordinary prose.
Measure 89 g into the crucible.
Jim ran ten yards when he heard that dog barking!
27. Spell out cardinal and ordinal numbers that can be written in one or two words and those that appear at the beginning of a sentence.
Five hundred people attended. I look forward to my eighteenth birthday.
28. Use numerals for date; for decimals; for house, apartment, and room numbers; for street and avenue numbers greater than ten; for sums of money involving both dollars and cents; and to emphasize the exact time of day and with A.M. and P.M.
Aptil 1, 1996
Room 251
$2.51
2:51 P.M.
29. Express all related numbers in a sentence as numerals if any one should be a numeral.
The subscriptions gradually rose from 10 to 116.
30. Spell out numbers that express decades, amounts of money that can be written in one or two words, streets and avenues less than ten, and the approximate time of day. the seventies fifty cents
Fifth Avenue half past five

VOCABULARY AND SPELLING
1. Clues to the meaning of an unfamiliar word can be found in its context. Context clues include definition, the meaning stated; example, the meaning explained through one familiar case; comparison, similarity to a familiar word; contrast, opposite of a familiar word; and cause and effect, a cause described by its effects.
2. Clues to the meaning of a word can be obtained from its base word, its prefix, or its suffix. telegram gram = writing psychology psych = soul, mind antibacterial anti = against biology -logy = study

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

3. The i comes before the e, except when both letters follow a c or when both letters are
¯¯
pronounced together as an a sound. However, many exceptions exist to this rule.
¯¯
field (i before e) deceive (ei after c) reign (a sound) weird (exception)
¯¯
4. Most word endings pronounced sed are spelled -cede. In one word, supersede, the ending is spelled -sede. In, proceed, exceed, and succeed, the ending is spelled -ceed. precede recede concede 5. An unstressed vowel sound is not emphasized when a word is pronounced. Determine the spelling of this sound by comparing it to a known word. hesitant (Compare to hesitate.) fantasy (Compare to fantastic.)
6. When adding a suffix that begins with a consonant to a word that ends in silent e, generally keep the e. If the suffix begins with a vowel or y, generally drop the e. If the suffix begins with a or o and the word ends in ce or ge, keep the e. If the suffix begins with a vowel and the word ends in ee, or oe, keep the e. encouragement scary changeable fleeing
7. When adding a suffix to a word ending in a consonant +y, change the y to i unless the suffix begins with i. If the word ends in a vowel +y, keep the y. heartiness readiness spying straying

Handbook

17

9. When adding -ly to a word that ends in a single l, keep the l. If it ends in a double l, drop one l.
If it ends in a consonant +le, drop the le. real becomes really dull becomes dully inexplicable becomes inexplicably
10. When adding -ness to a word that ends in n, keep the n. leanness meanness greenness 11. When joining a word or prefix that ends in a consonant to a suffix or word that begins with a consonant, keep both consonants. quietness greatly redness 12. Most nouns form their plurals by adding -s. However, nouns that end in -ch, -s, -sh, -x, or -z form plurals by adding -es. If the noun ends in a consonant +y, change y to i and add -es. If the noun ends in -lf, change f to v and add -es. If the noun ends in -fe, change f to v and add -s. cans churches faxes spies halves loaves
13. To form the plural of proper names and one-word compound nouns, follow the general rules for plurals. To form the plural of hyphenated compound nouns or compound nouns of more than one word, make the most important word plural.
Shatners
Stockholders brothers-in-law Master Sergeants
14. Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms. sheep species

COMPOSITION
Writing Themes and Paragraphs
1. Use prewriting to find ideas to write about. One form of prewriting, freewriting, starts with a subject or topic and branches off into related ideas. Another way to find a topic is to ask and answer questions about your starting subject, helping you to gain a deeper understanding of your chosen topic. Also part of the prewriting stage is determining who your readers or audience will be and deciding your purpose for writing. Your purpose—as varied as writing to persuade, to explain, to describe something, or to narrate—is partially shaped by who your audience will be, and vice versa.
2. To complete your first draft, organize your prewriting into an introduction, body, and conclusion. Concentrate on unity and coherence of the overall piece. Experiment with different paragraph orders: chronological order places events in the order in which they happened; spatial order places objects in the order in which they appear; and compare/contrast order shows similarities and differences in objects or events.
3. Revise your composition if necessary. Read through your draft, looking for places to improve content and structure. Remember that varying your sentence patterns and lengths will make your writing easier and more enjoyable to read.
4. In the editing stage, check your grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Focus on expressing your ideas clearly and concisely.
5. Finally, prepare your writing for presentation. Sharing your composition, or ideas, with others may take many forms: printed, oral, or graphic.

18 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

8. Double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel to a word that ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel if the accent is on the root’s last syllable. planned finned misfitted 1. The two common forms of outlines are sentence outlines and topic outlines. Choose one type of outline and keep it uniform throughout.
2. A period follows the number or letter of each division. Each point in a sentence outline ends with a period; the points in a topic outline do not.
3. Each point begins with a capital letter.
4. A point may have no fewer than two subpoints.
SENTENCE OUTLINE
I. This is the main point.
A. This is a subpoint of I.
1. This is a detail of A.
a. This is a detail of 1.
b. This is a detail of 1.
2. This is a detail of A.
B. This is a subpoint of I.
II. This is another main point.

TOPIC OUTLINE
I. Main point
A. Subpoint of I
1. Detail of A
a. Detail of 1
b. Detail of 1
2. Detail of A
B. Subpoint of I
II. Main point

Writing letters
1. Personal letters are usually handwritten in indented form (the first line of paragraphs, each line of the heading, the complimentary close, and the signature are indented). Business letters are usually typewritten in block or semiblock form. Block form contains no indents; semiblock form indents the heading, the complimentary close, and the signature.
2. The five parts of a personal letter are the heading (the writer’s address and the date), the salutation (greeting), the body (message), the complimentary close (such as “Yours truly”), and the signature (the writer’s name). The business letter has the same parts and also includes an inside address (the recipient’s address).
PERSONAL LETTER

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Heading

____________
____________
____________

____________ Salutation
_________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

Body
_________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
Complimentary Close
_______
Signature ___________

BUSINESS LETTER

Heading

____________
____________
____________

_______
Inside Address
________
__________
____________
Salutation
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
________________ Body
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
________________
__________________________
__________________________
________________
Complimentary Close
_______
Signature ___________

Handbook

19

Handbook

Outlining

4. Personal letters include letters to friends and family members. Thank-you notes and invitations are personal letters that may be either formal or informal in style.
5. Use a letter of complaint to convey a concern. Begin the letter by telling what happened. Then use supporting details as evidence. Complete the letter by explaining what you want done.
Avoid insults and threats, and make reasonable requests. Use a letter of request to ask for information or to place an order of purchase. Be concise, yet give all the details necessary for your request to be fulfilled. Keep the tone of your letter courteous and be generous in allotting time for a response.
6. Use an opinion letter to take a firm stand on an issue. Make the letter clear, firm, rational, and purposeful. Be aware of your audience, their attitude, how informed they are, and their possible reactions to your opinion. Support your statements of opinion with facts.
7. Use a résumé to summarize your work experience, school experience, talents, and interests. Be clear, concise, and expressive. Use a consistent form. You do not need to write in complete sentences, but use as many action verbs as possible.
8. Use a cover letter as a brief introduction accompanying your résumé.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Handbook

3. Reveal your personality and imagination in colorful personal letters. Keep business letters brief, clear, and courteous.

20 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Troubleshooter frag Sentence Fragments

22

run-on

Run-on Sentences

24

agr

Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement

26

ant

Lack of Agreement Between Pronoun and Antecedent

30

ref

Unclear Pronoun References

32

pro

Shifts in Pronouns

34

shift t

Shift in Verb Tenses

35

tense

Incorrect Verb Tenses or Forms

36

mod

Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers

38

poss

Misplaced or Missing Possessive Apostrophes

40

com

Missing Commas with Nonessential Elements

42

s com

Missing Commas in a Series

44

Troubleshooter

21

Sentence Fragments

Fragment that lacks a subject frag Ali baked a chocolate cake. Took it to the party.

frag

Maria thought the comedian was funny. Laughed at his jokes.

SOLUTION
Ali baked a chocolate cake. He took it to the party.
Maria thought the comedian was funny. She laughed at his jokes.
Make a complete sentence by adding a subject to the fragment.

PROBLEM 2
Fragment that lacks a complete verb frag Helen is a photographer. She becoming well-known for her work.

frag

Alicia has a new computer. It very powerful.

SOLUTION A
Helen is a photographer. She is becoming well-known for her work.
Alicia has a new computer. It is very powerful.
Make a complete sentence by adding a complete verb or a helping verb.

SOLUTION B
Helen is a photographer and is becoming well-known for her work.
Alicia has a new computer, which is very powerful.
Combine the fragment with another sentence.

22 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

PROBLEM 3
Fragment that is a subordinate clause
Akira repaired the old boat. Because it was beautiful.

frag

Troubleshooter

frag

Jennifer has two race car magazines. Which she bought at the store.

SOLUTION A
Akira repaired the old boat because it was beautiful.
Jennifer has two race car magazines, which she bought at the store.
Combine the fragment with another sentence.

SOLUTION B
Akira repaired the old boat. It was beautiful.
Jennifer has two race car magazines. She bought them at the store.
Make the fragment a complete sentence by removing the subordinating conjunction or the relative pronoun and adding a subject or other words necessary to make a complete thought.

PROBLEM 4

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Fragment that lacks both subject and verb frag The soft rustle of the trees makes me sleepy. In the afternoon.

frag

The next morning. We talked about our adventure.

SOLUTION
The soft rustle of the trees makes me sleepy in the afternoon.
The next morning, we talked about our adventure.
Make the fragment part of a sentence.

Need
More
Help?

More help in avoiding sentence fragments is available in Lesson 31.

Troubleshooter

23

PROBLEM 1
Comma splice—two main clauses separated only by a comma run-on I don’t know where the oil paints are, they were over by the easel.

SOLUTION A
I don’t know where the oil paints are. They were over by the easel.
Make two sentences by separating the first clause from the second with end punctuation, such as a period or a question mark, and start the second sentence with a capital letter.

SOLUTION B
I don’t know where the oil paints are; they were over by the easel.
Place a semicolon between the main clauses of the sentence.

SOLUTION C
I don’t know where the oil paints are, but they were over by the easel. Add a coordinating conjunction after the comma.

PROBLEM 2
No punctuation between two main clauses run-on Deelra ran the hurdles in record time Shawna placed second.

SOLUTION A
Deelra ran the hurdles in record time. Shawna placed second.
Make two sentences out of the run-on sentence.
24 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

Run-on Sentences

SOLUTION B
Deelra ran the hurdles in record time; Shawna placed second.
Separate the main clauses with a semicolon.
Troubleshooter

SOLUTION C
Deelra ran the hurdles in record time, but Shawna placed second.
Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction between the main clauses. PROBLEM 3
Two main clauses without a comma before the coordinating conjunction run-on The robins usually arrive in the spring and they start building nests at once.

run-on Emily won the scholarship last year but she decided not to accept it.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

SOLUTION
The robins usually arrive in the spring, and they start building nests at once.
Emily won the scholarship last year, but she decided not to accept it.
Separate the main clauses by adding a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Need
More
Help?

More help in avoiding run-on sentences is available in Lesson 32.

Troubleshooter

25

Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement
A prepositional phrase between a subject and its verb agr The arrangement of those colorful pictures make a vivid, exciting combination. agr

One of those big, gray sea gulls have perched on the roof.

SOLUTION
The arrangement of those colorful pictures makes a vivid, exciting combination. One of those big, gray sea gulls has perched on the roof.
Make the verb agree with the subject, not with the object of the preposition. PROBLEM 2
A predicate nominative differing in number from the subject agr Fast-paced adventure movies was always Jenny’s choice.

SOLUTION
Fast-paced adventure movies were always Jenny’s choice.
Make the verb agree with the subject, not with the predicate nominative.

PROBLEM 3
A subject following the verb agr On the sun deck there was several chairs and a table.

agr

Here comes the rain clouds and the heavy, slanting rain.

26 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

SOLUTION
On the sun deck there were several chairs and a table.
Here come the rain clouds and the heavy, slanting rain.
Troubleshooter

Look for the subject after the verb in an inverted sentence. Make sure that the verb agrees with the subject.

PROBLEM 4
Collective nouns as subjects agr The crowd really like the music, doesn’t it?

agr

Margaret’s company arrives tomorrow by bus and by train.

SOLUTION A
The crowd really likes the music, doesn’t it?
Use a singular verb if the collective noun refers to a group as a whole.

SOLUTION B
Margaret’s company arrive tomorrow by bus and by train.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Use a plural verb if the collective noun refers to each member of a group individually. PROBLEM 5
A noun of amount as the subject agr The past two days seems like a week.

agr

One thousand millimeters equal a meter.

SOLUTION
The past two days seem like a week.
One thousand millimeters equals a meter.
A noun of amount that refers to one unit is singular. A noun of amount that refers to a number of individual units is plural.
Troubleshooter

27

PROBLEM 6

agr

A clear day and a light breeze brightens a summer afternoon.

agr

Pop and pizza are a common meal.

SOLUTION A
A clear day and a light breeze brighten a summer afternoon.
Use a plural verb if the parts of the compound subject do not belong to one unit or if they refer to different people or things.

SOLUTION B
Pop and pizza is a common meal.
Use a singular verb if the parts of the compound subject belong to one unit or if they refer to the same person or thing.

PROBLEM 7
Compound subject joined by or or nor agr Neither Yuri nor Sarah like the menu.

SOLUTION
Neither Yuri nor Sarah likes the menu.
Make your verb agree with the subject closer to it.

PROBLEM 8
Compound subject preceded by many a, every, or each agr Many a brush and tube of paint were scattered around the studio.

28 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

Compound subject joined by and

SOLUTION
Many a brush and tube of paint was scattered across the studio.
Troubleshooter

The subject is considered singular when many a, each, or every precedes a compound subject.

PROBLEM 9
Subjects separated from the verb by an intervening expression agr Jamal’s new sculpture, in addition to his other recent works, reflect his abiding love of nature.

SOLUTION
Jamal’s new sculpture, in addition to his other recent works, reflects his abiding love of nature.
Expressions that begin with as well as, in addition to, and together with do not change the number of the subject. Make the verb agree with its subject, not with the intervening expression.

PROBLEM 10

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Indefinite pronouns as subjects

agr

Each of the trees along the old canal have different colors in the fall.

SOLUTION
Each of the trees along the old canal has different colors in the fall.
Some indefinite pronouns are singular, some are plural, and some can be either singular or plural depending on the noun to which they refer.
(A list of indefinite pronouns is on page 53.)

Need
More
Help?

More help with subject-verb agreement is available in
Lessons 44–51.
Troubleshooter

29

PROBLEM 1
A singular antecedent that can be either male or female

ant

A great coach inspires his athletes to be their best on or off the field.
Traditionally, masculine pronouns referred to antecedents that might have been either male or female.

SOLUTION A
A great coach inspires his or her athletes to be their best on or off the field. Use he or she, him or her, and so on, to reword the sentence.

SOLUTION B
Great coaches inspire their athletes to be their best on or off the field.
Make both the antecedent and the pronoun plural.

SOLUTION C
Great coaches inspire athletes to be their best on or off the field.
Eliminate the pronoun.

PROBLEM 2
A second-person pronoun that refers to a third-person antecedent

ant

Mary and Jodi prefer the new bridle trail because you get long stretches for galloping.

30 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

Lack of Agreement Between Pronoun and Antecedent

Do not use the second-person pronoun you to refer to an antecedent in the third person.

SOLUTION A
Troubleshooter

Mary and Jodi prefer the new bridle trail because they get long stretches for galloping.
Replace you with the appropriate third-person pronoun.

SOLUTION B
Mary and Jodi prefer the new bridle trail because the horses have long stretches for galloping.
Replace you with an appropriate noun.

PROBLEM 3
Singular indefinite pronouns as antecedents

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ant

Each of the women in the boat received a rowing medal for their victory. SOLUTION
Each of the women in the boat received a rowing medal for her victory. Determine whether the antecedent is singular or plural, and make the personal pronoun agree with it.

Need
More
Help?

More help with pronoun-antecedent agreement is available in Lessons 55–57.

Troubleshooter

31

Unclear Pronoun References

Unclear antecedent

ref

The wind was fair and the water calm, and that made sailing across the bay an absolute pleasure.

ref

The traffic was snarled, which was caused by an accident.

SOLUTION A
The wind was fair and the water calm, and those conditions made sailing across the bay an absolute pleasure.
Substitute a noun for the pronoun.

SOLUTION B
The traffic was snarled in a massive tie-up, which was caused by an accident. Rewrite the sentence, adding a clear antecedent for the pronoun.

PROBLEM 2
A pronoun that refers to more than one antecedent

ref

The team captain told Karen to take her guard position.

ref

The buses came early for the students, but they were not ready.

SOLUTION A
The team captain told Karen to take the captain’s guard position.
Substitute a noun for the pronoun.

32 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

SOLUTION B
Because the buses came early, the students were not ready.
Rewrite the sentence, eliminating the pronoun.
Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 3
Indefinite uses of you or they

ref

In those hills you rarely see mountain lions.

ref

In some movies they have too much violence.

SOLUTION A
In those hills hikers rarely see mountain lions.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Substitute a noun for the pronoun.

SOLUTION B
Some movies have too much violence.
Eliminate the pronoun entirely.

Need
More
Help?

More help in making clear pronoun references is available in Lesson 58.
Troubleshooter

33

PROBLEM 1
Incorrect shift in person between two pronouns

pro

They went to the stadium for the game, but you could not find a place to park.

pro

One needs to keep their study time free from other commitments.

pro

We were on the hill at dawn, and you could see the most wondrous sunrise. Incorrect pronoun shifts occur when a writer or a speaker uses a pronoun in one person and then illogically shifts to a pronoun in another person. SOLUTION A
They went to the stadium for the game, but they could not find a place to park.
One needs to keep one’s study time free from other commitments.
Replace the incorrect pronoun with a pronoun that agrees with its antecedent. SOLUTION B
We were on the hill at dawn, and Mary and I could see the most wondrous sunrise.
Replace the incorrect pronoun with an appropriate noun.

34 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

Shifts in Pronouns

Shift in Verb Tenses
PROBLEM 1
Troubleshooter

Unnecessary shifts in tense shift t Akira waits for the bus and worked on the computer. shift t Jenny hit the home run and runs around the bases.
Two or more events occurring at the same time must have the same verb tense.

SOLUTION
Akira waits for the bus and works on the computer.
Jenny hit the home run and ran around the bases.
Use the same tense for both verbs.

PROBLEM 2
Tenses do not indicate that one event precedes or succeeds another shift t By the time the movie finally started, we waited impatiently

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

through ten minutes of commercials.
If events being described occurred at different times, shift tenses to show that one event precedes or follows another.

SOLUTION
By the time the movie finally started, we had waited impatiently through ten minutes of commercials.
Use the past perfect tense for the earlier of two actions to indicate that one action began and ended before another action began.

Need
More
Help?

More help with shifts in verb tenses is available in
Lesson 42.
Troubleshooter

35

Incorrect Verb Tenses or Forms

Incorrect or missing verb endings tense Ricardo said it snow last night.

tense

Karen and her family travel to Costa Rica last year.

SOLUTION
Ricardo said it snowed last night.
Karen and her family traveled to Costa Rica last year.
Regular verbs form the past tense and the past participle by adding -ed.

PROBLEM 2
Improper formation of irregular verbs tense The sun rised out of scarlet clouds into a clear, blue sky.

SOLUTION
The sun rose out of scarlet clouds into a clear, blue sky.
An irregular verb forms its past tense and past participle in some way other than by adding -ed.

PROBLEM 3
Confusion between the past form of the verb and the past participle tense The horses have ate their feed already.

tense

The coach has wore the old team jacket to every graduation.

36 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

SOLUTION
The horses have eaten their feed already.
The coach has worn the old team jacket to every graduation.
Troubleshooter

When you use the auxiliary verb have, use the past participle form of an irregular verb, not its simple past form.

PROBLEM 4
Improper use of the past participle

tense

Deemee drawn the winning ticket for the door prize at the dance.

tense

The old rowboat sunk just below the surface of the lake.

Past participles of irregular verbs cannot stand alone as verbs. They must be used in conjunction with a form of the auxiliary verb have.

SOLUTION A

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Deemee had drawn the winning ticket for the door prize at the dance.
The old rowboat had sunk just below the surface of the lake.
Form a complete verb by adding a form of the auxiliary verb have to the past participle.

SOLUTION B
Deemee drew the winning ticket for the door prize at the dance.
The old rowboat sank just below the surface of the lake.
Use the simple past form of the verb instead of the past participle.

Need
More
Help?

More help with correct verb forms is available in Lessons 36,
37, and 41.
Troubleshooter

37

Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers

Misplaced modifier mod Untended and overgrown since last summer, Marlene helped
Keshia in her garden.

mod

Sarah won the jumping contest with her mother’s horse, wearing western riding gear.

A misplaced modifier appears to modify the wrong word or group of words.

SOLUTION
Marlene helped Keshia in her garden, untended and overgrown since last summer.
Wearing western riding gear, Sarah won the jumping contest with her mother’s horse.
Place the modifying phrase as close as possible to the word or words it modifies. PROBLEM 2
Misplacing the adverb only mod Akiko only runs hurdles in track.

SOLUTION
Only Akiko runs hurdles in track.
Akiko runs only hurdles in track.
Akiko runs hurdles only in track.
Each time only is moved in the sentence, the meaning of the sentence changes. Place the adverb immediately before the word or group of words it is to modify.
38 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

PROBLEM 3
Dangling modifiers

Branches swaying in the breeze, we rested in the shade.

mod

Troubleshooter

mod

Trying out the new exercise equipment, the new gym is a great improvement over the old one.

A dangling modifier does not modify any word in the sentence.

SOLUTION
Branches swaying in the breeze, the tree provided us with shade.
Trying out the new exercise equipment, Mary said the new gym is a great improvement over the old one.
Add a noun to which the dangling phrase clearly refers. You might have to add or change other words, as well.

More help with misplaced or dangling modifiers is available in Lesson 64.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Need
More
Help?

Troubleshooter

39

Misplaced or Missing Possessive Apostrophes

Singular nouns poss Charles car is the white one, but Jamals is the red convertible.

SOLUTION
Charles’s car is the white one, but Jamal’s is the red convertible.
To form the possessive of a singular noun, even one that ends in -s, use an apostrophe and an -s at the end of the word.

PROBLEM 2
Plural nouns that end in -s poss The seven maple trees cool, delicious shade is the best in the park.

SOLUTION
The seven maple trees’ cool, delicious shade is the best in the park.
To form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in -s, use an apostrophe by itself after the final -s.

PROBLEM 3
Plural nouns that do not end in -s poss The childrens movies are on that rack next to the nature films.

SOLUTION
The children’s movies are on that rack next to the nature films.
Form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in -s by using an apostrophe and -s at the end of the word.
40 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

PROBLEM 4
Pronouns

That painting cannot be just anybodys work.

poss

Troubleshooter

poss

Their’s is the trophy in the center of the display case.

SOLUTION A
That painting cannot be just anybody’s work.
Form the possessive of a singular indefinite pronoun by adding an apostrophe and -s to it.

SOLUTION B
Theirs is the trophy in the center of the display case.
With any of the possessive personal pronouns, do not use an apostrophe. PROBLEM 5
Confusing its with it’s

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

poss

The computer is booting up; I see it’s power light blinking.

poss

Its going to be a great victory party.

SOLUTION
The computer is booting up; I see its power light blinking.
It’s going to be a great victory party.

It’s is the contraction of it is, not the possessive of it.

Need
More
Help?

More help with apostrophes and possessives is available in
Lesson 89.
Troubleshooter

41

Missing Commas with Nonessential Elements

Missing commas with nonessential participles, infinitives, and their phrases com Lois scowling fiercely turned her back on Clark.

com

The detective mystified by the fresh clue scratched his head in bewilderment. com

Television to tell the truth just doesn’t interest me.

SOLUTION
Lois, scowling fiercely, turned her back on Clark.
The detective, mystified by the fresh clue, scratched his head in bewilderment. Television, to tell the truth, just doesn’t interest me.
If the participle, infinitive, or phrase is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, set off the phrase with commas.

PROBLEM 2
Missing commas with nonessential adjective clauses

com

The sailboat which looked like a toy in the storm rounded the point into the breakwater.

SOLUTION
The sailboat, which looked like a toy in the storm, rounded the point into the breakwater.
If the clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, set it off with commas.

42 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

PROBLEM 3
Missing commas with nonessential appositives
Troubleshooter

com

The palomino a beautiful horse with almost golden hair is often seen in parades.

SOLUTION
The palomino, a beautiful horse with almost golden hair, is often seen in parades.
If the appositive is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, set it off with commas.

PROBLEM 4
Missing commas with interjections and parenthetical expressions

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

com

Wow did you see that falling star?

com

I would have told you by the way but you weren’t home.

SOLUTION
Wow, did you see that falling star?
I would have told you, by the way, but you weren’t home.
Set off the interjection or parenthetical expression with commas.

Need
More
Help?

More help with commas and nonessential elements is available in Lesson 78.
Troubleshooter

43

Missing Commas in a Series

Commas missing in a series of words, phrases, or clauses

s com

Mona said that Amy Tan James Baldwin and Charles Dickens were her favorite authors.

s com

Sailing on the Great Lakes can be as challenging adventurous and rewarding as sailing on the ocean.

s com

Our forensics team practiced hard did their research and used all their wit and intelligence to win the championship.

s com

The wind shifted the clouds parted and the sunlight streamed down. SOLUTION
Mona said that Amy Tan, James Baldwin, and Charles Dickens were her favorite authors.
Sailing on the Great Lakes can be as challenging, adventurous, and rewarding as sailing on the ocean.
Our forensics team practiced hard, did their research, and used all their wit and intelligence to win the championship.
The wind shifted, the clouds parted, and the sunlight streamed down. Use a comma after each item in a series except the last.

Need
More
Help?

More help with commas is available in Lessons 76–82.

44 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooter

PROBLEM 1

Grammar

Grammar

45

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 1: Parts of Speech
Lesson 1

Nouns: Singular, Plural, and Collective

Person:
Place:

SINGULAR child corner

PLURAL children corners

Thing:
Idea:

SINGULAR piano religion

Grammar

A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, and a plural noun names more than one. Most plural nouns are formed by adding -s to the singular form. Words that end in ch, sh, s, x, or z form the plural by adding -es. Words that end in a consonant and y form the plural by changing y to i and adding -es. Some plurals are formed irregularly, for example, child, children; foot, feet; mouse, mice. Some singular and plural forms are the same, for example, sheep, deer, series.
PLURAL
pianos religions A collective noun names a group. A collective noun is singular when it refers to the group as a whole. It is plural when it refers to the individual members of a group.
The jury is still deliberating. (singular)

The jury are arguing loudly. (plural)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write S above each singular noun and P above each plural noun.
P
S
S
S
P
Congress debated the issue and approved the bill defining consumer rights.
P
P
S
1. My parents expect us children to help with the housework.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

S
S
P
S
2. The film followed a herd of cows through a typical day.
S
P
3. She probably has more self-confidence than any of my other friends.
P
S
4. The returning astronauts waved to the cheering crowd.
S
S
S
5. The principal congratulated the class on its performance.
S
S
6. The dodo is an extinct bird.
S
P
7. Her favorite team lost in the playoffs.
S
S
S
8. My grandmother always used to say that pride went before a fall.
P
S
S
9. The paintings were in the new section of the museum.
S
P
P
10. This particular book contains both stories and poems.
S
S
11. Before we could paint the house, we had to scrape off the old paint.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

47

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

S
S
12. Frankly, your dog is not the smartest creature I’ve ever seen.
S
S
S
S
13. The eerie music during the play added to the atmosphere of mystery.
S
S
S
P
14. Every time he went to the mall he saw the same group of kids.
S
S
S
15. The awful smell from the laboratory reached to the gym.
S
S
S
16. When the chain fell off her bicycle, she heard a terrible grating sound.

S
18. I usually don’t like spicy food.
S
S
S
19. That girl works at the store on the corner.
S
S
P
20. The audience gasped in disbelief when the senators appeared.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Choose 30 singular nouns you identified above. On the lines below, write the plural form for each of those nouns. congresses issues

bills

Answers should include thirty of the following: films, herds, days, crowds, principals, classes, performances, dodoes or dodos, birds, teams, grandmothers, falls, sections, museums, books, houses, paints, dogs, creatures, plays, atmospheres, mysteries, times, malls, groups, smells, laboratories, gyms, chains, bicycles, sounds, panels, presentations, democracies, foods, girls, stores, corners, audiences.

ᮣ Writing Link Write three sentences about a concert or other performance you have seen. Use at least three collective nouns in your sentences.

48 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

S
S
S
17. One panel gave a presentation about democracy.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 2

Nouns: Proper and Common; Concrete and Abstract
A proper noun is a noun that names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun begins with a capital letter. A common noun is the general name of a person, place, thing, or idea.
PROPER
Uncle Al
Dominican Republic
Schindler’s List
(the) Renaissance

COMMON uncle country movie era

Grammar

Person:
Place:
Thing:
Idea:

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write P above each proper noun and C above each common noun.

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

P
C
P
C
Pedro is taking his little brother to Wrigley Field to see a baseball game.
P
C
C
The World Cup is the most popular sporting event in the world.
C
C
C
P
P
Every four years, soccer teams from continents such as Europe, Africa, and
P
C
South America battle for first place.
C
C
P
In 1994, the tournament was held in the United States.
C
C
C
P
Teams from 24 nations took part in the 1994 World Cup.
C
C
C
C
C
In every city where a game was played, fans of each country cheered their players.
C
C
P
P
P
Thousands of soccer fans from Italy and Ireland invaded New Jersey .
P
P
C
P
P
Soldier Field in Chicago rocked to the cheers of Germans and Bolivians.
P
C
C
P
Brazilians backed their team by singing samba songs in Portuguese.
C
P
C
P
C
C
C
Fans of Nigeria, champions of Africa, pounded drums to spur their team to victory.
C
C
P
Supporters of the home team enthusiastically waved the Stars and Stripes.
C
C
P
Only 16 teams advanced to the second round of the World Cup.
C
C
These teams then met to decide who would become world champion.
C
C
C
Several games were decided by a “shoot-out,” in which a single player
C
challenges the goalkeeper.
C
C
P
P
One of the best games in the second round was Holland against Brazil.
P
C
P
C
C
The United States put up a good fight against Brazil but lost by a score of 1–0.

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

49

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

A concrete noun names an object that occupies space or can be recognized by any of the senses. An abstract noun names an idea, quality, or characteristic.
Concrete:
Abstract:

sneeze, star, explosion, hedgehog, chimney politeness, ability, honesty, love, beauty

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write con. above each concrete noun and abs. above each abstract noun. con. con. abs. Bob admires people who practice modesty. con. con.
1. Sheila likes to plant and care for flowers. abs. 2. Daniel’s integrity cannot be questioned. con. con. abs. con.
3. Ruth and Joe have shown their devotion to this company. abs. abs. con. abs.
4. Kindness and sincerity dominate my list of important qualities. con. con.
5. Claire’s new bicycle impressed her neighbors. con. con.
6. Uncle Rico will give you the recipe. con. con. abs. abs.
7. The coach reminded his players of the necessity for good sportsmanship. con. con. con. 8. The bakery on the corner sells the best chocolate chip cookies. abs. 9. Thoughtfulness is always appreciated. con. abs. abs. 10. Rashida wants us to make compassion a priority. con. con.
11. Mr. Fernandez is teaching us about great world leaders. abs. 12. Jealousy can be extremely destructive. con. abs. con. abs.
13. Sunee has empathy for Roger because she has gone through a similar experience. con. con. con. con.
14. Brad and Caroline hosted a reception for the new exchange student. con. con. abs. 15. I always enjoy visiting Mexico and Canada, although they have few similarities.

50 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

C
C
16. When the smoke had cleared, only four teams were left.
P
C
P
P
C
P
17. Brazil, led by goalscorers Romario and Bebeto, advanced to the final by edging Sweden.
C
P
C
P
P
18. In the other semifinal, Italy and its star Roberto Baggio crushed Bulgaria.
C
C
C
C
19. More than two billion soccer fans around the world watched the final game on television.
P
C
C
20. They saw the Brazilians edge a tough Italian team to become world champions.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 3

Pronouns: Personal and Possessive;
Reflexive and Intensive
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and can be either singular or plural. The first person indicates the person speaking. The second person indicates the person being addressed. The third person indicates the person or thing being discussed.
PLURAL
we, us you they, them

Grammar

SINGULAR
First Person
I, me
Second Person you
Third Person he, him she, her, it

We are aware that you will be bringing them to the party.
A possessive pronoun indicates possession or ownership. It takes the place of the possessive form of a noun.
SINGULAR
First Person my, mine
Second Person your, yours
Third Person his her, hers, its

PLURAL our, ours your, yours their, theirs

My coat and your bookbag are in her locker.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

A reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or another pronoun. SINGULAR
First Person myself Second Person yourself
Third Person himself, herself, itself

PLURAL ourselves yourselves themselves Reflexive: I bought myself a pair of jeans.

Intensive: I myself bought a pair of jeans.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline each pronoun.
She glanced in the mirror and saw him behind her.
1. I could tell it made no sense at all to her.
2. His father runs the cafe by himself.
3. Can you imagine how they felt when they saw them?
4. Their burrito is a meal in itself!
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

51

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

5. We told her we wanted to do it ourselves.
6. The telephone was ringing off its hook.
7. Randall couldn’t tell theirs from yours.
8. She told him skipping breakfast was a bad idea.
9. Did you double-check your answers as they did?
10. Give them enough time, and they will reveal their secret.
11. I myself will perform the leading role in the play.

13. Its shine and softness make the material very popular.
14. Their crowd spends a lot of time at the swimming pool.
15. They still had one difficult task in front of them.
16. She had been studying to become a lawyer.
17. Jason forgot to bring his volleyball, so we had to use hers.
18. You mean you found your report in the recycling bin?
19. Cars are a lot smaller than they used to be.
20. He was shocked when he learned the congresswoman herself would be attending.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Identify what type of pronoun is in italics. Write per.—personal, pos.—possessive, ref.—reflexive, and int.—intensive. Then write S if the pronoun is singular and Pl. if it is plural. per., S

I’m not sure she understands how important it is.

pos., S

1. The large book about Alaska is hers.

per., S

2. I had never seen anything so amazing!

int., S

3. The coach gave the speech herself.

per., S or Pl.

4. Did that girl ask you to dance?

int., Pl.

5. We planned to build it ourselves.

pos., S

6. She took his order after the song stopped.

per., Pl.

7. What did he think they were doing?

ref., S pos., Pl.

8. She watched herself in the mirror as she practiced.
9. Nikki and I agreed their project was the best.

int., Pl.

10. You yourselves will have to decide.

per., Pl.

11. That silly dog followed them all the way home.

ref., Pl.

12. Customers serve themselves from the smorgasbord.

52 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

12. You have only yourselves to blame.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 4

Pronouns: Interrogative, Relative,
Demonstrative, Indefinite
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. An interrogative pronoun is used to form a question. who whom whose what which Which is the correct answer?

who whichever whom that whose what whoever whosoever whomever whatever Grammar

A relative pronoun is used to begin some subject-verb word groups called subordinate clauses. which

Maya is the student who wrote the article.
A demonstrative pronoun points out specific persons, places, things, or ideas. this these

that

those

These are the most interesting videodiscs.
An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

all another any anybody anyone anything both each either enough everybody everyone everything few many most neither nobody none no one nothing one other others

several some somebody someone something

Few are ever found again.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline each pronoun. In the blank, write int. if the pronoun is interrogative, rel. if it is relative, dem. if it is demonstrative, and ind. if it is indefinite. int. Who can answer this question?

int.

1. What is the longest river in the United States?

rel.

2. The Missouri, which flows 2,540 miles, is the longest river.

ind.

3. In fact, the Missouri is one of the longest rivers in the world.

ind.

4. How many of the world’s rivers are longer than the Missouri?

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

53

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

rel.

5. The Ohio River and the Missouri River, which are tributaries of the Mississippi River, flow into the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois, and St. Louis, Missouri.

ind.

6. Both are vital transportation routes.

dem.

7. These, along with other smaller rivers, help make up the Mississippi River Basin.

rel.

8. Statistics show that the Mississippi River carries almost two thirds of the country’s inland freight.

ind.

9. St. Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans are several of the cities on the river.
10. Which is the largest state bordering the Mississippi River?

rel.

11. A famous writer who is associated with the Mississippi is Mark Twain.

rel.

12. Twain wrote about whatever was around his hometown of Hannibal, Missouri.

ind.

13. The bustling life of the river was something Twain described in book after book.

ind.

14. Nothing was closer to the writer’s heart.

rel.

15. Three books that are set on the river are Life on the Mississippi, Tom Sawyer, and

Pudd’nhead Wilson. ind. 16. Twain’s most famous book is one many people love.

rel.

17. Many literary critics believe that Huckleberry Finn is the finest American novel.

int.

18. What makes the story so popular?

ind.

19. Perhaps there is a little bit of Huck Finn in everybody.

ind.

20. Anybody interested in America’s greatest river should read Mark Twain’s books.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by filling in an appropriate pronoun of the type indicated.
Answers may vary.
[

This or That

is a subject open for discussion. (demonstrative)

which
1. The Zaire River, [ through west-central Africa. (relative)

was known as the Congo River until 1971, flows

This or That
2. [ is the river that drains an area of the African continent known as the Congo Basin. (demonstrative) which 3. The area, [ is fed annually by as much as 100 inches of rainfall, covers
1.5 million square miles. (relative) which 4. The Zaire River, [ people of the area. (relative)
5. [

Which

is 2,900 miles long, is of great importance to the

of the rivers in Africa is the longest? (interrogative)

54 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

int.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 5

Verbs: Action (Transitive/Intransitive)
A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement. An action verb tells what someone or something does. Some action verbs express physical action. Other action verbs express mental action. A transitive verb is an action verb that is followed by a word or words that answer the question what? or whom?
The dancer performed the most difficult movements. (The action verb performed is followed by the noun movements, which answers the question what?)

Grammar

An intransitive verb is an action verb that is not followed by words that answer the question what? or whom?
The dancer performed gracefully. (The action verb performed is followed by a word that tells how.)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the verb in each sentence. In the blank, write T if the verb is transitive.
Write I if the verb is intransitive.
T

Jaelyn followed the recipe carefully.
1. Kathleen Battle, the opera star, sings amazingly well.

T

2. The red ants fought the black ants.

T

3. My aunt plays rugby every Sunday.

I

4. The hawk flew slowly over the forest.

T

5. Everyone saw the horse with the beautiful saddle.

I
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

I

6. Twenty-thousand people watched in amazement.

T

7. Beth finally heard that new song by the Ooglies.

T

8. The members of the chess club elected Janelle president.

T

9. The sound engineer recorded the bass and guitars first.

I

10. Dogs hear much better than humans.

T

11. I never watch game shows on television.

I

12. Robin finished early.

I

13. The dolphin turned quickly and smoothly.

T

14. I finished my homework during study hall.

T

15. I turned the pages of the old book with care.

I

16. Hummingbirds eat almost constantly.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

55

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. The plan succeeded in spite of his strong opposition.

T

19. Carson’s dog eats almost anything.

T

20. Raeanne tasted my bagel.

T

21. My dad never drinks coffee with his meals.

T

22. The beavers built the dam in less than a day.

I

23. Luis stayed at his grandmother’s house for three weeks in the spring.

I

24. The parakeet died of pneumonia.

T

25. The outfielder caught the ball near the wall.

I

26. The crow looked at the scarecrow without the slightest trace of fear.

I

27. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia in 1994.

T

28. Quentin conducted the school jazz band during one number.

I

29. Chen ran faster than anyone in the entire school.

T

30. He returned her calculator with a big scratch on it.

T

31. Good detectives never reveal their theories.

T

32. The tour director made all the reservations.

T

33. The bloodhound smelled something on the old, dirty jacket.

I

34. The bell rang at exactly midnight.

T

35. Mr. Rossi ran the shop with an iron hand.

T

36. She opened the window in the kitchen.

I

37. People called often during the holidays.

I

38. In Casablanca Bogart and Bergman meet for the last time at an airport.

I

39. The mayor called just before dinner.

T

40. Uncle Roscoe met me at the bus station.

ᮣ Writing Link Write three sentences describing your favorite movie. Use both transitive and intransitive verbs in your description.

56 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

17. Salmon actually swim up rivers.

I

Grammar

I

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 6

Verbs: Linking
A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence (often a noun or pronoun) with a word or expression that identifies or describes the subject. Be in all its forms (am, is, are, was, were, been, being) is the most common linking verb. Other linking verbs include look, sound, feel, grow, remain, stay, seem, appear, become, and taste.
I am a soldier.
The opera sounded wonderful.

Bananas were plentiful.
She felt sad.




Fiona is Irish.
1. Irish Americans are one of this country’s largest immigrant groups.
2. About 40 million Americans claim Irish ancestry.



3. This total is almost ten times the number of people in the country of Ireland today.



4. Among the states with the largest number of Irish Americans are Massachusetts,
Delaware, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.
5. Irish immigrants came to this country very early in its history.



6. Ireland was a country with a large population.
7. The large number of people caused a rise in the poverty level.



8. Many Irish felt hopeful about the endless job opportunities in America.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. In 1845 a terrible potato famine struck Ireland.
10. The first big wave of Irish immigrants started in the 1840s.
11. Most Irish immigrants settled in the large cities of the Northeast.


12. Irish immigrants were important in building the famous Erie Canal and many highways, railroads, and cities.
13. The Irish had an advantage over other immigrants because they could speak English.
14. In spite of this, however, many Irish suffered discrimination.
15. Irish Americans have made important contributions in many areas of American life and society. 

16. One well-known Irish American was President John F. Kennedy.
17. Irish American Eugene O’Neill, an outstanding dramatist, won the Nobel Prize in literature for his plays.

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

57

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Place a check in the blank next to each sentence whose main verb is a linking verb.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. John L. Sullivan, America’s first sports superstar, reigned as world heavyweight boxing champion in the late 1800s.


19. Other famous Irish Americans are actor John Wayne, singer Bing Crosby, and Ronald
Reagan, the former president.



20. March 17, St. Patrick’s Day, is the day when Irish Americans celebrate their heritage.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the linking verb (or verbs) in each sentence. Then circle the word or words after the linking verb that identify or describe the subject.

1. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States.
2. When he was a child, his life seemed easy.
3. Joseph and Rose Kennedy appeared eager to give their children every opportunity to succeed.
4. John became an author when an expanded version of his senior thesis was published as a book. 5. Why England Slept is an account of Great Britain’s difficulty in trying to react to military events. 6. Events grew bleaker in Europe as World War II advanced.
7. The United States stayed neutral for a time but eventually sent troops to Europe and Asia.
8. John Kennedy felt confident that he could command a Navy motor torpedo boat.
9. His mission grew dangerous when a Japanese destroyer sank his boat.
10. He became a hero when he led his men back to safety.
11. After the war ended, Kennedy became a politician.
12. He was first a congressman and then a senator.
13. In Congress, he was responsive to his constituents’ concerns.
14. Though often ill, he looked vigorous and strong.
15. He became a strong supporter of civil rights legislation.
16. In 1960, Kennedy was the Democratic party’s candidate for president.
17. He remains the youngest person ever elected President of the United States.
18. His inaugural address sounded eloquent to the citizens.
19. His ideas were new and exciting.
20. His influence on young people was great.

58 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

This is the story of an American hero.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 7

Verb Phrases
The verb in a sentence may consist of more than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called auxiliary, or helping, verbs. A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary verbs. forms of be forms of have other auxiliaries

am, is, are, was, were, being, been has, have, had can, could, may, might, shall, will, do, does, did, must, should, would

Grammar

The most common auxiliary verbs are the forms of be and have.
They are going.

They have gone.

They had been going.

The other auxiliary verbs are not used primarily to express time.
She should be arriving.
She could already be sitting there.

Could she have arrived?

ᮣ Exercise 1 Place a check next to each sentence that contains an auxiliary verb. In the sentences that contain an auxiliary verb, underline the verb phrase. Then circle the auxiliary verb.


Stock car racing has been popular for years.



1. No one has been more successful in auto races than Richard Petty.



2. The stock car race driver was known to millions of fans as “King Richard.”
3. Stock cars are quite different from the sleek cars in the Indianapolis 500.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill



4. On the outside, stock cars may appear normal.



5. But under the hood, stock cars have always had special, powerful engines.
6. The cars also have additional safety features.



7. From 1960 to 1984, Richard Petty was winning in his trademark blue car.



8. He had crossed the finish line first more than two hundred times.0



9. Did Richard Petty ever crash his race car?



10. The King was involved in many crashes, including a nasty one at the 1976 Daytona 500.
11. Richard Petty won his last race on July 4, 1984.



12. Did Richard Petty’s great success go to his head?
13. No, he remained a favorite with fans because of his friendliness.

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

59

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________



14. Thousands of fans have visited his headquarters in Level Cross, North Carolina.
15. For many fans, stock car racing is a family affair.
16. Men and women, boys and girls, and people of all ages enjoy watching the races.
17. For drivers, racing can also be a family affair.



18. Richard Petty’s father, Lee, had been one of the first great stock car drivers.



19. Not surprisingly, Richard’s son is following in his father’s footsteps.



20. Any interested people should attend a stock car race.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing a verb phrase (main verb and auxiliary verbs) using the verb indicated. Answers will vary. Suggestions are given.
Myra [

was reading

about race car drivers. (read)

had been racing
1. Janet Guthrie [ the Indianapolis 500. (race)

cars for thirteen years before she first competed in

2. Many famous auto racing drivers [ age. (think)
3. However, Janet Guthrie [
4. She [

were thinking

was interested

could have been

had obtained

6. Five years later, she [ racing. (take)

was taking

would finish
7. She [ year. (finish) was becoming

tests for a competition license in auto

her primary interest. (become) for her graduate school finals in physics, she was

10. That is when she decided she [
11. She used all the money she [

would be had saved

would stop

a professional race car driver. (be) to pursue her dream. (save)

race car owners and ask them to hire her. (stop)

13. Finally, Janet decided she [

should try

14. After building a good record, she [
Indianapolis 500. (offer)
15. In 1978, Janet Guthrie [

a commercial pilot’s license. (obtain)

third in her Sports Car Club of America class the following

9. When she [ should have been studying racing somewhere instead. (study)

12. She [

in flying airplanes. (interest)

a famous pilot. (be)

5. In fact, by age nineteen she [

8. Racing [

about the sport at a young

to build her own car. (try)

was offered

would make

60 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

an opportunity to qualify for the

history by finishing in ninth place. (make)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar



Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 8

Adjectives
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by limiting its meaning. shiny toaster

friendly neighbor

horrible accident

green bird

that book

Articles are the adjectives a, an, and the. A and an are indefinite articles. The is the definite article.

Grammar

Possessive pronouns, such as my and our, can be considered adjectives because they modify nouns. Similarly, possessive forms of nouns, such as Roger’s and the captain’s, can also be considered adjectives.
A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.
Cervantes was a Spanish writer.

The Korean restaurant is very popular.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the adjectives, including articles, possessive pronouns, possessive forms of nouns, and proper adjectives in each sentence.
The weary rebels climbed the hill to the fort.
1. The weight lifter grunted and groaned trying to lift the heavy barbell.
2. The hungry boy ate a juicy hamburger and a tossed salad.
3. My little brother loves Chinese food.
4. Where did you get that beautiful coat?
5. The designers changed the basic design of the popular model.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. A good hiking bood needs a sturdy sole.
7. We watched the little silvery fish jump completely out of the water.
8. His mother watched the new sitcom on Monday night.
9. This music is putting me in a relaxed mood.
10. Wooden tent stakes have been replaced by plastic or metal ones.
11. Whose car is parked in front of your apartment?
12. Because of the dense fog, the nervous detective could see only a dim outline of the figure.
13. Michael’s new puppy loves to chew on things.
14. Probably the hottest new sport in town is in-line skating.
15. All the excited fans cheered on their favorite tennis star.
16. Kristin brought some Norwegian cookies her grandmother made to the club’s last party.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

61

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. Trevor really wanted the lead role in the play, but his tryout was a disaster.
18. Juwan’s sister donated her old computer to the new club.
19. Please take off that awful mask!
20. The international student in our class is a Brazilian.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by adding an appropriate adjective in the space provided.
Answers will vary. Some suggestions are given. interesting 1. Sylvia unpacked her [

denim

2. The actor gave a [
3. The [

portrayal of the downtrodden farmer.

traveler stared at the icy glass of water.

4. The women entered the [

grocery

polite

juicy

sharp

friendly

9. The teacher seems to like [

11. [
12. The [

boy.

modern

Japanese

Greek

peach.

knife cut the roast easily.

8. People consider Lucas a very [

10. My brother’s [

store.

server a generous tip.

6. Samantha bit into the ripe, [
7. The [

jacket.

realistic

thirsty

5. We gave the [

book I’ve ever read.

paintings.

motorcycle is in the garage.

food can be really tasty. tall girl is the captain of the volleyball team.

13. The inspector confiscated the [

fake

diamonds.

14. My aunt and uncle’s vacation in Colorado was a [
15. Her best friend moved to a town in the [
16. Tracy’s favorite class was the one on [
17. It’s [

foolish

18. I like any kind of [

western
Victorian

memorable

experience.

part of the state. literature. to climb on the bridge. lively music.

19. The [

first

person who came around the corner was a police officer.

20. The [

critical

article about the school’s dress code was written by the assistant

editor.

62 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

That was the most [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 9

Adverbs
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by making its meaning more specific. Adverbs modify by answering the questions when? where? how? and to what degree?
We left early for the soccer game. (The adverb early modifies the verb left by answering the question when?)
Janine waited there for the bus. (The adverb there modifies the verb waited by answering the question where?)

Grammar

The nurse quietly shut the door of the hospital room. (The adverb quietly modifies the verb shut by answering the question how?)
Very few things in life are completely perfect. (The adverb completely modifies the adjective perfect by answering the question to what degree?)
Negative words, such as not and its contraction -n’t, are also considered adverbs. Other negative words such as nowhere, hardly, and never can also function as adverbs.
The boat has not arrived.

I have never eaten squid.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the word or words modified by the adverb in italics. On the blank, write v if the adverb modifies a verb. Write adj. if the adverb modifies an adjective. Write adv. if the adverb modifies another adverb. v adv.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

v adj. Whitney almost cleared the hurdle.
1. I’ve seen Alison at the nursing home very often.
2. Ben easily made the cross-country team.
3. Our class had a really fantastic time on the field trip to the science museum.

v

4. Two hundred people had already ordered tickets.

v

5. Sometimes nice guys do finish first.

adj.

6. Shannon had a very difficult time after the accident.

v

7. Late in the afternoon storm clouds gathered overhead.

v

8. Farrah’s purse was nowhere in the room.

v

9. Now and then, I wish for something impossible.

v

10. England had not yet prepared for war.

v

11. Don’t stay out in the sun too long.

v

12. Zach would never understand his sister and her friends.

For item 10 also accept as correct not modifying yet, an adverb.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

63

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

adj. v 13. Almost every person at the meeting was angry about the decision.
14. I’ll talk to you later.

adj.

15. Tuyen was completely calm when we jumped out and yelled “Happy Birthday!”

adv.

16. Birds migrate alone very infrequently.

v

17. Hand in your paper today.

adj.

18. I don’t think she was entirely sure what she had said.

adv.

19. Only rarely can gorillas breed in captivity.
20. We haven’t succeeded yet, but we’ll keep on trying.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the adverb or adverbs in each sentence.
Slowly, Marcus made his way to the front of the train.
1. Nicholas timidly thanked me for the birthday gift.
2. Your business with Carol is altogether private.
3. We had scarcely arrived at the park when the storm began.
4. The visiting team arrived late for the big game.
5. Kwan came here looking for you.
6. Louis had not considered that alternative.
7. Mr. Wilson usually hires students during the summer.
8. Gillian is the player who most frequently scores.
9. The votes cast in the third precinct were counted early.
10. Surprisingly, the plane was nearly empty.
11. Janice often runs through the field to the track.
12. The frightened rabbit never knew I only wanted to take its picture.
13. The rink will soon be filled with skaters.
14. Mr. Hernandez caught some bass and perch today in Silver Lake.
15. The referee blew his whistle loudly.
16. The runaway colt has not been seen lately.
17. I really must leave now.
18. We went back to the very dark cave.
19. Cooper was startled enough to scream.
20. Next, our class wholeheartedly applauded the speaker.

64 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

v

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Underline the adverb or adverbs in each sentence. Then draw an arrow from each adverb to the word or words it modifies.
The results of the experiment were clearly shown.
1. Fry these Chinese vegetables quickly.
2. The woman in the movie seemed truly sorry for her behavior.
3. I’ll probably never get this chance again.
4. Aunt Polly was quite surprised by the thoughtful gift.

Grammar

5. We heard the foghorn twice.
6. There was a yellow ribbon on almost every tree.
7. I have not seen that show yet.
8. Reluctantly, the old man closed the gate.
9. Ms. Rustagi seemed very glad about the results of the election.
10. Mortimer always talks foolishly at these editorial meetings.
11. Put your coats and hats here.
12. They asked us so politely.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

13. The rank of Eagle Scout is not easily achieved.
14. The last contestant finally raised her hand.
15. Somewhat unhappily, the basketball team left the court.
16. That package should arrive tomorrow.
17. The baby looked everywhere for the rattle.
18. My mother recently got a job in an insurance office.
19. LaShon hasn’t called lately.
20. Very often, the best team doesn’t win the tournament.
For item 3, accept as correct probably modifying never, never modifying again, and again modifying will get.

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

65

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 4 Complete each sentence by adding an adverb that answers the question indicated.
Answers will vary. Suggestions are given. extremely The Beatles became [ popular in America. (to what degree?)
1. You can read your book [

later there , where no one will trip over it. (where?)

3. The woodpecker [

carefully

plucked the insect out of the hole. (how?)

4. James understood [

perfectly

well what he needed to do. (to what degree?)

Grammar

5. In spite of the sandbag wall, the river [
6. I saw prairie dogs [

easily

everywhere

flooded its banks. (how?)

I looked. (where?)

7. Darcie’s campaign for student council wasn’t going [
8. We were [

partially

9. The children behaved [

well

paid back out of the club treasury. (to what degree?) disgracefully when the teacher left the room. (how?)

10. Mr. Li promised we would work on the algebra [
11. I’ve never seen anyone eat so [
12. The butler looked [ degree?) tomorrow

fast

rather

nervous as the detective asked questions. (to what

temporarily

15. If you enter this contest, you are [
16. Lea was [

very

yesterday

. (when?)

at a motel on Broad Street. (how?)

automatically

registered for all others. (how?)

lucky to win the contest. (to what degree?)

17. The veterinarian said there was nothing [
(how?)

medically

18. The woman at the desk asked us to wait [

here

19. Hawks and eagles fly [

. (when?)

. (how?)

13. Lisa’s family moved into their new apartment [
14. They had been staying [

. (how?)

higher

20. If the patient doesn’t receive the medicine [
(when?)

wrong with their hamster. for the mayor. (where?)

than almost any other birds. (how?) soon , he will be in great danger.

ᮣ Writing Link Write three or four sentences about sledding. Use adverbs in your sentences.

66 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Put the soccer ball [

.. (when?)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Some adverbs have different forms to indicate degree of comparison.
POSITIVE
walks fast writes neatly hears well behaves badly

COMPARATIVE walks faster writes more neatly hears better behaves worse

SUPERLATIVE walks fastest writes most neatly hears best behaves worst

ᮣ Exercise 5 Complete each sentence by adding the adverb in the form indicated. more frequently

than her sister. (frequently, comparative)

truly

grateful for all the gifts she received.

1. Stephanie seemed [
(truly, positive)
2. I’ve never seen anyone walk [
(slow or slowly, comparative)

slower or more slowly

than my younger brother.

3. The liquid in the third beaker bubbled [

most rapidly

4. He will probably sing [

in a rock band. (well, positive)

well

5. It was obvious that Josh had copied the drawing [
(accurately, comparative)

7. If you trained harder, you could ride [

worst

faster more quickly

9. He knew the material in the chapter [
(well, comparative)

better

12. Tony wore his letter jacket [
(proudly, superlative)

13. All the students handed in their reports [
(early, comparative)
14. Your brother Chris did really [
(well, positive)

than the ginger-colored one.

of all the team members. earlier well

15. The young woman in the melodrama sat [ melancholy tune. (forlornly, positive)

than I could follow.

. (slow or slowly, superlative)

more shyly

most proudly

of all.

than anyone else.

slowest or most slowly

11. The black and white kitten behaved [
(shyly, comparative)

than Reese did.

. (fast, comparative)

8. She changed from subject to subject [
(quickly, comparative)

10. The green car was moving [

of all. (rapidly, superlative)

more accurately

6. The A group performed badly, but the E group did [
(badly, superlative)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Kayla swam [

than I did.

on his college entrance tests, didn’t he? forlornly by the riverbank and sang a

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

67

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. The bells seemed to peal [

more joyfully

17. Jessica handled the difficult situation [

than ever before. (joyfully, comparative) most tactfully

18. The doctor said she will see you as [

soon

. (tactfully, superlative) as possible. (soon, positive)

19. Our school’s team played badly, but luckily for us, Lincoln County played [
(badly, comparative)
20. Unfortunately, the team from Vernon played [

best

worse

.

. (well, superlative)

Grammar

When an adverb modifies a verb, it may be placed in various positions in relation to the verb. When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, it comes immediately before the modified word.
Modifying a verb

Modifying an adjective
Modifying an adverb

Danielle is probably eating lunch.
Danielle probably is eating lunch.
Probably Danielle is eating lunch.
The ground was very dry.
We almost always take our dog.

ᮣ Exercise 6 Place a check next to each sentence in which the adverb is positioned correctly.



Owning a bike probably requires some knowledge of repair.
1. Bikes work much more efficiently when all their systems are adjusted properly.
2. If you learn to repair your own bike, you’ll never have to take it to a bike shop almost.



3. Generally, a person who is handy can repair most things on a bike.



5. Probably the most important safety feature on a bicycle is the brakes.



6. You can adjust the brakes more easily with a simple tool called a third hand.



7. A third hand simply holds the yokes apart so that you can adjust the rubber brake pads.
8. It’s time to adjust the brake pads when they start making an unpleasant screeching sound somewhat.



9. The brake pads should press smoothly against the metal wheel rims.
10. Another occasionally repair that bike owners attempt is cleaning or replacing an old chain. 

11. Scrubbing a dirty chain with kerosene and an old toothbrush will usually do the trick.
12. Rarely only does a chain or other part need to be completely replaced.

68 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. There are, however, quite some difficult jobs that are best left to a professional.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 10

Prepositions
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence.
The cat food is inside the cupboard.

in inside into like near of off on onto opposite out outside over past pending regarding since through throughout to A compound preposition is a preposition made up of more than one word. according to apart from because of in front of next to ahead of aside from by means of in spite of on account of along with as to in addition to instead of on top of

toward under underneath until unto up upon with within out Grammar

These are some commonly used prepositions: aboard as but (except) about at by above before concerning across behind despite after below down against beneath during along beside except amid besides excepting among between for around beyond from We’ll go to the movie after lunch.

out of owing to

Prepositions begin phrases that generally end with a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

The horses jumped over the fence.

They showered the king with gifts.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the prepositions in each sentence. Sentences can have more than one preposition. If the sentence has no prepositions, circle nothing.
Keith visited the island during the rainy season.
1. Roberto Clemente was one of the greatest baseball players of all time.
2. Roberto Walker Clemente was born on August 18, 1934, in Carolina, Puerto Rico.
3. He is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.
4. Clemente began his career playing softball for the Santruce Cangrejeros.
5. He played with them until 1953, when he signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
6. Clemente played his entire major league career as an outfielder with the Pittsburgh Pirates.
7. He batted and threw right-handed throughout his career.
8. Although he weighed only 175 pounds, Clemente used one of the heaviest bats in the big leagues.
9. Clemente could hit with power, averaging seventeen home runs in a season.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

69

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. In 1967 Clemente achieved his highest batting average of .357.
11. He batted .362 in the 1960 and the 1971 World Series.
12. He was named Most Valuable Player at the end of the 1966 season.
13. Roberto Clemente was also the most feared defensive outfielder of his time.
14. His powerful throwing arm was legendary.
15. He led the league in throwing out base runners five times.
16. His acrobatic fielding often took fans’ breath away.

18. The manager of the New York Yankees called Clemente the best rightfielder he had ever seen.
19. Clemente played on twelve National League All-Star teams during his career.
20. On the last day of the regular 1972 season, Roberto got his three-thousandth hit.
21. Clemente was a superstar on the baseball field, but he is also remembered for other things.
22. When the Puerto Rican-born Clemente played his first game in 1955, fewer than twenty-five
Hispanic players were on the rosters.
23. Hispanic players faced prejudice from both teammates and fans.
24. In fact Roberto Clemente was called “Bob” in his first few seasons because many Americans were still uncomfortable with foreign-sounding names.
25. Major league baseball had been allowing African American players for less than ten years.
26. Like Jackie Robinson, the first African American in the major leagues, Roberto Clemente changed the attitudes of baseball fans across the country.
27. When the Pirates won the 1960 World Series, Clemente skipped the team party.
28. Instead, he walked around the neighborhoods of Pittsburgh thanking fans for their support.
29. Clemente often helped people in trouble.
30. Clemente’s concern for others cost him his life.
31. When an airplane carrying supplies for earthquake victims in Nicaragua crashed into the
Caribbean Sea on December 31, 1972, Roberto Clemente was aboard that plane.
32. His loss was felt by Puerto Rico, the city of Pittsburgh, and baseball fans everywhere.
33. Roberto Clemente helped make a difference in the lives of many people.

70 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

17. Sandy Koufax’s advice for pitching to Clemente was “Roll the ball.”

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 11

Conjunctions: Coordinating, Correlative, and
Subordinating; Interjections
A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words. A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence. And, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet are coordinating conjunctions.
Germaine washed the dishes and dried them.
The squirrel buried the nut, but the dog dug it up.

both...and either...or just as...so neither...nor Grammar

Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. not only...but also whether...or Both whales and dolphins are mammals.
Whether I fail or succeed, my parents will still support me.
A subordinating conjunction joins two ideas, or clauses, so that one is grammatically dependent on the other. after although as as far as as if

as long as as soon as as though because before

if in order that since so so that

than though unless until when

whenever where whereas wherever while

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

He listened to music until he fell asleep.
Whenever I see a mountain, I want to climb it.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the conjunctions. In the blank write coord. if the conjunction is coordinating.
Write corr. if the conjunction is correlative. Write sub. if the conjunction is subordinate. sub. sub.

We will leave for vacation as soon as the tickets arrive.
1. While many people have watched a marathon race, few have ever competed in one.

coord. 2. It’s Friday night, and I have to stay home to clean my room. corr. 3. Neither Sasha nor her brother could locate the car.

coord. 4. We will visit Washington, D.C., or Williamsburg, Virginia, in June. sub. 5. Although I prefer apples, I also like strawberries.

corr.

6. Both Jason and Eric made the basketball team.

sub.

7. Whenever the parents leave for work, the children throw a temper tantrum.

sub.

8. The fans were quiet until the golfer putted.
Unit 1, Parts of Speech

71

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

coord. corr. 9. The deadline for our science project is in two weeks, so you still have time.
10. Not only did Maria win, but she also broke her record.

coord. 11. Patrick overslept and missed the bus. sub. 12. In soccer, as long as you head the ball properly, it will not hurt you.

corr.

13. Coach Ramirez debated whether to kick or to run.

sub.

14. When the verdict came in, the defendant sobbed.

coord. 15. Is Dad cooking dinner tonight or ordering pizza?
16. Wherever the divers went, they found a treasure.

corr.

17. Either your assignments are in on time or you fail the course.

sub.

18. The Jacksons lock their doors every night because thefts occur frequently in their town.

coord. 19. The storm intensified, but the hikers continued their journey. corr. 20. Just as radar works by sending out signals, so does sonar.

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to other words. oh gee

wow ow oops hey Why, I didn’t realize that.

ouch hooray well alas whew why Oops, sorry about that.

ah man yipes my uh-oh uh-huh Uh-oh, she’d better watch out.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by choosing an interjection from the list above. Answers will vary. Suggestions are given.
Uh-oh

, I forgot my jacket.

1. [

Ow

! That hurt!

2. [

Hooray

! We won!

3. [

Uh-huh

, I’m going. Will I see you there?

4. [

Whew

, that was a close call.

5. [

Oh

, I didn’t know you wanted to come.

6. [

Ah

, that tastes great!

7. [

Well

8. [

Ouch

9. [

Why

, what did you think it meant?

10. [

My

, how you’ve grown.

, if you don’t want to play, don’t play.
! You stepped on my foot.

72 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

sub.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 1 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 In the blank, identify the part of speech of the words in italics. Write n for a noun and p for a pronoun. Write adj. for an adjective and adv. for an adverb. Write v for a verb, prep. for a preposition, c for a conjunction, and i for an interjection.
1. The United States has hundreds of important historical sites, many of which have been designated national monuments.

c

2. Our national monuments include both natural wonders and structures built by people.

v

3. Millions of tourists visit these monuments every year.

prep. p adv.

Grammar

adj.

4. Some of the monuments, such as the Statue of Liberty, are located in urban areas.
5. Others, including Yellowstone, the first national park, are located far from big cities.
6. One of the most popular national monuments is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

n

7. On the wall are the names of more than fifty-eight thousand Americans who died in the
Vietnam War from 1960 to 1975.

v

8. The nation’s capital is also the site of memorials to many outstanding Americans.

prep.

9. High points of a visit to Washington, D.C., are the Washington Monument, the Lincoln
Memorial, and the Jefferson Memorial.

n

10. Massive images of these three presidents, along with one of Theodore Roosevelt, are included in the Mount Rushmore National Monument in South Dakota.

v

11. Not all of our national monuments honor famous people.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

adv.

12. If you visited southwestern Colorado, you would find there Mesa Verde National Park.

n

13. Mesa Verde is a collection of Native American cliff dwellings.

p

14. Here is an ancient apartment building with 217 rooms—all under one roof!

adj.

15. The country’s highest mountain, Mount McKinley, is in Denali National Park in Alaska.

adv.

16. Surprisingly, the lowest point in the United States is also a national monument.

n

17. In fact California’s Death Valley is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere.

prep. 18. Other national monuments honor groups of Americans, among them the Women’s
Rights National Historic Park and the Civil Rights Memorial. adj. 19. Seneca Falls, New York, is the site of the first large meeting held in 1848 to plan a campaign to bring equal rights to women.

adj.

20. The Civil Rights Memorial was built in Montgomery, Alabama, where Martin Luther
King Jr. led a boycott of the city bus system to protest racial discrimination.

Unit 1, Parts of Speech

73

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Unit 1
ᮣ Exercise 1 In the blank write n if the italicized word is used a noun. Write p if it is used as a pronoun. Write v if it is used as a verb. Write adj. if it is used as an adjective. Write adv. if it is used as an adverb. Write c if it is used as a conjunction. Write prep. if it is used as a preposition.
Write i if it is used as an interjection. v n

2. Her letter came back stamped “Return to Sender.”
3. In all fairness, I haven’t heard his side of the story yet.

adj.

4. The freight train pulled off onto a side track to let the passenger train pass.

adv.

5. The hero rode off into the sunset, and the townspeople haven’t seen him since.

c

6. Since you’re so sure you’re right, why don’t you raise your hand?

prep.

7. You probably drove past the school building on your way here.

adj.

8. A person who can’t dance very well is sometimes said to have two left feet.

adv.

9. The problem is they turned right when they should have turned left.

prep. 10. Whenever she insists on going up the down staircase, it causes a massive traffic jam. i adv.

11. Why, you’re the news anchor for the Channel 10 news!
12. I do not want that rusty old bicycle.

v

13. It was fascinating to watch the border collies corner the runaway sheep.

n

14. If you ask me, the best thing about winter is that it’s always followed by spring.

c

15. Before you go, be sure to turn off all the lights and close the curtains.

prep. 16. I told her I would call her before next Monday. n adj.

17. The fans cheered wildly when the American women won the shot put at the track meet.
18. The sales clerk at the department store said I could choose either blouse.

p

19. Richard said he didn’t really care for either.

i

20. Well, don’t say I didn’t warn you.

v

21. If you don’t clean your car’s carburetor, the engine won’t run smoothly.

c

22. When I found out about the concert, I was really upset.

74 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

adv.

1. He cut six slices of bread and put them on the plate.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 2: Parts of the Sentence
Lesson 12

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates
Every sentence has two main parts, a subject and a predicate. The simple subject is the main noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about.
The batter swung at the third ball. (main noun as simple subject)
She hit a high pop foul. (main pronoun as simple subject)
A simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that expresses action or being about the subject. The crowd cheered after the touchdown. (main verb as simple predicate)
The team will practice on Saturday. (main verb phrase as simple predicate)
You can find a simple subject by asking Who? or What? about the verb.
My grandmother lived in Poland as a girl. (Who lived in Poland?)
Her quilts have won many prizes at state fairs. (What won many prizes?)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under the simple subject and two lines under the simple predicate of each sentence below.
I am ready for a vacation.
1. Our family traveled through Africa last summer.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. At the airport we joined a sightseeing tour.
3. The guide loaded us into a huge old van.
4. He drove the van to a nearby game preserve.
5. Unfortunately, the ancient vehicle lacked good shock absorbers.
6. Our bodies were jolted with every turn of the wheels.
7. Clouds of dust around the van obscured our vision.
8. The driver slowed the van to a stop.
9. Mom started loading her camera in anticipation.
10. Suddenly, several passengers spotted a giraffe and several lions.
11. Soundlessly, we crept from the van for a closer look.
12. The lions were snoozing in the sun.
13. Two small cubs batted each other with padded paws.
Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

75

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. A zebra herd cautiously passed the sleeping lions.
15. The driver pointed at a hyena on the lookout for its meal.
16. In the distance an elephant was eating the bark off a tree.
17. I could hardly believe the nearness of so many wild creatures.
18. Mom shot a whole roll of film at just that one location.
19. The day ended too soon with a journey back to the town.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Supply a simple subject for each of the sentences below by writing a noun or a pronoun in the blank. Draw two lines under each simple predicate. Answers may vary.
My [

pets

are safe.

1. Earlier today, the weather [
2. [

Father

3. [

Mom

reporter

filled several plastic bottles with fresh water. hung extra tarpaulins over the windows in the family room.

4. My [

brother

5. My [

sister

6. Soon the [

rushed outside to find the animals. gathered flashlights and candles. sky 7. The [

darkened.

wind

8. [

in the trees was moaning eerily.

We

heard the sounds of the storm distinctly.

9. After a particularly loud crash [
10. The [

dogs

11. The [

Jerry

, however, strolled through the house serenely.

12. Shortly after a lightning strike, the [

14. [
15. A [

Dad
We

squads

parents night I

had bought a battery-powered radio after the last storm.

police

17. Civil defense [

20. [

flickered out.

had been smashed by high water on the Little River.

16. Thankfully, the [

19. The long [

lights

sat in the dark with the radio as a friendly voice.

bridge

18. My [

told a joke for relief.

were crouching unhappily at our feet.

cat

13. Luckily [

announced an approaching snowstorm.

had closed it just minutes before. were providing shelter in the schools.

worried about their families a few miles upstate. passed slowly into daylight. will not forget the storm of July 1994.

76 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. Maybe we can return to this serene spot next year.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 13

Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates
Most sentences have additional words that tell more about the simple subject and the simple predicate.
The complete subject is made up of the simple subject and all the words that tell about it.
The members of the team voted to buy new uniforms.
The complete predicate is made up of all the words that tell what the subject is or does, including the simple predicate.
The principal of the school invited us to a board meeting.
A good way to find the complete subject and complete predicate in a sentence is to find the simple subject and simple predicate first.
The president of our class won the election by a landslide.
Once you have located the simple subject and predicate, then you can divide the entire sentence into complete subject and complete predicate.
The president of our class | won the election by a landslide.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under the simple subject. Draw two lines under the simple predicate.
Draw a vertical line (|) between the complete subject and the complete predicate.
A box of old letters was found in the trunk.
1. Several photos of the fire were in the paper.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Gabriella will take her science project to the fair.
3. The nature documentary showed the life of a coral reef.
4. Miguel’s bicycle was stolen from the school bike rack.
5. Many people on our block have dogs and cats.
6. We are learning about the Arctic tundra in geography.
7. Rita kicked four goals in her soccer game yesterday.
8. Three of the high-school classes planned a community project.
9. A new video will be my present to my brother.
10. Our local scout troop has hiked up Mount Baldy three times.
11. Jena spoke to me about her birthplace in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
12. The new encyclopedia contains much updated material.

Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

77

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. A number of farmers formed a credit union.
14. The rescuers chopped through the door.
15. Carla’s grandfather writes often to his family in Italy.
16. The beautiful stone in her ring is an opal.
17. That television drama was very unrealistic.
18. A high wall surrounded the large mansion.
19. We will study for the exam next week.

21. The fans in the grandstand cheered the home team.
22. My uncle knows a lot about solar energy.
23. The frisky squirrel leaped for the birdfeeder.
24. Forty Canada geese landed on the lawn.
25. Our families were invited to the school picnic.
26. They dived into the pool.
27. The lovely old oak came down in the storm.
28. Suellen was practicing for the skating contest.
29. My cousin called me long distance last night.
30. The angry drivers were stalled at the accident site.
31. The heavy rain brought many worms to the surface.
32. The pilot landed the stricken jet in a field.
33. My favorite dessert is lemon sherbet.
34. The cooks at school baked a cake for the principal’s birthday.
35. Our visitors from the city were listening to the croaking frogs.
36. Hillary’s cousins from Seattle will be at the wedding tomorrow.
37. Jan performed the chemistry experiment successfully.
38. You will enjoy the seventh-grade play.
39. The simmering volcano erupted suddenly.
40. Roger slid into third base safely.

78 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. The airport is just off Exit 14.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 14

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates
A compound subject consists of two or more simple subjects that share the same verb. The two subjects are joined by a conjunction. (For a list of conjunctions, see Lesson 11, page
71.) The conjunctions in the following sentences are and, neither ... nor, and either ... or.
Andrea and Rick entered the relay race.
Neither the teachers nor the students favor the new schedule.
Either cinnamon or nutmeg is used in this recipe.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under each compound subject and two lines under the simple predicate they share. Circle the conjunction or conjunctions.
Misha and I saw Lani at the mall.
1. Clubs and sports are two of Lani’s favorite hobbies.
2. Neither Chris nor Juan shares her interest.
3. Lani and her other friends belong to the drama club.
4. Either Tuesday or Wednesday is the day of their next meeting.
5. Sets, costumes, and props will be discussed.
6. Scripts and audition forms will be passed out.
7. Lani and Susan will audition for the fall play.
8. Either Our Town or Romeo and Juliet will be the first production.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. Neither the drama teacher nor the club president can decide.
10. Either March or April will be the month of the second production.
11. Tessa and Mr. Tanaka will choose a musical for the spring play.
12. Oklahoma! and The Sound of Music are Lani’s favorite shows.
13. Lights and sound could be a problem, though.
14. Neither time nor money is available for the improvement of the auditorium.
15. Mr. Tanaka and the drama club are meeting with the school board this afternoon.
16. Either Ms. Jenkins or Mr. Rodriguez will preside at the meeting.
17. Drama and other extracurricular activities are on the agenda.
18. Mr. Tanaka, Tessa, and Lani will make short speeches.
19. Interest and enthusiasm for drama clubs are their topics.
20. Either Lani or Tessa will speak first.
Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

79

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

A compound predicate consists of two simple predicates that share the same subject. The two simple predicates are connected by a conjunction.
Harold picked the flowers and arranged them.
The well-trained dogs will neither bark nor bite.
The angry customer has either called or written five times.
A flock of birds swooped behind the hill but reappeared above the trees.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under each simple subject and two lines under each compound predicate in the following sentences.
Audiences admire and enjoy the writer’s work.
1. Plays entertain and inform audiences.
2. New plays often open the mind and spark new ideas.
3. Regional theaters either commission new works or read submissions.
4. Playwrights improve and refine their dialogue during rehearsal.
5. Directors can add elements but cannot save a weak script.
6. Actors often try different approaches and choose the most effective one for the character.
7. Set designers create and develop the proper atmosphere for the play.
8. The playwright neither describes nor limits every element of production.
9. Each artist contributes ideas and enhances the show.
10. After the first performance, the playwright will evaluate the script and make improvements.
11. Sometimes audience members complete surveys or offer comments to the writer.
12. The writer can either accept or reject their suggestions.
13. A single play may be produced and revised several times.
14. Broadway producers seek new plays and acquire rights to the best ones.
15. Audiences appreciate new shows but often buy more tickets for familiar works.
16. Producers neither desire nor support unpopular plays.
17. However, interesting new plays excite producers and draw large audiences.
18. The best plays win awards and sometimes become movies.
19. Movies are neither produced nor directed like stage shows.
20. Live theater heightens drama and adds a third dimension for the audience.

80 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

The conjunctions in the sentences above are and, neither ... nor, either ... or, and but.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 15

Order of Subject and Predicate
In most sentences that you read and write, the subject comes before the predicate.
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
The red-tailed hawk | soared high overhead.
For variety or special emphasis, some sentences are written in inverted order. In such cases the predicate comes before the subject.
PREDICATE
SUBJECT
High overhead soared | the red-tailed hawk.
The subject also follows the verb in any sentence that begins with there or here.
PREDICATE

SUBJECT

There sit |
Here is |

the missing books! your birthday present.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a vertical line (|) between the complete subject and the complete predicate.
Here is a summary of the plot.
1. Behind the hills sank the setting sun.
2. Here are the photographs of the eclipse.
3. Across the lawn crept the stalking cat.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Myra watched the baby.
5. Rich took the pie to the Bayers next door.
6. The rainbow appeared after the storm.
7. Over the bridge rumbled the ancient truck.
8. From the broken dam tumbled the floodwaters.
9. Here are several of Grandma’s quilts.
10. My friend Helen wants to be a teacher.
11. Here are the corrected test papers.
12. Over the intercom came the principal’s announcement.
13. Inside the car sat my baby sister.
14. Behind the bookcase was the entrance to a secret tunnel.
15. There is no excuse for your behavior.
Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

81

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. Through the storm flew the brave seagull.
17. The weary travelers camped by the river.
18. Beyond the planet Mars lie the asteroids.
19. Here is your baseball glove.
20. Beside the desk was the missing picture.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Rewrite the sentences below by inverting the order of the subjects and predicates.

1. Up the falls swam the salmon. The salmon swam up the falls.
2. Past the crowd sped the wheelchair racers. The wheelchair racers sped past the crowd.
3. Across the range flew the fighter plane. The fighter plane flew across the range.
4. On the stove bubbled the chocolate pudding. The chocolate pudding bubbled on the stove.
5. Spring comes after winter. After winter comes spring.
6. A grandfather clock stood against the wall. Against the wall stood a grandfather clock.
7. Through the woods hiked the weary scouts. The weary scouts hiked through the woods.
8. Tulips and daffodils grew along the fence. Along the fence grew tulips and daffodils.
9. A pirate ship appeard out of the mist. Out of the mist appeared a pirate ship.

10. Behind the house stood a pine forest. A pine forest stood behind the house.
11. Across the sky twinkled the light of the satellite. The light of the satellite twinkled across the sky.

12. Down the road trotted a riderless pony. A riderless pony trotted down the road.
13. My best friend stood beside me. Beside me stood my best friend.
14. Between the jagged cliffs flowed the river. The river flowed between the jagged cliffs.
15. Throughout the book appeared colorful illustrations. Colorful illustrations appeared throughout the book. 16. Tiny fish swam beneath the surface of the pond. Beneath the surface of the pond swam tiny fish.

17. A family of bears lived in the cave. In the cave lived a family of bears.
18. From the kitchen came the wonderful smell of challah. The wonderful smell of challah came from the kitchen.

82 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

Players from both teams were at the meeting. At the meeting were players from both teams.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 16

Complements: Direct and Indirect Objects
A complement completes the meaning of a verb. It may be one word or a group of words.
One kind of complement is the direct object. A direct object answers the question what? or whom? after an action verb.
Mario picked some flowers for the mantel. (Mario picked what?)
Liu trusts her sister completely. (Liu trusts whom?)
A direct object may have more than one part.
The farmer carried the calf and the lamb through the floodwaters.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under the simple subject and two lines under the simple predicate.
Circle the direct object. At the end of the sentence, write the word what? or whom? to tell which question the direct object answers.
Astronomers study celestial bodies. what?
1. Early astronomers observed the heavens constantly. what?
2. The movements of the sky fascinated them. whom?
3. Often they created myths and stories explaining the stars. what?
4. To learn more, our class visited the planetarium yesterday. what?
5. Mr. Simpson told us about the solar system. whom?
6. Then we named the planets in order from the sun. what?

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

7. All the planets orbit the sun. what?
8. On its surface, tiny Mercury resembles our moon. what?
9. However, Mercury lacks an atmosphere and a moon. what?
10. Venus possesses a poisonous atmosphere. what?
11. The spacecraft photographed the surface of Venus. what?
12. Clouds covered the surface. what?
13. We told Mr. Simpson about our studies. whom?
14. First, Earth contains rocky material. what?
15. A moon orbits our home planet. what?
16. Earth’s atmosphere supports many forms of life. what?
17. My friend studies Mars and Jupiter. what?

Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

83

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Some people plan a trip to Mars. what?
19. Mr. Simpson often studies the moon through a telescope. what?
20. He prefers the moon to everything else in the solar system. what?

Another kind of complement, the indirect object, answers these questions following an action verb: to whom? for whom? to what?

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write D.O. above the direct objects and I.O. above the indirect objects.
I.O.
D.O.
Mr. Stephens read us a legend about the wind.
I.O.
D.O.
1. Ms. Bailey gave our class a lecture on weather.
I.O.
D.O.
2. She teaches college students weather forecasting.
I.O.
D.O.
3. Our science teacher, Mr. Stephens, sent her an invitation.
I.O.
D.O.
D.O.
4. She brought us weather maps and other data.
I.O.
D.O.
5. We showed her our ideas for the weather forecasts.
I.O.
D.O.
6. She offered the class her opinion.
I.O. D.O.
7. Mr. Stephens showed us pictures of the first thermometers and barometers from the seventeenth century. I.O.
D.O.
8. Weather stations once gave others information on current conditions by telegraph.
I.O.
D.O.
9. By the late nineteenth century, organizations were providing forecasters standards for weather records.
I.O.
D.O.
10. In turn, these records provide meteorologists statistics.
I.O.
D.O.
11. Recent technology gives them more help.
I.O.
D.O.
12. Satellites send professional forecasters information from space.
I.O.
D.O.
13. Computers offer them numerical models for predictions.
I.O.
D.O.
14. These models save meteorologists time.
I.O.
D.O.
15. The predictions give people warnings about bad weather.
I.O.
D.O.
16. Ms. Bailey drew our class a graph of weather trends.

84 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

The child threw her father and mother a kiss. (The child threw a kiss to whom?)
Keanu bought them some popcorn. (Keanu bought popcorn for whom?)
The crowd gave our team a cheer. (The crowd gave a cheer to what?)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 17

Subject Complements and Object Complements
Certain words in sentences complete the meaning of linking verbs. These words are called subject complements because they further identify or describe the subject. The linking verbs used in such sentences include all forms of the verb be, as well as the verbs become, seem, remain, feel, taste, smell, appear, look, grow, stay, and sound.
The two kinds of subject complements are predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives. A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and identifies or renames the subject.
Harold is our quarterback. (What word identifies Harold?)
Reggie Lee remains my friend. (What word identifies Reggie Lee?)
A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject.
Her paintings look mysterious. (What word describes the paintings?)
The swimmer was powerful. (What word describes the swimmer?)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Identify the italicized word(s) in the following sentences as either a predicate nominative, P.N., or a predicate adjective, P.A.
P.A.

The new car was bright and shiny.
1. Mr. Kravitz may become our new science teacher.

P.N.

2. That object in the tree is a pineapple.

P.N.

3. That train robbery remains an unsolved mystery.

P.N.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

P.N.

4. This book on whales is a gift from my sister.

P.N.

5. Jayelle and Simon are the best performers in the play.

P.A.

6. These old apples smell rotten.

P.A.

7. Both Tanya and Rick seemed cheerful after the exam.

P.N.

8. Tika’s favorite reptiles are crocodiles, lizards, and turtles.

P.A.

9. These pears don’t appear fresh.

P.A.

10. The runners look weary but triumphant.

P.N.

11. Stella became chairwoman of the committee.

P.A.

12. The soaked and exhausted scouts looked miserable.

P.N.

13. Red, yellow, and blue are primary colors.

P.A.

14. The cut flowers looked dry and lifeless.

P.A.

15. My uncle has been ill.
Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

85

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. The sculpture in the park remains his greatest accomplishment.

P.N.

17. First prize in the contest will be a trip to Grand Canyon.

P.A.

18. The runners felt jubilant after the race.

P.N.

19. Her orchard’s main crops were apples and cherries.

P.N.

20. The Conways and the Hopes seem good friends.

Object complements are words that identify or describe a direct object in a sentence.
They answer the question what? after a direct object in order to complete the meaning of the direct object. An object complement may be a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective.
The mayor apppointed Ken treasurer. (Noun)
The dog considers the sofa his. (Pronoun)
Residents think the new structure ugly. (Adjective)

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under the direct object. Draw two lines under the object complement.
I find school elections good experience.
1. Our science club chose Gayle the chairperson.
2. Gayle considers astronomy the most compelling science.
3. We, on the other hand, consider her starstruck.
4. I, for example, find botany fascinating.
5. I named my science project “Fabulous Flowers.”
6. Other club members call me silly.
7. I will make them botanists by next year.
8. My fellow members will never elect me president.
9. However, they may appoint me lowly notetaker.
10. Several scientists in the club make geology a priority.
11. They call earthquakes and volcanoes marvelous.
12. But then, they consider liquid lava an occasion for celebration.
13. Horace declared Mount Saint Helens his favorite volcano.
14. Of course, the chemistry fans think chemistry a treat.
15. They consider all test tubes theirs.
16. Lena and Ty will make chemistry their major.

86 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

P.N.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 2 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a vertical line between the complete subject and the complete predicate.
Label each direct object D.O. and each indirect object I.O. Draw one line under each predicate nominative. Draw two lines under each predicate adjective. Circle each object complement.
I.O.
D.O.
Fred gave Dave a baseball.
I.O.
D.O.
1. Jason threw Antonio the ball.
D.O.
2. The club named Moira president.
3. This salsa tastes spicy.
4. Mr. Kotlinski may become our new soccer coach.
D.O.
5. Wilson and Kurt wrote letters to their friends in Japan.
6. First prize will be a trip to Hong Kong.
7. The conclusion of Noah’s paper was a surprise.
I.O.
D.O.
8. Corky’s dog brought Sally a torn slipper.
D.O.
D.O.
9. Giorgio wrote the agenda and gave a copy to each member of the group.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. The ship’s course seemed unusual.
11. At the conference were representatives from forty nations.
12. Hiking and camping are Lee’s favorite activities.
D.O.
13. Juanita considers math her best subject.
14. Hawaii’s flowers are breathtaking.
15. My friend Heidi was the leader at the golf tournament.
I.O.
D.O.
16. Alex baked the class pumpkin bread.
D.O.
17. The judges called Colin’s science fair project extraordinary.
D.O.
18. My cousin Jessica wants a new stereo.
19. Across many miles traveled the colorful caravan.
D.O.
20. Martha bought some lace in Brussels.
Unit 2, Parts of the Sentence

87

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–2
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline nouns once and verbs twice. Draw a vertical line between each complete subject and complete predicate. Label adjectives Adj., articles A., adverbs Adv., direct objects
D.O., and indirect objects I.O.
A.D.O.
A.
1. Omar and Alicia took a trip to the museum.
I.O.
A. Adj. D.O.
2. Kristy sent Aunt Sue a lovely lamp.

A.
Adv.
A. Adj.
D.O.
4. The supplier accidentally delivered the wrong material.
A.
Adv.
A.
I.O.
Adj.
D.O.
5. The lawyer carefully asked the witness several questions.
A. D.O.
A. D.O.
A.
6. Aaron ate the apple and threw the core into the wastebasket.
Adj.
Adv.
7. Those students are being honored today.
A.
Adj.
Adj.
8. On the counter were handmade boxes of every description.
Adj.
Adj.
Adv.
A. Adj. D.O.
9. Our swimming team easily won the large trophy.
Adj.
Adj.
A. Adj.
A.
10. Nora’s incredible singing was the best part of the program.
A.
Adj. D.O.
11. Francis scrubbed and waxed the kitchen floor.
I.O.
Adj.
D.O.
12. Someone had been giving Demetrius mysterious gifts.
Adj.
Adj. Adv.
13. Both Claudia and her brother have been looking tense lately.
A. Adj.
Adv.
Adj. D.O.
14. The rainy weather had severely limited our activity.
I.O. A. Adv.
Adj. D.O.
15. You offered me a nearly perfect plan.
A.
Adj.
Adj.
D.O.
A.
16. Someone left an unfinished jigsaw puzzle on the table.
A. Adj.
Adv.
A. Adj.
17. Dr. Connor, a medical missionary, carefully walked across the barren field.
A. Adj.
A.
18. Julio became the best shortstop on the team.
A.
Adj.
Adv.
A. D.O.
19. The panting racers swiftly turned the corner.
I.O.
A. D.O.
A.
20. Lisa and Jacques made Mrs. O’Brien a pie from the strawberries they picked.

88 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

A. Adj. D.O.
3. Julia wrote and directed the funny play.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 3: Phrases
Lesson 18

Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or a pronoun, called the object of the preposition. (For a list of prepositions, see Unit 1,
Lesson 10, page 69.) The object may be compound or may have modifiers.

Grammar

Our stockpile of snowballs was depleted quickly.
This pudding is made with milk and bread. (compound object)
I brought back film footage of the horrible storm. (object with modifier)
A prepositional phrase acts as an adjective when it modifies a noun or a pronoun. A prepositional phrase acts as an adverb when it modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. David tried every pair of skis in the lodge. (adjective phrase modifying the noun skis)
You can come to the party. (adverb phrase modifying the verb phrase can come)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle each prepositional phrase in the following sentences.
We met in the lobby after school.
1. My sister took her books off the table at dinnertime.
2. At the party, we met students who did not go to our school.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

3. Which of the movies is your favorite?
4. Tim sat motionless for a long time.
5. We ran toward the water when we reached the beach.
6. Sheila always gets nervous before a performance.
7. Inside the auditorium people talked loudly until the end of the show.
8. I ran around the table and hid beneath the chair.
9. Sue promised me her recipe for stew.
10. Cheers filled the stadium throughout the football game.
11. Would you rather live in Alaska or in Africa?
12. By two o’clock on the day of the bake sale, all of the cookies had been sold.
13. Derek looked behind the garage and saw his roller skates.
14. The four of us swam laps in the pool after school.
Unit 3, Phrases

89

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. We laughed at the joke, though it wasn’t very funny.
16. Marty proved she could compete against any member of the other team.
17. Did you travel by car or by train?
18. The students were encouraged in their efforts.
19. The parking garage below the mall is always full.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle each prepositional phrase in the sentences below and draw an arrow to the word or words it modifies.
Sarah looked through the telescope.
1. The captain slipped on the wet deck.
2. We went to the movie at the last minute.
3. Which of the barbells is heavier?
4. Melissa earned the money for her new dress.
5. When Jo forgot her key, she knocked on the window.
6. The boy in the red jacket plays on my soccer team.
7. The doctor told him that joining the track team would be healthful for him.
8. She was taught table manners at a young age.
9. We found sticky paw prints on the kitchen floor.
10. Let’s meet the new coach at four o’clock.
11. Bill hit the ball into the bleachers.
12. Each of the girls wanted some pizza.
13. The computer in the lab was used frequently.
14. The school band performed during the half-time show.
15. Did you pass your driving test with flying colors?
16. At the museum we saw paintings and sculptures.

90 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. He studies hard, and his grades are always above the average.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 19

Participles and Participial Phrases
A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. It modifies a noun or pronoun.
The car screeched down the twisting road. (The participle twisting modifies the noun road.) A participle can be present or past. A present participle ends in -ing. A past participle usually ends in -ed.

Grammar

A participle with complements and modifiers is called a participial phrase. A participial phrase acts as an adjective. It can be in different positions in a sentence. If a participial phrase falls at the beginning of a sentence, it is usually followed by a comma.
Screeching loudly, the car pulled into the service station.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the participle or participial phrase in each sentence.
Growing up in an active family, Carla had acquired many athletic skills.
1. Being a good kicker, Carla tried out for the football team.
2. She wanted to be the team’s leading kicker.
3. Playing for her middle school team, she felt ready to compete.
4. However, many other students, having equal experience, also decided to try out for the team.
5. Startled by the number of competitors, Carla grew nervous.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. Did all of them have a winning record?
7. Glancing at her competitors, she discovered that three of them were female.
8. Considered unique in middle school, Carla was not prepared to meet other female kickers.
9. A girl named Molly introduced herself to Carla.
10. She had been a celebrated middle school kicker, too.
11. Carla, worried about the tryouts, made a nervous joke.
12. Molly’s determined pacing showed that she was also nervous.
13. Breathing deeply, Carla began to calm down.
14. The coaches holding the tryouts gave each student a ball.
15. Smiling at Molly, Carla suggested they help each other practice.
16. Molly nodded and gave a relieved sigh.
17. Running after the football, both girls forgot to be nervous.
Unit 3, Phrases

91

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. They had a contest with the other two girls waiting in the stands.
19. Working together, Carla and Molly kicked more field goals than the other team.
20. A coach watching them insisted they try out first.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle the participial phrase and draw an arrow to the noun or pronoun it modifies.
Donato sat at his desk, listening to a classmate’s oral report.

2. His oral report, inspired by the World Cup competition, was about a famous soccer player.
3. Reading his first note card, he remembered that soccer is called “football” in many countries.
4. This sport, played around the world, is growing in popularity.
5. Keeping that in mind, he thought his classmates would enjoy his report.
6. The student standing in front of the class finished her report.
7. Clearing his throat, Donato approached the lectern.
8. A friend sitting in the first row smiled at him.
9. His teacher, seated in the back, instructed him to begin.
10. Placing his note cards on the lectern, he introduced his topic.
11. Speaking carefully, he explained that Edson Arantes do Nascimento was known as Pelé.
12. Playing for a minor league “football” club, Pelé tried to earn a place on a major league team.
13. The Brazilian athlete, rejected by several teams, joined the Santos Football Club.
14. This team, led by Pelé, won two world club championships.
15. Pelé, continuing to play, headed the Brazilian national team that won three World Cup titles.
16. Retired from the game in 1975, he decided to play for the New York Cosmos.
17. Aided by his presence the Cosmos won the North American Soccer League championship in 1977.
18. Retiring again, Pelé received the International Peace Award.

92 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

1. Waiting patiently, Donato organized his notes.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 20

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases;
Appositives and Appositive Phrases
A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
Sewing has never interested me.
A gerund phrase is a gerund with any complements or modifiers needed to complete its meaning. Grammar

Her enthusiastic cheering drew people from yards away.
Moving the chair was not easy.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the gerund or gerund phrase in each sentence.
Running for class president requires a lot of work.
1. I like eating healthful foods.
2. Recycling gives our family a sense of accomplishment.
3. Quitting is almost never the best solution.
4. Cheryl’s delicious cooking keeps her restaurant popular.
5. Leafing through photos is a good way to remember old times.
6. We enjoyed painting the barn.
7. Doing the yard work made us tired.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. The whistling of the wind makes the house seem lonely.
9. Constant bickering was making the twins a nuisance.
10. Pacing the floors can relieve tension for some people.
11. Public speaking was the class assignment everyone feared.
12. Skating was Karen’s favorite pastime.
13. The dog’s loud barking made it difficult to hear the television.
14. Miranda enjoyed exploring new places.
15. His unique singing made him a good candidate for the choir.
16. My hobbies, cycling and reading, keep me busy.
17. We wanted to win, but playing a good game was just as important.
18. Her greatest hope was finding her long-lost sister.
Unit 3, Phrases

93

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

19. Capturing the enemy was the mission in the latest video game.
20. Traveling is a good way to see the world.

An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to further identify it.
My brother David is an engineer.

My brother David, an engineer in Philadelphia, enjoys his job.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the appositive or appositive phrase in each sentence.
Dontonio, my science partner, helped me write the lab report.
1. Mariel, a dancer in her own right, watched the ballerinas dance.
2. My doctor, Dr. Enriquez, recently moved to our neighborhood.
3. Nancy’s dog Molly never barks at anyone.
4. Meagan, a hard-working student, will run for class president.
5. The noise, a piercing wail, made us cover our ears.
6. The Bears, the team in the red jerseys, are going to the playoffs.
7. That museum has several paintings of the French Impressionist painter Monet.
8. Tom, the actor on the left, has performed in many musicals.
9. My friend Rachel came to see me march in the band.
10. The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, are credited with the first flight.
11. She lives in Seattle, the capital of Washington.
12. Our local newspaper, The Sentinel, printed a picture of my stepfather with his award.
13. Mrs. Ito, my sixth-grade teacher, was a chaperone at the dance.
14. Animal Farm is a book by the acclaimed author George Orwell.
15. Was that Krista, the captain of the drill team?
16. Willie Mays, the famous home run hitter, signed one of my baseball cards.
17. During biology, my first class of the day, we dissected frogs.
18. Frankenstein, a novel by Mary Shelley, has been the basis for many films.

94 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

An appositive phrase contains an appositive and any words that modify it. An appositive phrase is usually not essential to the meaning of a sentence. Appositives are often set off by commas.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 21

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
An infinitive is a verb form usually preceded by the word to. In this case, to is not a preposition, but a part of the infinitive verb form. An infinitive can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
I love to gather flowers in the spring. (infinitive as a noun)
Our plans to visit Civil War battlefields changed drastically. (infinitive as an adjective)
Your address is difficult to remember. (infinitive as an adverb)

Grammar

An infinitive phrase includes an infinitive and any complements and modifiers needed to complete its meaning.
Many animals can learn to recognize people.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Above each infinitive, write n if it is used as a noun, adj. if it is used as an adjective, and adv. if it is used as an adverb.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

adj.
Choosing a setting for a novel is not a decision to make hastily. adj. 1. An author must choose the right setting to make a novel memorable. adv. 2. For some writers, it was easy to find the best setting. n n
3. To live in London is to have the perfect setting. adv. 4. A novelist can find it interesting to create plots based on the city’s rich history. adj. 5. As the center of government, it is the place to witness politics in action. adv. 6. To see a great opera, one would also travel to London. adv. 7. To shop, a character would head for Oxford Street. adj. 8. There are many parks for a hero or heroine to walk through. adv. 9. To visit the oldest royal park, one would go to St. James’s. adv. 10. At Regent’s Park it is fun to view the Zoological Gardens. n 11. At Trafalgar one likes to admire the statue of Lord Nelson, the hero of the battle of Trafalgar. adj. 12. Perhaps the character to write about is Lord Nelson. adj. 13. In his day, the place to be was a London district called Mayfair. adj. 14. The author to read was Jane Austen. adv. 15. To purchase one of Miss Austen’s books, one went to Hatchard’s on Piccadilly.

Unit 3, Phrases

95

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

adj.
16. Later in the nineteenth century, London became the setting to read about in books by
Charles Dickens.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle the infinitive or the infinitive phrase in each sentence.
Sherlock Holmes is known for his ability to solve baffling mysteries.
1. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle has come to be well-known as the creator of Sherlock Holmes.
2. Conan Doyle received a degree in medicine and decided to work as an eye specialist.
3. Unfortunately, he was unsuccessful in his attempt to make a good living.
4. He wrote his first book to make money.
5. Conan Doyle used a doctor he knew to be the model for Sherlock Holmes.
6. The time he spent with his friend helped him to develop the characteristics of Holmes.
7. Holmes became known for his ability to observe.
8. Readers were able to appreciate the fictional detective’s inquisitive nature.
9. Holmes always used his sharp wit to solve a mystery.
10. Conan Doyle was knighted to recognize his defense of the British in one of his books.
11. That is how he came to be called “Sir.”
12. Conan Doyle created the character Dr. Watson to assist Holmes in his mysteries.
13. “My dear Watson” is one of the famous phrases to come from the Sherlock Holmes mysteries.
14. He often chose to write books with odd titles.
15. The Red-Headed League is another book title that is hard to forget.
16. At one time, Conan Doyle chose to kill off the legendary detective.
17. Readers called for him to bring Holmes back.
18. Conan Doyle went on to write fifty-nine more books featuring Sherlock Holmes.
19. Holmes’s signature pipe and hat are items that readers are likely to remember.
20. To see Sherlock Holmes on television and in movies is not unusual.

96 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

adj.
17. His old house is an interesting place to visit. n 18. Dickens liked to stroll through London gathering ideas for characters. adv. 19. Read one of his books to determine what life was like at the time. n 20. Think of other authors who chose to place their stories in London.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 22

Distinguishing Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases
The three types of verbal phrases, participial, gerund, and infinitive, are closely related to verbs. However, they do not function as verbs, but as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
The easiest way to distinguish the phrases is by the way they function in a sentence and by their forms.

Grammar

• An infinitive phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Infinitives are usually preceded by the word to.
• Participial phrases function as adjectives. Present participles end in -ing. Most past participles end in -ed.
• Gerund phrases function as nouns. Gerunds end in -ing.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Identify the phrase in italics as I for infinitive, G for gerund, or P for participial.
G

Harold will never forget fumbling in the big game.
1. She collects figurines made in the thirties.

G

2. Buying fire extinguishers is a good way to save lives.

P

3. Practicing constantly, Mike improved his tennis game.

P

4. The science lab contains many jars labeled as dangerous.

G

5. Jim’s goal, getting elected, was achieved through hard work.

I

6. Dan has never been one to complain about his problems.

G
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

P

7. There is no excuse for reckless driving.

I

8. My younger sister likes to slide down the big hill.

G

9. Baking brownies is our favorite activity on a rainy day.

P

10. Laughing at his jokes, we nearly fell off our chairs.

P

11. Putting in extra time, Ben finished his work.

I

12. The lawyer argued to set the record straight.

G

13. Combining the ingredients is the easy part.

P

14. Laura was irritated by the wet towels lying on the carpet.

P

15. Using a flashlight, Julia found her ring in the dark.

I

16. Fines were imposed to discourage littering.

I

17. She suggested several books to read before the test.
Unit 3, Phrases

97

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

P

18. The admiral wore a jacket decorated with many medals.

G

19. Getting ahead in business is my uncle’s primary goal.

I

20. To do a tough job well can be rewarding.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle the infinitives and infinitive phrases in each sentence below. Then change each infinitive to a gerund and write the gerund form on the line at the left.
Adding

To add sound effects to a production is called dubbing.
1. According to researchers, to reduce your fat intake can be healthy.

Installing

2. To install a smoke detector is usually a good idea.

Burning

3. To burn leaves is against the law in some places.

wearing

4. Jackie hates to wear long underwear.

raising

5. My mother’s main concern was to raise healthy children.

failing

6. My stepbrother reminded me that to fail was no disgrace.

Coughing

7. To cough during the performance would have been rude, so I walked outside.

losing

8. Since we were playing our arch rivals, to lose the game would have been humiliating. Biting

9. To bite the apple could have been fatal for Snow White.

being

10. Some people think that to be shy is a pleasant quality.

Sleeping

11. To sleep late is a treat for Don, who has a paper route.

performing
Knocking
riding
Forgetting

12. According to my choir director, to perform in the choir is an honor.
13. To knock down the toy clowns was the biggest challenge at the school festival.
14. My grandfather loves to ride his bicycle.
15. To forget the accident was a difficult task for Joanie.

playing

16. The children like to play outdoors.

Playing

17. To play our school song before a game is a band tradition.

watching
Computing
Mowing

18. Katie likes to watch her younger brothers.
19. To compute the figures will require a calculator.
20. To mow the whole lawn took four hours.

98 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

reducing

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 3 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Label each word or phrase in italics using the abbreviations below.
Pr. - prepositional I - infinitive P - participal G - gerund A - appositive

A
Pr.
1. Teddy, a professional, was not eligible for the prize.
P
2. Serving his country bravely, my brother returned home a hero.
A
I
3. My friend Kay had several assignments to complete.
G
Pr.
4. Running is not necessary, since we have plenty of time.
Pr.
I
5. Philadelphia, the City of Brotherly Love, is a popular place to visit.
I
6. To learn calculus is challenging for me.
G
7. Dialing is not necessary now that we have a touch-tone telephone.
Pr.
G
8. For relaxation, my dad turned to walking.
P
Pr.
9. Eating the leftover food, the pilot survived for weeks.
P
10. Writing several popular books, the author became a celebrity.
Pr.
I
11. For technical reasons the ground crew needed to delay the flight.
I
Pr.
12. To identify the alternatives, the president consulted with his advisers.
A
I
13. My friend Paul is preparing to study medicine.
P
Pr.
14. Using my computer, I typed my term paper for English class.
A
Pr.
Pr.
15. Kari, my best friend, has lived near me since first grade.
Pr.
Pr.
Pr.
16. At midnight can you meet me in the kitchen for a snack?
P
17. Claiming ignorance, the witness was dismissed.
A
18. Maya Angelou, the famous poet, wrote that particular poem.
G
Pr.
19. Blending two families together can be difficult for some people.
P
Pr.
20. Receiving my tickets, I packed for the trip.

Grammar

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

A
G
My cousin Martin says flying is the only way to travel.

Unit 3, Phrases

99

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–3
ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a vertical line between the subject and predicate of each sentence. Underline each noun. Circle each verb. Label each participle P, each gerund G, and each infinitive I.
I
To become a good pianist requires great concentration.
1. Autumn is her favorite time of the year.

G
3. Galloping her horse through fields is another favorite activity.
P
4. Enjoying the crisp air, Miki rides her horse in the park.
I
5. She hopes to gather her friends together this week.
G
6. They enjoy riding, too.
P
7. Stavros rides the horse trained in Kentucky.
P
I
8. His horse, named Whirlwind, was trained to race.
G
9. Whirlwind prefers ambling.
I
10. Stavros likes to amble, too.
11. Miki and her horse, Star, are more adventurous.
P
12. Roaming through the fields, they explore the changes fall brings.
I
13. Miki wants to watch the leaves turn different colors.
G
14. Photographing the trees preserves their beautiful appearance.
I
15. Miki is putting together an album of pictures to show her biology class.
P
16. She took pictures of budding leaves in the spring.
P
17. She then took pictures of young flourishing trees.
P
18. She will take pictures of grown trees during the winter.
P
19. Placing the photographs in sequence, she will display the life of a leaf.
20. She will describe beneath each photograph what is happening.

100 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

I
2. She loves to rake leaves.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 4: Clauses and Sentence Structure
Lesson 23

Main and Subordinate Clauses
There are two types of clauses: main and subordinate. A main clause contains a subject and a predicate. This type of clause is also called independent, because it can stand alone as a sentence.
The baby cried.

Grammar

A subordinate, or dependent, clause contains a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone. This type of clause must be used with a main clause in order to make sense. It usually begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as after, although, as, as if, because, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, or while; a relative pronoun such as who, whose, whom, which, that, or what; or a relative adverb, such as when, where, or why.
The baby cried when the dog barked loudly.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under the subordinate clause or clauses in each sentence.
While I hem the skirt, will you finish the blouse?
1. After the storm cleared, the flight took off.
2. You will learn to speak Spanish if you practice.
3. I know a girl who sings in the chorus.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Although English is my favorite subject, I also like algebra.
5. We can go to the mall unless you are too busy.
6. Madeline is from a part of France where few people speak English.
7. The judge, who was angered by the outburst, slammed her gavel down.
8. When we arrived at the hotel, we discovered that our reservation had been cancelled.
9. Though many of us stood in line, only a few people bought concert tickets.
10. Maggie, whose birthday is in July, has already decided what she wants.
11. The restaurant where we used to eat dinner went out of business.
12. I peeled the potatoes while mother shredded the carrots.
13. Because the subject was complicated, Brad studied very hard.
14. Whenever we visit the zoo, Emma and I look for the giraffes first.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

101

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. Dawn’s letter had a sad tone, as if something had gone wrong.
16. Until Diana learned to trust, she had very few friends.
17. The computer that Jill bought a year ago is already outdated.
18. Because the epidemic had grown worse, the area hospitals were overcrowded.
19. Whenever we go to the dentist, she encourages us to brush.
20. My uncle reads at the dinner table, a habit that I consider rude.

When you finish your drawing, you may frame it.
1. The kitten ran when the children came near it.
2. Chad has quit his job so he can devote more time to his studies.
3. If the door is open, you can go right into the house.
4. Players who wish to join the team may sign up today.
5. Dr. Thomas returned to the site where we first saw the unusual rocks.
6. Do you remember the time when we stayed up all night?
7. My cousin who lives in Saudi Arabia came to visit last summer.
8. After I had written the letter, I mailed it.
9. Africa had changed since the last time I was there.
10. When we reached the top of the mountain, we felt tired but proud.
11. Mitch lives in the building where the burglary happened.
12. Although we were worried about Jason, we did not want to show our nervousness.
13. When the list of winners was announced, Kelly ran to claim her prize.
14. We watched as the archaeologists dug up the dinosaur remains.
15. Because Antonio loves water sports, we bought him water skis for Christmas.
16. Before he sat down, Rick took off his jacket.
17. Sarah spun around as if she were an ice skater.
18. When she was given an example, Tessa could do just about any math problem.
19. When the clouds lifted, the sun shone brightly.
20. When the teacher is speaking, we are not supposed to interrupt.

102 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the main clause in each sentence. Then circle the subordinate clause.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 24

Simple and Compound Sentences
A simple sentence contains one main clause and no subordinate clauses. The simple sentence may not appear to be simple. It may have a compound subject or a compound predicate. It may also contain modifiers. As long as it has only one main clause, it is a simple sentence.
Li-Ching and Maria sang a duet.

Grammar

A compound sentence contains two or more main clauses that are usually joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
Maria sang one of her own songs, and Robert danced.
Maria sang, Robert danced, and Li-Ching played the piano.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write s if the sentence is simple or c if it is compound. s Marcus and Wolfgang, brothers from Germany, toured the United States and Canada last Spring.
1. The polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin.

s

2. My little brother Jake got a toy in his breakfast-cereal box.

c

3. We watched the baseball game, and we went for ice cream afterward.

c

4. A red car pulled up to the house, and a girl climbed out.

c

5. One of the remotes controlled the stereo, and another controlled the television.

s
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

s

6. The doctor determined the cause of Gina’s health problem.

c

7. Collin played well, but Andrea had the highest score.

s

8. The rescue helicopter landed on top of the hospital.

c

9. Jim didn’t take good notes, but Mary helped him study for the test.

c

10. The battery was dead, and the gas tank was almost empty.

s

11. The parade moved from the boulevard to the park.

c

12. Laura’s new coat was blue, and her hat was burgundy.

s

13. The library was empty and quiet.

s

14. My grandfather made his fortune in the computer industry.

s

15. Monique is interested in protecting animal rights.

s

16. The change jingled loudly in my pocket.

s

17. Claire worked hard and earned a lot of money.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

103

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

s

18. Zach and Amanda helped out at the car wash.

c

19. You can help with the dishes, or you can wash the car.

c

20. We helped the neighbors rake leaves, and they helped us wash windows.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write c next to each compound sentence. c We picked up our lunch, and we ran to the park.
1. The Statue of Liberty was created by the French sculptor, Frederic Auguste Bartholdi.
2. Bartholdi studied painting and architecture in Paris, and his first sculpture was shown in 1883.
3. The original name of the statue was “Liberty Enlightening the World.”

c

4. The statue was planned to honor the centennial celebration of 1876, but the statue was not completed until later.
5. The statue was given to the United States by France in 1886.
6. The statue is often called “Miss Liberty.”

c

7. Gustave Eiffel created the statue’s internal structure, and his engineering method is used today.
8. Eiffel later designed France’s Eiffel Tower.

c

9. The statue is hollow to allow visitors inside, but it weighs approximately 450,000 pounds. 10. Tremendous fundraising was required for Bartholdi to complete the colossal statue.

c

11. Americans were asked to provide the pedestal for the statue, and they did.
12. An American, Richard Morris Hunt, designed the pedestal.
13. The site chosen for the statue was Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor.
14. The statue and its pedestal together would reach 305 feet.

c

15. It is made of copper, but the statue now appears green due to weathering.
16. The statue was unveiled in 1886 and became the tallest human-made structure at that time. 17. In the 1980s the statue was restored for the 1986 centennial celebration.
18. A plaque inside the statue displays a poem by the poet Emma Lazarus.

c

19. The poem welcomes immigrants to the United States, and it continues to inspire immigrants today.
20. The Statue of Liberty has come to signify the wealth of opportunities available in the
United States.

104 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

c

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 25

Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
When she heard the applause, Beth felt proud.
A compound-complex sentence has more than one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
Although we had difficulty deciding, we finally chose a destination, and Dad bought the airline tickets.

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle the number in front of each complex sentence.
a. We went to the eastern United States for our vacation although we’d been there before.
1. Frederick Douglass, who fought to end slavery, was a leader in the abolitionist movement.
2. Born Frederick Bailey in 1817, he grew up as a slave on a Maryland plantation.
3. Unlike most slaves, Douglass learned to read and write.
4. He escaped to the North in 1838, where he changed his name to avoid being caught.
5. After he spoke at a meeting of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1841, Douglass became a spokesman for the society.
6. In his speeches, Douglass recalled life as a slave, and he called for an immediate end to slavery.
7. His autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, was published in 1841.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. His book was popular in the North and in Europe.
9. Douglass became known as a leader in the crusade against slavery.
10. Douglass’s notoriety jeopardized his freedom.
11. He spent two years in the British Isles, where he tried to win support.
12. In 1841 Douglass became the editor of the North Star, an antislavery newspaper.
13. He married Anna Murray in 1838, and the two had five children together.
14. When the Underground Railroad began, Douglass helped slaves escape to the North.
15. During the Civil War, Douglass wanted it known that the war was a move to abolish slavery.
16. He served as an advisor to President Lincoln, who saw Douglass as a representative for African
Americans.
17. In 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in places not held by Union troops.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

105

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Although slavery was abolished with the Thirteenth Amendment, Douglass pursued the right of blacks to vote.
19. He became a U.S. Marshal in 1877 and was later appointed consul general to Haiti.
20. Douglass continued to fight for reform until his death in 1895, when he collapsed following a woman suffrage meeting.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under each main clause and two lines under each subordinate clause. Then write c if the sentence is complex or cc if the sentence is compound-complex.
As we neared the hot-air balloon festival, the sky looked like a fairyland.

c

1. Until they were called home, the children played happily.

cc

2. When we went to the opera, we saw Luciano Pavarotti, but we didn’t get to see Placido
Domingo.

cc

3. Although I didn’t brew it long, the coffee tastes bitter, and I will not drink it.

c

4. As the morning bell rang, the students rushed quickly into class.

c

5. I have always volunteered at the hospital because I enjoy helping others.

cc

6. After the election is over, I will call you with results, and hopefully, our candidate will have won.

c

7. Dr. May was the only doctor who was available in the middle of the night.

c

8. Kelsey will finish her paper by noon, which is the deadline for the project.

c

9. My journalism teacher, whose opinion I respect, told me my article was good.

cc

10. Since no one had a question for the speaker, the lecture ended early, and we went out for hamburgers.

c

11. When my sister went to college, my parents got her a used car.

cc

12. After the doctor examined her, Darcy still felt ill, but she felt better in the morning.

c

13. The dog finally caught the ball as it drifted into the neighbor’s yard.

c

14. As long as you keep your eyes open, you will see the exit ramp.

c

15. Although he did not understand the reasons, Josh accepted the divorce.

c

16. Since he has learned English, Miguel has been more outgoing.

cc

17. Paul’s speech will emphasize the budget because we must reduce the deficit, and his book will say the same.

c

18. The park where we used to play is now the site of a shopping mall.

106 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

c

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 26

Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. Remember that a subordinate clause contains a subject and verb but cannot stand alone. An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun, such as who, whom, whose, that, and which, or a subordinating conjunction, such as where or when.
The book that I lent him is now overdue. (The adjective clause modifies the noun book) Grammar

Sometimes the relative pronoun or subordinating conjunction is left out.
The book I lent him is now overdue.
An adjective clause can be essential or nonessential to the meaning of a sentence. An essential adjective clause is an adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without changing its meaning. A nonessential adjective clause can be omitted from a sentence, and the meaning of the sentence will remain the same.
Essential:
Nonessential:

The player who batted last scored the winning run.
Jerome, who batted last, is the best player on the team.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the adjective clause, and circle the noun or pronoun it modifies.
The lamb that Dena showed at the fair placed second in its division.
1. The basketball player whom I admired most retired last year.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. The company that I worked for last summer went out of business.
3. The Battle of Gettysburg, which lasted three days, ended in victory for the Union soldiers.
4. The chair that we bought at the garage sale looks great in the living room.
5. The telegraph, which was the forerunner of the telephone, transmits signals over a wire.
6. The swimmers who won the meet were treated to dinner.
7. Do you remember the time when we marched in the parade?
8. The spaghetti that Duane made for dinner tasted great.
9. The pier where we docked the boat is the one on the left.
10. The author who wrote the book was signing autographs at the bookstore.
11. Rich was the chef whose secret recipes everyone wanted.
12. The contributor who made the large donation was never identified.
13. The suburb that we live in is undergoing many changes.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

107

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. My parents were married in the park where they met.
15. The coin, which was shiny and new, was given to me by my grandfather.
16. The surgery that was supposed to cure her only made her feel worse.
17. Music and dancing are hobbies that we both love.
18. The people who are unable to attend will be invited again.
19. Ian found a book that someone had left in the gym.

21. The stairs that led to the attic were creaky.
22. Jessica found a bird that had fallen out of its nest.
23. The skyscrapers that rose above the city were shrouded in fog.
24. Juan is the boy who plays all intramural sports.
25. The trail they followed was marked with handkerchiefs.
26. His speech, which made perfect sense to me, was misinterpreted by some.
27. Cyclists who wear helmets have a better chance of surviving accidents.
28. The clothes that hung on the line were just washed.
29. The student who played Tiny Tim is in my geometry class.
30. I remember the year when I got my first bike.
31. The experiment, which worked perfectly, proved that the substance was soluble.
32. Luke remembered the day when he nearly fell through the ice.
33. The forecast, which called for rain, was incorrect.
34. At dark we reached the area where we had planned to set up camp.
35. The place where I belong is with my family.
36. Those who chose the wrong trail walked in circles for hours.
37. People who hoped to see the comedian up close were disappointed.
38. The bus that picks us up in the morning is not the one that drops us off after school.
39. Plays he has directed have won many awards.
40. Anyone who wants to join the army must be disciplined.
41. The books that had been missing were found in the basement.
42. That elephant, which is indigenous to Africa, cannot survive in the cold.
43. Anyone who tried to change Kyle’s mind failed miserably.

108 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. Frank Lloyd Wright is recognized as the man who changed modern architecture.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

44. The picnic lunch that we packed this morning should feed the whole group.
45. Students who want to go on the field trip must bring a permission slip.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Write N next to the nonessential clauses and E next to the essential clauses.
E

Players who are always on time for practice set a good example for their teammates.
1. My rollerskates, which I paid fifty dollars for, are now too small for me.
2. The city that we visited on vacation was my father’s home town.

Grammar

3. The kicker who missed the field goal was disappointed for days.
4. The call, which was unexpected, came on a Saturday night.
5. The program that we were watching was interrupted.
6. The house that we lived in for nine years has been sold.
7. The boy whose bike had been stolen cried loudly.
8. Food that is not stored properly will spoil.
9. The camels roamed the desert, where water was scarce.
10. Stephanie studied every night, which helped her become a better student.
11. Materials that are not recyclable go in the other bin.
12. The piano, which had been tuned recently, sounded wonderful.
13. The data that we gathered was of no use to us.
14. The oil, which was leaking everywhere, caused quite a mess.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

15. My friend, who goes to a different school, came to visit me.
16. Helen grew up during the fifties, when times were much different.
17. One thing that my father and I shared was a love of fishing.
18. The quarry, which was not safe to swim in, was being filled with dirt.
19. Those flowers, which have a strong scent, make me sneeze.
20. Dogwood trees, which are very beautiful, can be white or pink.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Insert an adjective clause to modify the noun or pronoun in italics.
The lake, [ winds. which looked so glassy yesterday,

1. The video game [

had whitecaps today due to the high is difficult for beginners.

2. There is the table [

.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

109

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

1. The video game [

that Gustavo purchased

2. There is the table [

that holds the expensive vase

3. Eli found a puppy [

.

that needed a home

4. The campground [

.

where we stayed

was nearly full.

who completes the test

can be on the team.

6. My cousin [

who lives in Houston

comes to visit often.

7. The driver [

whose car was damaged

8. This is the firefighter [
9. In the desert, [

who saved Rita’s cat

, plant and animal life are scarce. that Mom made for me

.

who won the award

12. The car wash was held in the morning, [
13. The bowling league [

15. Joy read a magazine [
16. José spent the money [
17. The mountain trail [

when traffic was heavy

that Ms. Richards attended

. celebrated for two hours.
, breakfast was served.

that was left on the coffee table that he earned last week that the guide recommended

18. Vanessa goes to the gym on Main Street, [
19. Our first assignment, [

gave an acceptance speech.

that won the tournament

14. At the start of the meeting [

20. The sea air [

.

which is very dry

10. I forgot about the appointment [
11. The actor [

was not responsible for the accident.

on a gift for his sister’s birthday. was steep and rocky.

which provides daily aerobics classes

which Yolanda finished

that surrounded us

.

.

, was due on Tuesday. gave us a chill.

ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph describing your neighborhood that includes at least three or more adjective clauses.

110 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. Anyone [

is difficult for beginners.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 27

Adverb Clauses
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
It is used to tell when, where, why, how, to what extent, or under what conditions. An adverb clause is usually introduced by a subordinating conjunction.
I cry whenever I see a sad movie. (The adverb clause modifies the verb cry. It tells when.) Grammar

An adverb clause that seems to have missing words is called elliptical. The words that are left out are understood in the clause.
Steve runs faster than I [run].

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the adverb clause in each sentence.
When they arrived at the space camp, the aspiring astronauts grew nervous.
1. After I finished doing the dishes, I helped my dad mow the lawn.
2. The little girl was upset because her puppy was lost.
3. That old house looked spookier than any other house in the neighborhood.
4. Jeremy left for the football game before I could offer him a ride.
5. Jennifer will go on the retreat unless it rains.
6. Dino ran the 100-yard dash much faster than I did.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

7. Because the sweaters were on sale, Stuart bought three.
8. Eve was more interested in geography than her brother was.
9. Will you wait in the car until it’s time to leave for school?
10. Alex waxed the car until it looked brand new.
11. We met where his street intersects mine.
12. I heard a strange noise when I turned on the computer.
13. While it was snowing outside, Simon was daydreaming about sunny beaches.
14. The band began a food drive so that we could help the hungry.
15. Because she couldn’t find an opener, Sandy didn’t open the can.
16. Whenever I go to that restaurant, I run into a friend.
17. I dropped my wallet as I was crossing the street.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

111

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. You will see a gas station wherever you look in that city.
19. Although I had never seen my aunt before, I recognized her instantly.
20. Grandma and Grandpa have lived in the same house since they were married.
21. The charity event will be a success as long as it doesn’t rain.
22. Whenever we ice-skate, we put on our mittens.
23. He will go away unless you apologize.

25. If we understood the rules, we would be able to play the game.
26. We walked slowly away from the barking dog because it frightened us.
27. Because he is a fine athlete, Terry will compete for a scholarship.
28. Tim has been driving everywhere since he got his driver’s license.
29. Rosa grew taller than her older sister.
30. While we were on the plane to Hawaii, I had a wonderful dream.
31. We rode the bus because the car was being serviced.
32. After Sabine went back to France, we promised to write letters every week.
33. Sean is a better cook than I.
34. You will do well on the essay questions as long as you answer each question completely.
35. Grandpa bought the telescope because my brother loves to look at the stars.
36. I like to exercise as soon as I get up each morning.
37. Those chemicals are not dangerous unless they are combined.
38. After they left the theater, John and Kim went out to dinner.
39. Whenever I get a cold, I feel miserable.
40. We will stick to the schedule as long as there are no objections.
41. My muscles ached after I did the exercises.
42. Though he was in no immediate danger, we were still concerned.
43. The audience was restless until the performance began.
44. We had a substitute teacher because our regular teacher was ill.
45. Sherry has a heavier southern accent than I have.

112 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

24. Wherever we went, we put up flyers announcing the play.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the adverb clause in each sentence. Circle the verb, adverb, or adjective it modifies.
While they were in the shelter of the cliff, Mali and Aaron felt safe from the storm.
1. Whenever I move my rook, she takes my bishop.
2. Because he was under oath, the witness answered honestly.
3. We stayed until the end of the program.
4. Although I am busy, I will help you paint the room.
5. Ryan felt awful until he took the medicine.

Grammar

6. Bridget walked away as if she were angry.
7. While the first coat of paint dried, we rested.
8. Helena sings better than Lisa.
9. Raymond was feeling worse than I was feeling.
10. The telephone rings whenever I take a shower.
11. While I’m at the store, I can get you something.
12. The discussion made me angrier than it made him.
13. Because I need extra money, I baby-sit every weekend.
14. Though it took a long time, we waited patiently.
15. The ride is safe as long as you wear your safety belt.
16. When the time came to volunteer, Maryann raised her hand first.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

17. Kevin was frustrated because he couldn’t solve the problem.
18. Rebecca can climb higher than I can climb.
19. Because she believes in protecting the environment, Julie recycles.
20. Whenever she sang, audiences cheered.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Underline each adverb clause and adjective clause. Write adv. if the underlined clause is an adverb clause or adj. if it is an adjective clause. adj. The first person whose name is called will be the team leader.

adv.

1. I call on Malcolm whenever I need help with algebra.

adv.

2. The horse will respond as long as you give the signals correctly.

adj.

3. Ernesto had many fine qualities that made him very popular.

adv.

4. The twins agreed to stay home as long as we agreed to bring them something.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

113

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

adj.

5. Anyone who calls the office will hear the recording of Jane’s message.

adv.

6. Jamie sneaked up on me while I was eating my lunch.

adv.

7. Since there was no time to argue, we quickly decided to vote on it.

adj.

8. The book that I cherish the most is the one on this shelf.

adv.

9. Although I was not injured, the accident gave me quite a scare.
10. The runners who finished the race were out of breath.

adv.

11. I look for these dolls wherever I go.

adv.

12. I found a dollar as I was walking to Joel’s house.

adj.

13. The scarecrow that stood out in the rain was soaking wet.

adv.

14. We looked for fireflies at night whenever we had time.

adj.

15. Ruth gave her jacket to someone who needed it more.

adj.

16. The turkey, which was in the oven, smelled delicious.

adj.

17. The telephone that I got for my birthday was a pleasant surprise.

adv.

18. Derek panicked after he saw his new haircut.

adj.

19. Ben Franklin, whose picture appears on the one-hundred-dollar bill, was a famous statesman and scientist.

adv.

20. Doug was proud after he completed his term paper.

ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph about a family pet. Use at least three adverb clauses.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

adj.

114 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 28

Noun Clauses
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. A noun clause may be used as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, an appositive, or a predicate nominative.
A noun clause usually begins with one of these words: how, that, what, whatever, when, where, which, whichever, who, whom, whoever, whose, why. direct object
Cindy did not know where the beakers were kept.

Grammar

subject
What makes them different is their ability to change colors to blend with their environment. ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle each sentence that contains a noun clause.
Whenever we choose to leave for the game is fine with them.
1. The board proposed that all residents be required to recycle.
2. Whatever you choose will make a fine gift.
3. Mike defended his position on the issue.
4. The community college offers a course in fencing.
5. The scientist predicted how the chemicals might react.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. Ted should have been at the swim meet an hour ago.
7. The rest of the group arrived later.
8. You may take whichever puppy you want.
9. The raccoons eat whatever they can find.
10. The spilled soda did not stain the carpet.
11. Many people thought that the defendant was not guilty.
12. Onlookers were disappointed when the shuttle lift-off was delayed.
13. Marla was encouraged to enter her poems in a contest.
14. Many people believe that you can do anything if you try.
15. Melissa told her teacher that her test was marked incorrectly.
16. Whatever we give will be appreciated by the charity.
17. Ethan started his own business at the age of thirteen.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

115

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Your opinion of the show was what I thought, also.
19. The little boy mimicked whatever Kirk did.
20. I did not hear what Brenda said.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the noun clause or clauses in each sentence.
I do not care which route we take to the cabin.
1. Sam did not know where the art exhibit was.

3. I dreamed that I was the president of the United States.
4. What makes them so special is their ability to see the good in everyone.
5. The refugees were grateful for whatever they received.
6. Kay is who will be the baby-sitter.
7. Whoever was in charge of that experiment made it easy to understand.
8. That the boys had nothing in common became apparent.
9. Brent’s patience and understanding were what we appreciated most.
10. Chantal was not interested in what the others wanted to do.
11. Whoever can play the piano will be the first on the list.
12. Kyle always felt that he’d like to live in Australia.
13. Ron told us that there were no seats left in the auditorium.
14. Why Jay left the party early was a mystery to everyone.
15. How anyone could dislike homemade bread amazes me!
16. How well the task is done is an important issue.
17. The principal told me that the band show was a great success.
18. That Holly had run out of gas was true.
19. What we didn’t know was that the surprise was waiting for us outside.
20. That Florence was the best player was accepted by everyone.
21. Cheryl hears what she wants to hear.
22. I cannot understand how anyone can enjoy going to the dentist.
23. We gave directions to whoever asked us.
24. What Carl does not realize is that he has a great career ahead of him.

116 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

2. I do not know why Tonya chose to go with them instead of us.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

25. My friends argued about how we should build the science project.
26. Where the exhibit will be held has yet to be determined.
27. Whoever made that comment should be recognized.
28. That we need more police on patrol was the point of his speech.
29. You cannot know that the test will be easy.
30. What the athletes wanted was to do their best.
31. Your review of the novel was what I believed, too.
32. Our wish is that the puppy will find a good home.

Grammar

33. No one could predict how long the rally would go on.
34. That the candidate was qualified was not an easy thing to prove.
35. Pass your paper to whoever is on your left.
36. Patrick was happy about what happened at the tennis match.
37. Joni always answered with whatever she thought.
38. The art students were asked what the painting represents.
39. Why we have so little time is bewildering to me.
40. Because I’m starved, whatever you cook will be fine with me.
41. I will call whomever you wish.
42. Nina could not understand why the dress was so expensive.
43. Many people think that dogs make the best pets.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

44. What the judges decided was not acceptable to Marcus.
45. Did you know that the exploration of caves is called spelunking?
ᮣ Exercise 3 Underline the noun clause in each sentence. Then label it d.o. for direct object, subj. for subject, p.n. for predicate nominative, or o.p. for object of a preposition. subj. Where they found the missing necklace remains a secret. subj. 1. That the team did not want to practice was no great surprise.
d.o.
2. I do not know where she works after school.
p.n.
3. Your opinion of the class is what I think, too. subj. 4. Whoever sleeps will be the victim of our practical jokes.
o.p.
5. We will make up a skit with whatever props we are given.
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

117

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

p.n.
6. That is why I could not go to the movie.
d.o.
7. Will the teacher explain what DNA is?
o.p.
8. We paid special attention to how she wove the baskets.
d.o.
9. The directions did not indicate where one should go in case of fire.
p.n.
10. My problem is that the book was due last week.

d.o.
12. You may have heard that we got a new principal.
o.p.
13. Ben decided to dance with whoever asked him.
d.o.
14. I did not know how long the debate would go on. subj. 15. That the bitter cold will be here soon is unfortunate, but true.
d.o.
16. Ashley does whatever she wants to do.
d.o.
17. Hiroko asked why I did not go to camp. subj. 18. What appeared to be true was ruled out after further investigation.
o.p.
19. The mittens were left by whichever person sat there last. subj. 20. What makes me laugh is his crazy sense of humor.
ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph about a book you have read recently. Use at least three noun clauses in your paragraph.

118 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

subj.
11. Whoever has visited Chicago has seen many skyscrapers.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 29

Kinds of Sentences: Declarative and Imperative
A declarative sentence makes a statement and usually ends with a period.
Diet soda is my favorite drink.
An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. The subject “you” is understood. (You) Report any safety violations to the supervisor.

imp.

Always wear eye protection in the laboratory.
1. The backyard was flooded after the strong rains.

imp.

2. Come to my house after band practice.

imp.

3. Slowly pour the solution into the beaker.

dec.

4. The spaghetti was cold by the time we sat down to eat.

dec.

5. My glasses were bent after my little sister sat on them.

dec.

6. The drugstore was closed by the time I arrived there.

imp.

7. Go to the nearest ticket booth, and get two tickets for the concert.

dec.

8. My throat was sore after I had my tonsils taken out.

imp.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

dec.

9. Send a letter to your representative if you have a complaint.

imp.

10. Please wash my white shirt by Monday.

dec.

11. The sand was so hot we couldn’t walk on it.

dec.

12. We’ve lived in the same house since I was born.

dec.

13. An isosceles triangle has two equal sides.

imp.

14. Have faith in my abilities.

imp.

15. Drink your hot chocolate before it gets cold.

dec.

16. The tent is too small for the whole family to use.

imp.

17. When Tuesday comes, take out the trash.

dec.

18. Jack is taller than his father.

dec.

19. Antonio was the best gymnast at the competition.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

119

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Label each sentence dec. for declarative sentence or imp. for imperative sentence.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

20. Remind me to return my library books.

dec.

21. The family that moved in next door is very nice.

imp.

22. Stay away from that wild horse.

imp.

23. Call the fire department if you suspect fire.

imp.

24. Take Mel to see the penguins.

dec.

25. Science fiction has never interested me.

dec.

26. Eduardo always reads the comics first.

imp.

27. Gather your belongings and come with me.

dec.

28. Violin music makes me sleepy.

imp.

29. Lock the door on your way out.

dec.

30. My science textbook had been lost all year.

dec.

31. Linda loves to watch old westerns on television.

imp.

32. Please wear your seat belt in my car.

. dec. .

33. Stay in the hospital until you feel well.
34. We saw The Nutcracker at the theater downtown.
35. Hold on to my hand until I can skate by myself.

dec.

36. We played board games until midnight.

dec.

37. Donna grew up on a farm.
38. Watch your step on the ice.

dec.

39. After he got a tutor, Jesse’s work showed improvement.

dec.

40. Yolanda showed me the newest dance steps.

.

41. Don’t touch the freshly painted walls.

.

42. Smile so that I can take your picture.

imp.

43. Read all about it in the newspaper today.

dec.

44. The photos made me remember my childhood.

imp.

45. Inform the guidance counselor whenever you need extra help.

120 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

imp.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 30

Kinds of Sentences: Interrogative and Exclamatory
An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
Are your allergies bothering you?
An exclamatory sentence shows strong or sudden feeling. It ends with an exclamation point. We won the game!

Don’t drop that fragile vase!
1. How did you find out about the surprise party ?
2. Watch out for the falling rocks !
3. Is this the place where Lee surrendered ?
4. Were you frightened by the loud noises ?
5. When will the train be leaving ?
6. Where are the tryouts for the play held ?
7. Don’t spill your drink !
8. I can’t believe you said that !
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. The bell rang ten minutes ago !
10. What time does the movie start ?
11. Do you like sugar in your tea ?
12. Run as fast as you can !
13. Has Seema asked you for help with history ?
14. I caught you taking the last cookie !
15. Does the meeting start at seven ?
16. Would you pick up some eggs at the store ?
17. Do you know where Dylan is ?
18. Is that your radio ?
19. Don’t be so eager !
Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

121

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Insert a question mark if the sentence is interrogative, or an exclamation point if the sentence is exclamatory.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

20. Please help me find Mother’s favorite earring !
21. Can you find the Big Dipper in the night sky ?
22. You scared me to death !
23. Are you allowed to stay out late ?
24. Has Marcia been asked to the dance ?
25. Is there enough time to play soccer before we go shopping ?
26. Which station do you listen to the most ?

28. Erik just took the lead !
29. Why have you been so quiet ?
30. Is this oboe yours ?
31. That’s no excuse !
32. How did you hear the news ?
33. What was decided during the peace talks ?
34. Never give up !
35. I won first-chair violin !
36. Which tie looks better with this suit ?
37. Will we meet at the same time tomorrow ?
38. Was our team defeated last night ?
39. What will happen if I change my mind ?
40. I can’t believe he missed that shot
41. Where do we sign up for intramural basketball ?
42. How many cookies did Darryl eat ?
43. Do you know how to use the copier ?
44. Hurry, or we’ll be late !
45. Who painted the picture hanging in the lobby ?

122 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

27. Don’t stand so close to the campfire !

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 31

Sentence Fragments
A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may lack a subject, a verb, or both.
Alternatively, it may be a subordinate clause that cannot stand alone. Correct it by adding the missing phrase or words.
Although he bought the tie for his brother. (Fragment)
Although he bought the tie for his brother, he kept it for himself. (Sentence)

frag. s In the event of a disaster.
1. Georgia O’Keeffe became one of the best-loved American artists.

frag.

2. Because she had an innovative style.

frag.

3. Works from charcoals to watercolors to pastels.

s frag. s frag. 4. O’Keeffe, feeling that her creations were personal, kept to herself.
5. By distancing herself from historians, biographers, and critics.
6. She developed a very individual style.
7. Which became apparent in 1915.
8. O’Keeffe studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Arts Students League in
New York.

s
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

s

9. Her works soon came to the attention of Alfred Stieglitz, a photographer and art exhibitor. s

10. In 1917, O’Keeffe had her first art show at the New York gallery owned by Stieglitz.

frag.

11. Whom she later married.

frag.

12. Paintings of flowers, some of her most famous works.

frag.

13. Appeared in the mid-1920s.

s

14. She created many paintings that were based on the American Southwest.

frag.

15. Where she first visited in 1929.

frag.

16. Establishing her home in New Mexico in 1949.

s frag. 17. The Pelvis Series includes some of her best work.
18. A series of paintings of animal bones against stark backgrounds.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

123

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write frag. next to each sentence fragment. Write s next to each complete sentence.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

s frag. 19. O’Keeffe’s art helped to bridge the gap between American and European art of the early twentieth century.
20. Until her death in 1986.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Tell whether you would add a subject (s), verb (v), or a main clause (m) to form a complete sentence. v A blue bus carrying fifteen adults and four children.
1. As if he were in a daze.

v

2. Each year thousands of crops lost to flooding.

m

3. How to spell the words for the test.

s

4. Advised against eating fatty foods.

v

5. A heart doctor known as a cardiologist.

s

6. Charges no admission for students.

m

7. Since we forgot our skis.

v

8. The Smiths installing a security system in their home.

m

9. Which the school paper published.

v

10. Animals from the city zoo arriving this afternoon.

s

11. Warned us not to swim right after eating.

s

12. Are living in mobile homes until their houses are rebuilt.

v

13. A child singing in the chorus.

s

14. Gives the user plenty of information.

m

15. Because I cannot be at the meeting.

v

16. A chocolate cookie melting in the sun.

s

17. Every year plants trees near the school.

m

18. Although I bought the gift for Trisha.

s

19. Requires permission from a parent or guardian.

m

20. Hiking on lichen-covered rocky slopes.

s

21. Stir the hard-packed prairie soil.

v

22. A squirrel monkey pouncing on insects.

s

23. Include the prevention of water-runoff pollution.

m

24. One of the most livable cities in the country.

124 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

m

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 32

Run-on Sentences
A run-on sentence contains two or more complete sentences written as one.
Incorrect: There was a mistake on our bill, the server took care of it. (two main clauses separated by a comma instead of a period)
Correct:

There was a mistake on our bill. The server took care of it. (Break up with a period or semicolon.)

Correct:

Grammar

Incorrect: I ran into Margaret she is leaving for Florida tomorrow. (two main clauses with no punctuation between them)
I ran into Margaret; she is leaving for Florida tomorrow. (Break up with a period or semicolon.)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write run-on next to each run-on sentence. run-on run-on

Prizes encourage excellence one particular prize is the Pulitzer Prize.
1. The Pulitzer Prize is awarded each year, it awards excellence in journalism, letters, and music.
2. The awards were established by the powerful publisher Joseph Pulitzer.

run-on

3. Pulitzer owned the St. Louis Post-Dispatch he purchased the New York World in 1883.
4. Pulitzer helped to shape the modern newspaper.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. He added many features to his newspapers, including sports, comics, fashions, and illustrations.
6. Pulitzer’s papers also gained a reputation for sensational reporting. run-on 7. Pulitzer left money to Columbia University the awards were established in
1917.
8. In addition to establishing the awards, his money funded a school of journalism for Columbia.

run-on

9. Pulitzer planned four awards for journalism and four for letters more categories were added later.
10. The letters category includes drama, poetry, history, biography or autobiography, fiction, and general nonfiction.
11. The Pulitzer Prizes for journalism are given for work that appears in U.S. newspapers. 12. Each prize is $1,000, except the prize for public service, which is a gold medal.

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

125

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

run-on

13. Anyone may make a nomination, the nomination must include the work.
14. Following a preliminary judging, the candidates are judged by an advisory board. 15. The advisory board can nominate other candidates.
16. Works with American themes seem to be preferred.
17. The winning names are given to Columbia University trustees.
18. Pulitzer’s career was ended by his failing health he had paved the way for future journalists.
19. Joseph Pulitzer Jr., his grandson, serves on the advisory board.

run-on

20. The Pulitzer Prize is a highly regarded honor, it signifies great achievement.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write run-on next to each run-on sentence. run-on run-on

Joan went to the bank Chris waited at home.
1. Pearl Buck won a Pulitzer Prize in 1932 she was a novelist.
2. Pearl spent much of her childhood in China because her parents were missionaries. 3. After attending Randolph-Macon Woman’s College, she returned to China and became a teacher.

run-on

4. Pearl Buck wrote many stories about Chinese life, she did not achieve success until 1931 when The Good Earth was published.

run-on

5. This work was recognized with a Pulitzer Prize, she continued to write novels.
6. The House of Earth is a trilogy composed of The Good Earth, Sons, and A
House Divided.

run-on

7. In 1935, Pearl Buck moved back to the United States she started writing biographies at this time, as well.
8. The following year, she published biographies of her mother and father.

run-on

9. She worked on many projects, she wrote short stories, an autobiography, and more novels.
10. Pearl Buck also wrote novels under the pen name of John Sedges.

126 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

run-on

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 4 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Label the sentences below with imp. for imperative, int. for interrogative, d for declarative, or e for exclamatory. d Before leaving the house, he had a glass of orange juice.
1. Be considerate of the feelings of others.

int.

2. What class do you have first period?

int.

3. Does that old air pump still work?

d

4. We called the police when we heard the noise.

d

5. I learned that move in my karate class.

e

6. That’s the silliest thing I’ve ever heard!

d

7. The newspaper arrived late on Sunday.

e or imp.

8. Don’t slam the door!

imp.

9. Use your binoculars to see the birds more clearly.

int.

10. Which of the twins volunteers at the nursing home?

d

11. Darcy’s family went to New Orleans during Mardi Gras.

int.

12. What do you think are society’s toughest problems?

imp.

13. Bring me a rake from the garage.

int.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

imp.

14. Where is the pizza with anchovies?

e or imp. 15. Watch out for that car! d 16. Science is my favorite subject.

int.

17. Are you getting your hair cut today?

imp.

18. Give me the hammer beside you.

e

19. The magician’s tricks were incredible!

d

20. Seeing our relatives over the holidays will occupy most of our time.

imp.

21. Permit the unfortunate boy to have my seat.

int.

22. What will happen to my companions?

d

23. The crowd in Madison Square Garden responded enthusiastically.

e

24. I hope you are having fun!

Unit 4, Clauses and Sentence Structure

127

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–4
ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under each simple subject and two lines under each simple predicate. In the blank, identify the kind of sentence by writing dec. (declarative), imp.
(imperative), int. (interrogative), or exc. (exclamatory). exc. How cold this winter has been!
1. The store sent the customer the wrong package.

imp.

2. Show me your hall pass.

dec.

or were
3. The captain and the crew of the starship Enterprise were very experienced. experienced

int.

4. How much did you pay for that dress?

exc.

5. There is smoke coming from under that door!

dec.

6. Susan went to the library to gather information for her report.

imp.

7. Please don’t cut in front of the line.

int.

8. Does anyone know the location of his office?

dec.

9. Our senator campaigned to become president.

dec.

10. Their new house withstood the hurricane better than the last one.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the subordinate clause in each sentence. Write adj. (adjective), adv.
(adverb), or n (noun) in the blank to tell what kind of clause it is. adj. Students who sing in the choir are dismissed early.

adv.

1. We arrived at the theater after the movie had begun.

adv.

2. My problem is how I can finish this lengthy book in one week.

adj.

3. The stylish woman who spoke at the banquet is the founder of the local department store. adv. n 4. There will be a quiz after we watch the film on the battles of the Civil War.
5. Sarah was worried about whether she had made the basketball team.

adj.

6. The realtor who sold us this house designed it himself.

adv.

7. We were fortunate to arrive home before the snowstorm hit.

adv.

8. Shall I wait for you at your locker while you go to the office?

n adj. 9. No one could understand what the directions were explaining.
10. The classical music that Mrs. Griffin likes the best is by Beethoven.

128 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

dec.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 5: Diagraming Sentences
Lesson 33

Diagraming Simple Sentences

The new student worked very hard. student Grammar

Write the simple subject and the verb on a horizontal line and then draw a vertical line between them. Draw a shorter vertical line between the verb and the direct object. If there is a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective instead of a direct object, slant the shorter line toward the subject. Place an indirect object on a horizontal line under the verb, and draw a slanted line from the horizontal line to the verb. The following examples show how to diagram simple sentences.
Rosa and Maria gave their brother a haircut.
Rosa

worked

haircut a ve

and

rd

e

w

ha

ne

Th

Maria

gave

ry

brother th ei r She sent me a letter.
She

sent

Our results were predictable.

letter

results

were

predictable

O ur a

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

me

ᮣExercise 1 Diagram the following simple sentences.
1. Bruno finished his homework.

3. The tennis coach plays the mandolin.

2. This recipe requires sugar and oil.

4. Did Inez call anyone?

Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

129

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. Isaac and Yuri sing and play the piano.

6. I used my laptop computer yesterday.

13. Mrs. Lopez washed and waxed her truck.

7. The team played very well today.

14. The students completed a community project. 8. Is Ruth’s aunt a lawyer or a dentist?
15. My pets include a fish, a cat, and a gerbil.

9. The cheetah is an endangered species.

16. May I be excused?

10. Write the answer clearly.

17. Give me the licorice!

11. Can you tune your guitar?

18. David grades the history quizzes.

130 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. My best friend and her cousin made me cookies. Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 34

Diagraming Simple Sentences with Phrases
The following examples demonstrate how to diagram sentences with phrases.
GERUND PHRASE

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

Diagraming sentences is the subject of this lesson.

The mother of twins drove her children to school in her new car. mother drove

Diagrami n children

g

sentences

r he in

to

of

e
Th

school

car

w ne r he is

subject e of

th

lesson is th

PARTICIPIAL PHRASE

APPOSITIVE PHRASE

The doctor found the patient studying his chart. doctor found

The dessert, chocolate cake, was a real treat.

patient

was

treat al re

oc

a

ch

chart

e

s

hi

e

at

ol

ng

yi

Th

e

e

ud

th

Th

st

dessert (cake)

INFINITIVE PHRASE AS
ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB

INFINITIVE PHRASE AS NOUN

is

My plan is to get a job.

book

to

Tom Sawyer

get

job a to

d

o go a

read

plan

is

y
M

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Tom Sawyer is a good book to read.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Diagram the following simple sentences with phrases.
1. We stayed at the mall until evening.

2. Somebody sent this book to my mother by mistake. Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

131

Grammar

twins

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

7. The man in the blue sweater is Mr.
Boudoulas, my English teacher.

4. Will you drive through the tunnel in the mountain? 8. Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is located on the Nile River.

5. Those girls are the Sharvy twins, Marla and Maureen.

9. The pitcher, taking her time, struck out our best hitter.

6. Blueberries, my favorite fruit, are delicious on cereal.

132 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

10. All students making the honor roll will receive special awards.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

3. The captain of the team spoke to us during practice. Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 35

Diagraming Sentences with Clauses
The following examples demonstrate how to diagram sentences with clauses.
COMPOUND SENTENCES
He removed the lid, and the small dog barked playfully.
He

removed

lid e th

and

Grammar

dog

barked ay pl

sm l fu

al

e th lly

COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
The country that interests me is Kenya. country is

Kenya

e

Th

that

interests

me

COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB CLAUSES
Because the foreign exchange student had never been skiing, he went in my place. went place y m

in e aus
Bec

student

had been skiing r ve

a ch ne

ex

e

e

ng

n

ig re fo

th

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

he

COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
Elston believed that Echo was his friend. that Echo

was

friend hi s

Elston

believed

Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

133

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 1 Diagram the following sentences with clauses.
5. The grass needs mowing, and the rose bush needs pruning.

2. The class officers needed whatever help was available.

6. The victims wondered how this could happen to them.

3. The press secretary spoke initially, and then the president held a news conference. 7. The author wrote short stories when she began her career.

4. The nurse prepped the patient, and the doctor performed the surgery.

8. After the bell rings, the principal makes announcements. 134 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

1. After the hurricane ceased, workers began a massive clean-up operation.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Claudine knows that Rupert will help. 13. Alligators seem slow; although they can move quickly.

Grammar

14. Can you see how the treasure was lost? 11. As far as I am concerned, you may go on the camping trip.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. The ski club decided where the contest would be held.

15. What you choose for a career will affect your entire life.

12. The custodian knew where the missing keys were.

16. Jay is spending a week in New York so he will have time to attend a concert.

Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

135

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

21. The tomb that held the mummy was ornately decorated.

18. My dad, whom you know, bought a new set of golf clubs.

22. The team that won the tournament was the Tigers.

19. One of the players on whom we rely was injured at the last game.

23. Prizes will be awarded to whoever arrives first. 20. The treasurer warned that funds are low.

24. We wrote a poem about how we felt.

136 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

17. You will complete the art project whenever you have the time.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 5 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Diagram the following sentences.
5. The soccer field was rocky and hard.

2. The class officers said that we could march in the parade.

6. The general, a veteran of two wars, accepted the medal and addressed the crowd.

3. Jessie attended the workshop to learn to paint with watercolors.

7. Gasping for air, Ella reached the top of the mountain. 4. Maureen’s goal is to play drums in Lon’s band. 8. Jim is friendly, but he must try to meet more people.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

1. The novelist wrote movie scripts until she left Hollywood.

Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

137

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–5
ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under all nouns and two lines under all verbs. Write adj. above any adjective, adv. above any adverbs, and d.o. above any direct object. You may ingnore any articles. adj. d.o.
Running provides good exercise. adv. 1. The prosecutor spoke convincingly to the jury.

adj. adj. adj.
d.o.
adj.
3. The department store sold its holiday decorations at half price. adj. adv. adj. 4. The hungry herd of bison grazed lazily on the open range. adj. adj. d.o. adj. 5. Mr. Jackson gave his class bad news concerning the field trip. adj. adj.
6. Which river is longer, the Nile or the Amazon? adj. adj.
d.o.
adv. adj. 7. Ms. Wong answered my sincere question in a somewhat mocking tone. adj. adj.
8. A large truckload of dairy products has spilled onto the road. adj. adj. d.o. adv. adj.
9. I will give you my secret recipe for very moist brownies. adj. adj. adj. d.o.
10. Many Chinese dynasties caused great changes. adv. adv.
11. The car in front of us stopped quite suddenly. adj. d.o. adv. 12. Jake called the radio station twice.
d.o.
adj. adj. 13. The Incas ruled one of the largest and richest empires in the world. adj. 14. The secret will be safe with me. adj. d.o.
15. Sharon bought a tiny trinket at the bazaar. adv. adj.
d.o.
16. We proudly displayed the American flag. adv. adj.
d.o.
adj.
17. The ambulance has already radioed the emergency room with vital information. adv. adv. adv. 18. The interview went more smoothly today. adv. adv.
19. You swim very well for a novice. adj. d.o.
20. Amanda teaches her parrots slang words.

138 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

adj. adj. adv. 2. Several rose bushes are still blooming in the garden.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under each main clause. Draw two lines under each subordinate clause. Identify each sentence by writing simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex in the blank. compound simple

Ruben visited New Jersey, and he stayed near Atlantic City.
1. During their sailing adventure last week, the crew survived a sudden storm. simple

2. The Olympic team felt empowered by the cheers of their fellow countrymen. compound

his shop. compound-complex 4. When he fell behind on the trail, Stephen wondered if he would lose sight of his group, but soon he caught up with them again.

complex

5. Solada, while mixing up the cookies, began to wonder what she had done wrong because the dough looked strange.

simple

6. At the hospital, the staff disposed of certain materials in a special manner to meet federal requirements.

simple compound complex

7. The director of the play gave the actors advice.
8. Kyle is very musical, and he wants to do well at the competition.
9. While he was climbing the ladder, the firefighter slipped and nearly dropped the small animal he was carrying.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

compound

10. Families need to take vacations together, but usually their conflicting schedules make this difficult.

compound-complex

11. After he finished writing one book, Kevin began another, and his career was on its way.

compound-complex

12. Although the highway was now officially open, the Moehlers felt it was still not safe to travel, so they cancelled their trip.

complex

13. The concerned and caring youth group gave food items to anyone who needed them.

complex

14. Although I have many good memories, skating on the pond behind our home is my favorite one.

Unit 5, Diagraming Sentences

139

Grammar

3. The artist created miniature figurines, and his friend sold them in

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Diagram the following sentences.
6. You need a telescope to see the rings of
Saturn.

2. June enjoys Chicago-style pizza.

7. To train a dog well requires much patience. 3. Have you read the article explaining the monarch butterfly’s migration to Mexico?

8. A police officer’s job is to protect the public. 4. Renée enjoys playing the piano.

9. Sheila and Dave paid attention to what the acrobat did next.

5. Recycling will help the environment.

140 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

10. They argued about who would watch the game. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

1. The daring cowboy rode the spirited mustang. Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 6: Verb Tenses and Voice
Lesson 36

Regular Verbs: Principal Parts
Verbs have four main parts: a base form, a present participle, a simple past, and a past participle. A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -ed or -d to the base form. All verbs form the present participle by adding -ing to the base form. Both the present participle and past participle require a helping verb.
The sisters talk to each other every day.
The sisters are talking about their summer vacations.
The sisters talked earlier this morning.
The sisters have talked often about their children.

Grammar

Base Form:
Present Participle:
Past Form:
Past Participle:

ᮣ Exercise 1 Complete each sentence by writing the form of the verb indicated in parentheses.
Grandma has [
1. Clancy is [

discussed searching 2. Yesterday he [

her childhood. (past participle/discuss) for his hockey stick. (present participle/search)

hunted

high and low but with no luck. (past/hunt)

3. Clancy and his twin sister, June, have often [ belongings. (past participle/wonder)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

placed
4. Last week Clancy [ he went to his room to study. (past/place)
5. When he came back, Clancy [
(past/discover)

wondered

what happened to their

his softball and glove on the kitchen table before

discovered

his ball and glove under the stove.

followed
6. Recently, June [ a muddy trail outside, where she found the dirty boots she had left in the hallway. (past/follow) wondering 7. Clancy and June are [ culprit. (present participle/wonder)

if they should hire a private detective to find the

decided
8. Clancy and June have [ to leave one of their belongings in a certain place and then watch to see what happens. (past participle/decide)
9. They [

leave

10. However, their dogs [
11. Fido and Spike, who [ the door. (base form/love)

a baseball glove in the kitchen. (base form/leave) want love

to go for a walk. (base form/want) to see them, jump up eagerly when they open

12. On their walk, Clancy and June see that the dogs have [ fence. (past participle/burrow)

burrowed

a spot under the

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

141

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. Curious, they hurry over to the hole the dogs have [ participle/excavate) 14. Looking into the hole, they [

howl

excavated

. (past

with laughter. (base form/howl)

resting
15. There in the hole are [ three of their missing items—a scarf, a pair of gloves, and a knee pad. (present participle/rest)
16. “We have [

solved

the mystery,” Clancy laughs. (past participle/solve)

reason
18. “You [
Clancy. (base form/reason)

abandoning

you,” adds

that if we don’t have our belongings, we can’t leave you,” says

19. “Well,” says June, “I think I [

know

20. “From now on you can go with us and [ agree. (base form/watch)

what to do.” (base form/know) watch from the sidelines,” the twins

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write the three principal parts of each verb—present participle, past, and past participle. cough coughing, coughed, coughed
1. admit

admitting, admitted, admitted

2. study

studying, studied, studied

3. hike hiking, hiked, hiked
4. return returning, returned, returned
5. complete completing, completed, completed
6. refuse
7. plot
8. pitch

refusing, refused, refused plotting, plotted, plotted pitching, pitched, pitched

9. dance dancing, danced, danced
10. elect

electing, elected, elected

11. recycle recycling, recycled, recycled
12. conserve conserving, conserved, conserved
13. disappear disappearing, disappeared, disappeared
14. tape

taping, taped, taped

15. practice practicing, practiced, practiced

142 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

17. “When you see us with a ball or a glove, you know we are [
June. (present participle/abandon)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 37

Irregular Verbs: Principal Parts
Irregular verbs form their past and past participle in ways different from the -ed and -d additions used for regular verbs. See the examples below for the verb to be.
Present Participle:
Past Form:
Past Participle:

I am being very patient with you.
I was sixteen yesterday. You were at my party.
I have been happy today.

The principal parts of some common irregular verbs are shown below.
Present Participle
(am, is, or are) breaking coming doing driving giving going having knowing saying seeing singing speaking telling thinking writing

Past Form broke came did drove gave went had knew said saw sang spoke told thought wrote Past Participle
(has, have, or had) broken come done driven given gone had known said seen sung spoken told thought written

Grammar

Base Form break come do drive give go have know say see sing speak tell think write Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Notice that these verbs, though irregular, still form their present participle form by adding -ing.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the word in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. In the space provided, identify the form of the verb used as base form, present participle, past form, or past participle. base form past form past participle

My fish (swim, swimming) all day long.
1. Howard (spoke, speaking) for one hour.
2. How many miles have you (drive, driven) today?

past form

3. The chorus (sung, sang) the school song.

base form

4. I (know, known) how much Carla likes horses.

past form

5. I (think, thought) of the answer after the test.

present participle 6. We are (giving, given) some money to the hunger center.

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

143

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

past participle

7. Marsha has not (wrote, written) to me lately.

past participle

8. The team has (gone, went) to the scrimmage early.

past participle

9. I hope the birthday gift has (came, come) in time.

past participle

10. She has (did, done) that assignment already.

base form

11. My pets often (break, broke) things while I am away.

base form

12. They (say, saying) we can borrow their video.

present participle 13. Are you (tell, telling) me you have the flu?
14. We (seen, saw) the lovely sunset yesterday.

present participle 15. The neighbors are (having, have) a party tonight. present participle 16. What are you (doing, done) for Thanksgiving? past participle

17. The explorer has (spoke, spoken) to the group before.

past participle

18. She has (gave, given) the problem much thought.

past form past participle

19. Cara just (wrote, write) in her journal.
20. I have (knew, known) Mr. Janus for years.

present participle 21. That music is (driven, driving) me crazy! base form past participle base form

22. The club members (see, seen) a movie once a week.
23. We have (thought, think) of a name for the baby.
24. Deliveries (come, coming) early in our neighborhood.

present participle 25. I’m (tell, telling) you I don’t know! past form

26. The climber (gone, went) to the top of the cliff.

past participle

27. I have (break, broken) two glasses today.

past participle

28. They have (say, said) they are sorry.

past form

29. I (gave, given) you a snack already!

past participle

30. She has (driving, driven) that route many times.

present participle 31. Who is (sang, singing) in the shower? past form

32. I (told, tell) you I would think about it.

past participle

33. We have (had, have) enough of this noise!

past participle

34. Stan has (did, done) his good deed for today.

past form

35. I (known, knew) I had seen you before.

present participle 36. With his new glasses, he is (seen, seeing) more clearly.

144 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

past form

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 38

Tense of Verbs: Present, Past, and Future
Verb tenses show time. They tell when events happen, happened, or will happen.
The present tense and the base form of a verb are the same, except for the third person singular (he, she, or it), which adds -s or -es. The verb be is also an exception to this rule.
The present tense may express an action that is repeated or ongoing. It can also express an action that is happening right now or a situation that is always true.

Grammar

Malachi plays the trumpet well. (repeated action, always true)
I feel a cold draft. (right now)
The past tense expresses an action that has already occurred. In regular verbs, the past tense is formed by adding -ed or -d to the base form. In irregular verbs, the past tense takes a variety of forms. The verb be uses two past tense forms—was and were.
We trounced our archrivals last night. (regular)
Jackie leapt for the branch and missed. (irregular)
The future tense expresses an action that will take place in the future. The future tense is formed by adding will to the base form.
I will reserve tickets on the morning flight.
The students will debate the issues tomorrow.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Complete each sentence by writing the form of the verb in parentheses.
The football team [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Cosmo [

scored

will leave

2. The travel agent [

for Europe Tuesday. (future tense/leave) planned 3. Michelle [

wants

4. Cosmo [
5. All our friends [

a fantastic trip for him. (past tense/plan) to hear all the details. (present tense/want)

promises

6. We [

a touchdown. (past tense/score)

to tell us at lunchtime. (present tense/promise) will eat

will meet

under the elm tree. (future tense/eat)

at noon. (future tense/meet)

7. Because he had so many things to do, Cosmo [

arrived

8. Michelle and our friends [

were

9. However, I [

late. (past tense/arrive)

around the tree. (past tense/pace)

10. Cosmo [
11. “We [
12. “I [

paced greeted will try

will tell

patient. (past tense/be)

us jovially and sat down to eat his lunch. (past tense/greet) to finish eating before you begin,” I said. (future tense/try) you about my trip in a minute,” Cosmo replied. (future tense/tell)
Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

145

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. George [
14. He [
15. Cosmo [

wanders asks that he is ready to describe his trip. (present tense/announce)

came

17. Cosmo’s first stop [

back just in time to hear about the journey. (past tense/come) will be

plans

19. He also [

Rome. (future tense/be)

to visit relatives who live nearby. (present tense/plan)

hopes

to find the perfect plate of pasta. (present tense/hope)

20. “What about the famous places?” Michelle [ explained 21. Smiling, Cosmo [ sights. (past tense/explain)

demanded

. (past tense/demand)

that he planned to see many of the well-known

is
22. The Vittoriano [ united Italy. (present tense/be)

a monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of

constructed
23. Romans [ the city. (past tense/construct)

the Piazza del Popolo to serve as a ceremonial entrance to

informs
24. Michelle, who is interested in architecture, [ were built from a French design. (present tense/inform)
25. I [
26. He [

began

us that the Spanish Steps

to wonder what other cities Cosmo would visit. (past tense/begin)

said

27. This Italian city [

he would also be going to Venice. (past tense/say) became 28. In Venice, people often [
(present tense/travel)

famous for its many canals. (past tense/become) travel in a gondola, a special kind of boat.

29. Cosmo is certain he [

will ride

30. He [

in Venice for the Biennale, an art festival. (future tense/stay)

will stay

31. Then he [
32. I [

will journey learned in one. (future tense/ride)

to Paris. (future tense/journey) about the capital of France in history class. (past tense/learn)

33. The Seine River [

flows

through the city. (present tense/flow)

34. Built for the International Exposition of 1889, the Eiffel Tower [ unattractive to some people. (past tense/look) continues 35. However, it [
(present tense/continue)
36. Cosmo [

was

37. I [

smiled

38. I [

will wait

looked

to be the most recognizable symbol of Paris. quick to encourage me to take a similar trip. (past tense/be)

ruefully and shook my head. (past tense/smile) until I have saved more money. (future tense/wait)

146 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

if anyone is interested in a game. (present tense/ask)

announces

16. George [

18. He [

toward the basketball court. (present tense/wander)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 39

Perfect Tenses: Present, Past, and Future
The present perfect tense is used to express an action that took place at some indefinite time in the past. The present perfect tense is formed with the past tense of the verb and the helping verb has or have. The present perfect tense can also be used to express an action that began in the past and continues now.
She has read that book.
I have tried several times to reach my grandmother.

Grammar

The past perfect tense is used to show that one action in the past began and ended before another action in the past started. The past perfect tense is formed with the past participle of the verb and the helping verb had.
They had seen the movie before I rented it. (past perfect tense, past tense)
The future perfect tense is used to show that one action or condition in the future will begin and end before another event in the future starts. The future perfect tense is formed with the past participle of the verb and the construction will have.
By the time the school year ends, I will have completed ten book reports.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw two lines under each simple predicate in the main clause. Write the verb tense: present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect. past perfect future perfect

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

past perfect present perfect past perfect future perfect present perfect past perfect future perfect present perfect future perfect

He had watched football all day long.
1. By Saturday, we will have finished our recycling project.
2. My dog had stolen the cat’s food.
3. The gymnast has never lost her confidence.
4. The farm workers had generally gone before dawn.
5. By Tuesday Tisha will have landed her plane for the first time.
6. Raul has exhausted himself with his project.
7. I had turned at the wrong corner.
8. Before next week, Ms. Rashad will have corrected over one hundred themes.
9. Mother has already found her lost ring.
10. By mid-afternoon the tide will have gone out.

present perfect 11. She has always wanted a book on whales. past perfect

12. The explorers had hoped to reach the peak by nightfall.

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

147

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

present perfect 13. My grandmother has taught me both knitting and quilting. future perfect past perfect

14. They will have finished dinner before the performance.
15. The flower pot had narrowly missed the bystanders.

present perfect 16. We have warned you about this before. present perfect 17. The VCR has failed to record three times this week. future perfect

18. The band will have played its program before the second half starts.
19. I had snubbed her before she apologized.

past perfect

20. Before the speech ended, I had decided whom to vote for.

future perfect

21. By the time the sun rises, the icicles will have melted.

future perfect

22. Sue will have completed her morning exercises before her brothers get up.

present perfect 23. The dog has chewed her bone down to the nub. present perfect 24. Trapeze artists have always fascinated me. past perfect

25. The spy had switched off the light before the agents even reached the doorway.

present perfect 26. Kaoru has visited her brother in the hospital every day. future perfect

27. By nightfall, I will have gotten very sick of the train.

present perfect 28. We have rehearsed this scene until it is perfect. past perfect

29. The dogs had gone for hours without a walk when I came home.

past perfect

30. The movie had played for a half hour by the time we got there.

present perfect 31. Our team has won ten of its last eleven games. future perfect

32. If we wait awhile, most of the crowd will have left.

future perfect

33. Rocco will have gotten his degree by the end of the term.

present perfect 34. Doug has struggled for months to learn Spanish. present perfect 35. That volcano has already erupted twice this year. past perfect

36. Kyra had rearranged the furniture since the last time I visited.

present perfect 37. I have repeatedly told you not to stand on that rickety ladder! present perfect 38. You have never missed a rock concert! future perfect past perfect

39. We will have fallen asleep before our parents arrive.
40. The freighter had sunk before the rescue ship could reach it.

148 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

past perfect

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 40

Tenses of Verbs
The present tense expresses an action that is repeated, always true, or happening right now.
I watch for the early bus at Third Street. He watches for the early bus at Third Street.
I am happy. You are happy. He, she, or it is happy. They are happy.
The past tense expresses an action that has already occurred.

Grammar

I watched for the bus and caught it at First Avenue. (regular and irregular verbs)
I was late, but the rest of the students were on time. (the verb be)
The future tense expresses an action that will take place in the future.
Shannon will connect the wires.
The present perfect tense expresses an action that took place sometime in the past.
I have searched everywhere for my telescope.
The past perfect tense shows that one action in the past began and ended before another action started.
I had already completed the puzzle when you came.
The future perfect tense shows that an action in the future will begin and end before another action starts.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

I will have swum forty laps by the end of the hour.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the simple predicate in each sentence. Then write the tense of the verb in the space provided. past tense present perfect present past past perfect past Many citizens signed the petition.
1. Historians have called the time from 1870 to 1890 the Gilded Age.
2. This name comes from a novel by Charles Dudley Warner and Mark Twain.
3. The novel described life in the United States at that time.
4. Before writing the book, the authors had decided on a theme.
5. They wanted to expose the corruption beneath the pretty, polished surface of their world.

present perfect future perfect past 6. However, the Gilded Age has produced positive results as well.
7. We will have seen these accomplishments by the end of the year.
8. Victoria Woodhull was the first woman to attempt to run for president.
Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

149

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

past perfect past perfect past 9. She had asked to be on the ballot in the election of 1872.
10. However, she had not reached the age of thirty-five by the time of the election.
11. In 1884, the newly formed National Equal Rights party nominated Belva
Lockwood, a New York lawyer, for President.

future past future perfect

12. Some prominent women will be against her candidacy.
13. Belva Lockwood received over four thousand votes.
14. None of these votes will have come from women.
15. Women had not received the right to vote yet.

past perfect

16. Women had achieved many distinctions and honors.

present

17. Many, such as Mary Bonney and Amelia Quinton, work to improve the lives of
Native Americans.

present perfect 18. Colleges have opened their doors to women. present future perfect

19. Writing is one way for women to earn money in the Gilded Age.
20. I will have finished reading Little Women by Friday.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing the form of the verb listed in parentheses. submerges The submarine [
1. John Philip Sousa [

in the ocean. (present tense/submerge)

was

a famous musician of the Gilded Age. (past tense/be)

2. He [

had studied

music since the age of six. (past perfect tense/study)

3. He [

develops

an interest in band music. (present tense/develop)

will have learned
4. Believe it or not, he [ how to play every instrument used in military bands by the time he becomes leader of the United States Marine Corps band. (future perfect tense/learn)
5. After twelve years, he [ own. (present tense/leave)
6. He [

became

leaves

the Marine Corps band to create a band of his

a composer as well as a band leader. (past tense/become)

has composed
7. Sousa [ many famous marches, including “Washington Post March” and “Stars and Stripes Forever.” (present perfect tense/compose)
8. His marches [ tense/excite) have excited

crowds for more than a century. (present perfect

9. When his music was still new, Sousa’s band [
(past tense/travel)
10. Admirers of his work [

will name

150 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

traveled

around the world.

him the March King. (future tense/name)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

past perfect

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 41

Verbs: Progressive and Emphatic Forms
The progressive form of a verb tense expresses an action that is continuing at the time referred to in the sentence. The progressive form uses the present participle of the verb with the suitable tense of the verb be.
They are laughing.
They were laughing.
They will be laughing.
They have been laughing.
They had been laughing.
They will have been laughing.

Grammar

Present Progressive
Past Progressive
Future Progressive
Present Perfect Progressive
Past Perfect Progressive
Future Perfect Progressive

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write the required form of each verb listed. Use the subject that heads each group as the subject of the verb.
I; past progressive/eat I was eating.
I
1. future progressive/sail

I will be sailing.

2. past perfect progressive/ask

I had been asking.

3. present progressive/arrive I am arriving.
4. past progressive/wait I was waiting.
5. present perfect progressive/move

I have been moving.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

YOU
6. future perfect progressive/swim You will have been swimming.
7. present progressive/testify You are testifying.
8. past perfect progressive/hope

You had been hoping.

9. past progressive/play You were playing.
10. future progressive/go

You will be going.
THEY

11. present perfect progressive/wonder They have been wondering.
12. past progressive/follow They were following.
13. past perfect progressive/challenge

They had been challenging.

14. future perfect progressive/write They will have been writing.

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

151

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. present progressive/buy They are buying.
SHE
16. future progressive/rest

She will be resting.

17. past perfect progressive/catch
18. present progressive/hide

She had been catching.

She is hiding.

19. future perfect progressive/knit She will have been knitting.
She has been collecting.

The emphatic form adds emphasis to the verb. The emphatic form uses the base form of the verb with the addition of do, does, or did.
Present Emphatic
Past Emphatic

I do mow the lawn every week.
Carla does mow hers twice each week.
Ralph did mow it while we were gone.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing the emphatic verb form described in parentheses. did visit
Regardless of the weather, I [ the amusement park.
(past emphatic/visit)
1. Despite what you say, I [

did wash

2. Although she hates them, Rachel [
(present emphatic/complete)

does complete

3. Even though you think you’re alone, I [
(present emphatic/understand)
4. Before I forget, Aunt Cora [

did call

5. Apparently the machine [

does work

6. Laugh if you want to, but I [
(present emphatic/know)

do know

7. When you pass the park, [
(present emphatic/look)

do look

8. The electrician says he [
(past emphatic/fix)
9. They hope the game [
10. I [

did empty

the car yesterday. (past emphatic/wash)

did fix does end

her exercises each morning.

do understand

after you left. (past emphatic/call) on batteries. (present emphatic/work) how to do a somersault. at the new monument. the outside wiring. on time. (present emphatic/end)

the garbage! (past emphatic/empty)

152 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

your feelings.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. present perfect progressive/collect

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 42

Verbs: Compatibility of Tenses
Sometimes one event occurs before or after another event in a sentence. In these cases, it is appropriate to shift tenses.
Incorrect: By the time the police arrived, the thief escaped.
This is incorrect because the verbs are both past tense forms and suggest that the two events took place at the same time.
Correct:

By the time the police arrived, the thief had escaped.

Grammar

Here the tense shifts from the past (arrived) to past perfect (had escaped) to show that the thief escaped before the police arrived.
When two or more events take place at the same time in a sentence, the verb tenses must remain the same.
Incorrect: When Paul registered for the summer class, he is filling out seven forms.
This is incorrect because the tense changes from past to present, even though the events in the sentence both took place in the past.
Correct:

When Paul registered for the summer class, he filled out seven forms.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Complete each sentence with the appropriate tense of the verb in parentheses.
We went backstage to see the actor, but he [

had gone

1. Taylor’s family will plan their vacation before she [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. If she waits until ten o’clock, she [

7. If you look up the word luau, you [ the leaves of the taro plant. (discover)

early. (arrive)

was

had purchased

6. Last week she read about a luau, which [

for school. (leave)

out when they are leaving. (find)

arrived

4. Taylor says they are going to Hawaii, which [
5. By the time she left, Taylor [
(purchase)

leaves

will find

3. I had expected her to be late, but she [

home. (go)

their original destination. (be) several books about Hawaii.

is

a Hawaiian banquet. (be)

will discover

that it was originally the name for

8. Luau had referred to dishes made with these leaves before the word [ the name of the feast itself. (become)
9. Taylor has waited several years, so she [
10. If she remembers to bring her camera, she [
11. She had hoped for nice weather, but a storm [

will enjoy

became

attending a luau. (enjoy)

will take

photographs. (take)

appeared

. (appear)

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

153

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. She will visit her friend Niki, whose family [ the luau. (prepare)
13. If she watches carefully, she [
14. The host [

will learn

had roasted

15. Lau lau is a dish that [
(consist)

prepares or will prepare or is preparing how to cook the meal. (learn)

a pig before the guests arrived. (roast)

consists

16. By the time she reached the luau, the others [

of luau leaves and pork wrapped in a ti leaf. had decorated

the table. (decorate)

18. Ti leaves cover the table at which the guests [
19. Before Taylor finished her poi, her host [
20. The meal will not be over before the dancing [

will eat had served

brought later. (eat)

the pig. (serve)

begins

. (begin)

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the two verbs or verb phrases. In the blank, rewrite the second verb or verb phrase to match the tense of the first.
Elena built a bookcase in industrial arts class, and then she paints it. painted
1. The first Hawaiians were of Polynesian origin and come from the Marquesas Islands.

came

2. A group of immigrants left Tahiti and traveling to the Hawaiian Islands. traveled
3. In 1778, Captain James Cook discovers the islands and will name them the Sandwich Islands. names 4. Kamehameha I will become monarch because he seemed to be the strongest leader. will seem
5. The islands will begin to change but continuing to develop. will continue
6. Other nations recognized the kingdom’s independence when the country adopts a constitution. adopted 7. While Great Britain and France were fighting each other for control of the islands,
Kamehameha III seeks protection from the United States. was seeking
8. President Cleveland is against annexation, but the United States had received permission to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor. receives
9. In 1959, Hawaii joins the Union, so flagmakers added a fiftieth star to the U.S. flag. add
10. Many people consider Hawaii the most beautiful state, though each state will have its own unique beauty. has

154 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

17. Niki’s family had expected to serve twelve dishes, but their friends [ three more. (bring)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 43

Voice of Verbs: Active and Passive
Action verbs can be used in two ways—in the active voice and in the passive voice. A sentence has a verb in the active voice when the subject performs the action. A sentence has a verb in the passive voice when the action is performed on the subject.
The catcher caught the ball. (active voice)
The ball was caught by the catcher. (passive voice)

Grammar

The passive voice is formed by using the past participle of the verb with a form of the helping verb be.
The ball is caught by the catcher.
(present tense)
The ball was caught by the catcher.
(past tense)
The ball will be caught by the catcher. (future tense)
The passive voice can give variety to your writing. In general, however, the active voice is more interesting, more direct, and makes for livelier writing.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the verb or verb phrase. Write A (active voice) or P (passive voice) over the verb to tell which voice it is.
P
Study hall was changed to second period.
A
1. The puppy chewed the bone.
P
2. Carla is known by everybody.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

A
3. Ron fed the birds.
P
4. The kitten was found by Bev.
P
5. The baby will be fed by Dad.
A
6. Curt showed the photographs.
A
7. The dog guards the house.
A
8. The team won the trophy.
P
9. The car was washed by Sarah.
A
10. Mom will lock the door.
A
11. George took the medicine.

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

155

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

P
12. The data were relayed by satellite.
A
13. Curly read the minutes.
P
14. A meeting will be held by the committee.
P
15. The vote was taken by our chairperson.
A
16. The rescue planes dropped food.

P
18. The mail was delivered by Jake.
P
19. Our house will be painted by Marge.
A
20. Dad bought groceries.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Write A over the verb if the verb is in the active voice and P if it is in the passive voice. Then rewrite each active voice sentence in the passive voice and each passive voice sentence in the active voice.
A
Raul planted tomatoes. Tomatoes were planted by Raul.
P
1. Money was needed by the band. The band needed money.
P
2. The group’s budget had been depleted by inflation. Inflation had depleted the group’s budget.
A
3. The band members planned a fund-raiser. A fund-raiser was planned by the band members.
A
4. The band members discussed several ideas. Several ideas were discussed by the band members.
A
5. The trombone players suggested an instrument sale. An instrument sale was suggested by the trombone players.
P
6. A car wash was proposed by the clarinet players. The clarinet players proposed a car wash.
A
7. Several of the drummers recommended a raffle. A raffle was recommended by several of the drummers. P
8. That idea was liked by everyone. Everyone liked that idea.
P
9. A new trumpet was donated by a local instrument seller, Mr. Majeske. A local instrument seller,
Mr. Majeske, donated a new trumpet.
A
10. The band members sold raffle tickets after school. Raffle tickets were sold by the band members after school.

156 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

A
17. The flood destroyed three towns.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 6 Review
ᮣ Exercise Draw two lines under each verb or verb phrase. Then write the tense of each verb in the blank before the sentence. Some sentences have more than one verb. past future present perfect

We rode the roller coaster.
1. Sheila will finish her homework before dinner.
2. Our cooking class has watched three videos to learn how to

present, future past perfect, past

3. If you crouch very quietly, you will see the raccoon.
4. The alligator had disappeared by the time we reached the edge of the swamp.

present progressive past present perfect progressive future perfect past progressive future progressive past emphatic

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

future perfect progressive

5. The teacher is talking about Thomas Edison.
6. Yesterday I toured the natural history museum.
7. We have been laughing at Sara’s joke for five minutes.
8. The new train will have traveled two hundred miles by noon.
9. The playwright was hoping for a positive review.
10. Their team will be jogging around the Lincoln Memorial.
11. Colleen did hear the speech by the Russian scientist.
12. In December, she will have been knitting that scarf for six months. present emphatic past perfect progressive, past

13. My dog, Juno, does like to jump over the fence.
14. The Tates had been expecting fifty guests, but sixty people came to the banquet.

present past perfect future 15. Uncle Yuri sends his regards to the entire family.
16. We had waited nearly an hour for the bus to arrive.
17. The florist will arrange a lovely centerpiece for Cousin Darla’s wedding. past present progressive present perfect progressive

18. Claude sailed his boat across Lake Erie.
19. We are watching a movie about space exploration.
20. Rochelle has been studying medicine for three years.
Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

157

Grammar

prepare this dish.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–6
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline each simple subject once and each simple predicate twice. Label each preposition prep., each direct object d.o., and each indirect object i.o.
d.o. prep.
Peter took his cousin to the mall.
d.o. prep.
1. Tracy suddenly left the room during the lecture.

i.o.
d.o. prep.
3. I gave Sandy the box with the blue label.
d.o.
4. The heavy rain replenished the crop. prep. 5. The observers were excited by the meteor shower. prep. 6. The forward will shoot from midcourt.
d.o. prep.
7. My friend Ione is writing a collection of poems.
d.o.
prep.
8. The actor applies his makeup every night before the show. prep. 9. A lone tugboat struggled through the choppy water.
i.o.
d.o.
10. Ms. Watkins asked Jenny an algebra question.
d.o.
prep.
11. That athlete inspires many young people to stay in school.
d.o.
prep.
12. We will telephone everyone about the party. prep. 13. Neil is always the first one out the door.
d.o. prep.
14. Wilson collects insects for his science class.
d.o. prep.
15. The current mayor will challenge her opponent to a debate.
d.o.
16. The chemistry class performs two experiments each week.
d.o. prep.
17. Her kitten hid my socks in the yard.
i.o.
d.o. prep.
18. The guests brought their host a vase of flowers.
d.o. prep.
19. Ben swam a mile in his best time yet. prep. 20. Our friends will be exhausted after the events.

158 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

d.o.
2. Ed will ski the advanced run tomorrow.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

d.o. prep. 21. Paul rode his bicycle home through the rain. prep. prep.
22. My mother wins at chess most of the time.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Label each participle part., each gerund ger., and each infinitive inf. Then write whether the sentence is simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex. simple 1.

compound

2.

simple

3.

complex

4.

complex

5.

compound

judges’ table. ger. inf. ger. inf
6. Stretching helps Bridget to warm up, and running helps her to stay in shape.

compound-complex

complex simple Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

complex compound compound-complex

7. As the train pulled out of the station, Roberto took his seat, and his part. fidgeting younger brother walked up and down the aisle. inf. inf.
8. Unless it begins to snow, the ski resort will not be able to open. part. 9. The glittering guests ascended the stairs to the awards ceremony. ger. ger.
10. While Colette studies dancing, her sister studies painting. inf. 11. Geoff’s desire to win was great, yet he skipped practice for two days. part. 12. The bell may ring, or the irritating buzzer may sound when time has expired. simple complex compound

complex complex inf. ger. 13. We are hiking to the top of the hill to do our stargazing. ger. 14. If the weather is mild, camping will be an option. part. part.
15. Helga was worried, but she did not want the frightened child inf. to know it. inf. 16. The flight that Ruth and Oliver wanted to take was canceled. part. 17. A pulsating beat accompanied the melody as Mike played the new song he had composed.

Unit 6, Verb Tenses and Voice

159

Grammar

simple

ger. inf. Jogging is a healthy way to get in shape. ger. Golfing is one of my favorite sports. inf. I want to be a singer, but first I must study voice. part. inf.
Waiting by the fountain, Sven decided to sketch the town square. inf. Although we had tickets, we were not allowed to enter the theater. part. inf.
The shivering skaters who still wish to compete should gather by the

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

compound-complex

inf. inf. 18. You need to decide what should be done, and we need to find part. willing helpers.

ᮣ Exercise 3 Draw two lines under the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Then write the tense of the verb. present perfect past perfect

future present perfect future perfect

1. The polls had closed by seven o’clock that evening.
2. The water in the horses’ trough froze overnight.
3. The principal will administer the test.
4. Suki has seen several lunar eclipses.
5. By tomorrow the council will have chosen its new president.

future

6. This scarf will replace the missing one.

present

7. My cousin attends the state university.

present

8. This book discusses environmental problems.

past perfect

9. By yesterday evening I had written thirteen letters of application for a summer job.

past present perfect present future perfect

10. The cartoonist at the fair drew several quick pictures of our family.
11. I have given you all the facts of the case.
12. The dog barks several times during the night.
13. Within an hour the rocket will have splashed down in the Pacific.

past

14. Katrina scoffed at the ridiculous story.

present perfect

15. The catcher has dropped the ball again.

future perfect future present perfect past perfect past present past 16. By next Sunday I will have worked four weekends in a row.
17. This device will filter our drinking water.
18. They have excavated the last site.
19. The sudden wind had torn the small boat from its berth.
20. Mr. Harris was happy with our oral reports.
21. Sally plans to give a party for Christy.
22. Doris and Andrew donated their profits to charity.

160 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

past

The movie has received rave reviews.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 7: Subject-Verb Agreement
Lesson 44

Subject-Verb Agreement
The subject and verb in a sentence must agree. In the present tense, add -s or -es to the base form for the third-person singular.
PLURAL
They skate.
They win.

Grammar

SINGULAR
He skates.
She wins.

The verbs be, have, and do change form to agree with their subjects.
SINGULAR
I am climbing.
You are climbing.
She is climbing.
I have reached the top.
You have reached the top.
He has reached the top.
I do climb often.
Do you climb often?
Does she climb often?

PLURAL
We are climbing.
You are climbing.
They are climbing.
We have reached the top.
You have reached the top.
They have reached the top.
We do climb often.
Do you climb often?
Do they climb often?

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the form of the verb that agrees with the subject.
My younger brother (has, have) a large collection of toy dinosaurs.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Fossils (is, are) fascinating records of the past.
2. They (tells, tell) us about plants and animals of long ago.
3. Some ancient animals, such as dinosaurs, (was, were) huge.
4. A dinosaur fossil (preserves, preserve) a tooth, a bone, or even a major part of the skeleton.
5. Fossil hunters (has found, have found) dinosaur remains around the world.
6. Dinosaurs (was fixed, were fixed) in time in a number of ways.
7. Some (was frozen, were frozen) in glaciers.
8. Such a dinosaur (is, are) like the frozen food in your freezer.
9. Other dinosaurs (was caught, were caught) in tar pits and preserved there.
10. Fossil evidence (shows, show) that many dinosaurs died in a short period of time.
11. Scientists (believes, believe) that a major disaster occurred in the past.

Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

161

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. Different theories (exists, exist) about why this happened.
13. One theory (states, state) that a comet collided with Earth and stirred up so much dust that the sun’s light was blocked out.
14. At any rate, we (does know, do know) that dinosaurs no longer roam the earth.
15. Scientists (studies, study) dinosaur remains to find out what life was like in ancient times.
16. Stomach contents (reveals, reveal) what animals and plants lived at the same time.
17. Recently a fossilized dinosaur egg (was found, were found).

19. A fossil hunt (is, are) an exciting pastime.
20. Anyone who (excavates, excavate) a dinosaur has many stories to tell.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Write your choice in the blank.
The students [

were

1. Imagine you [
2. You [

about to study a unit on fossils. (was, were)

are

see

walking in the woods one day. (is, are)

the dried tracks of a deer in the muddy bank along a stream. (sees, see)

3. Of course the tracks probably [
(was made, were made)
4. The dried tracks [

were made

are

the beginnings of a fossil. (is, are)

fills
5. If a sudden rainstorm [ preserved, at least for a time. (fills, fill)
6. Several materials [
7. A bone [
8. Animal shells also [

good fossils. (makes, make) good fossil material because of its hardness. (is, are)

produce

9. Despite their softness, jellyfish [
10. Sometimes an insect [
11. Amber [

the tracks up with mud, the deer print will be

make is is

only days before you saw them.

good fossils. (produces, produce) do leave

is fossilized

fossil imprints. (does leave, do leave)

in amber. (is fossilized, are fossilized)

the hard sap of very old trees. (is, are)

12. As an insect sticks in the amber, the amber [
13. Most fossils, however, [

have formed

hardens

around it. (hardens, harden)

in layers of rock. (has formed, have formed)

14. Animal skeletons fall to the bottom of rivers and lakes, where they [ with mud or silt. (is covered, are covered)
15. If the animal’s skeleton is hard, it [

162 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

makes

are covered

a better fossil. (makes, make)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

18. The unhatched baby dinosaur (have been, has been) preserved in the egg.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 45

Subject-Verb Agreement and
Intervening Prepositional Phrases
The subject of a sentence is never contained within a prepositional phrase. The verb must agree with the subject of the sentence, not the object of a preposition.

Grammar

The color of the thunderclouds worries me. (The subject is color, a singular noun. Of the thunderclouds is a prepositional phrase with a plural object. However, the verb worries agrees with the singular subject.)
The players on the team have new uniforms. (The subject is players, a plural noun. On the team is a prepositional phrase with a singular object. However, the verb have agrees with the plural subject.)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the verb in parentheses that correctly completes the sentence by agreeing with the subject.
A vase of roses usually (stand, stands) on the piano.
1. The rain forests of the earth (occurs, occur) in places where there is much rainfall.
2. The rain forest ecosystem, to biologists, (is, are) the source of much diversity.
3. Rain forests in a tropical area (is, are) warm and humid.
4. The number of tree species (is estimated, are estimated) to be about 3,000.
5. The area around the trees (is filled, are filled) with mosses, vines, and other water-loving plants.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. The rain forest, with complex food chains, (recycles, recycle) nutrients constantly.
7. No dead plants on the ground (is, are) left there for long.
8. Plant matter from different species (decays, decay) quickly and is reused as food.
9. Plant life, with many animal species, (keep, keeps) the rain forest teeming with noise and motion.
10. The mammals of a rain forest (includes, include) leopards, jaguars, bats, and different monkeys.
11. Hoots, chirps, and roars from every corner (echoes, echo) throughout the day.
12. An explorer of rain forests also (thrills, thrill) at the wide variety of colorful birds.
13. Scientists interested in insects (has discovered, have discovered) hundreds of new species.
14. The animals on the forest floor (numbers, number) far fewer than those that live in the trees.
15. Not every traveler to these tropical paradises (focuses, focus) on animals.
16. Some visitors on a search for new healing substances (looks, look) at medicinal plants.
17. Students of the rain forest (is alarmed, are alarmed) at its rate of destruction.
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

163

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Businesses of every kind (destroys, destroy) many acres each day.
19. Earth with its many problems (needs, need) this valuable source of life.
20. Many groups with an interest in the rain forest (works, work) hard to preserve this treasure.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject.
A rainfall of several hours (soaks, soak) the ground.
1. Ecosystems with little water (is called, are called) deserts.

elsewhere.
3. Still, clusters of plant life (is, are) common in some deserts.
4. Temperatures in a desert (varies, vary) by many degrees.
5. In fact, people from another region (is, are) surprised to learn that deserts can be cold.
6. Deserts at high elevation or latitude (have, has) freezing temperatures.
7. Deserts of America (reaches, reach) daytime temperatures of over one hundred degrees.
8. Temperatures at night (measures, measure) many degrees cooler.
9. Deserts, in spite of their dryness, (are, is) home to an amazing variety of animals and plants.
10. Species in a desert (has, have) different adaptations to the lack of water.
11. Sharp spines on a cactus (serves, serve) as leaves and help prevent water loss.
12. The root systems of cacti (spread, spreads) out to collect as much water as possible.
13. The roots on a mesquite tree (extends, extend) far into the earth, looking for sources of water.
14. A cactus with flowers (makes, make) an attractive houseplant.
15. Visitors to the desert (expresses, express) surprise at the wide spaces between plants.
16. A desert area with few plants (conserves, conserve) the available water better than an area with many plants.
17. Animals with little need for water (does, do) best in the desert.
18. Oils from dry seeds (provides, provide) the kangaroo rat all the liquid it needs.
19. Camels of the Sahara (stores, store) water in their fatty humps.
20. Animals with adaptability (thrives, thrive) in a land of little water.

164 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

2. The rainfall from many years often (does, do) not equal the amount that falls in one year

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 46

Subject-Verb Agreement and Linking Verbs
In sentences with linking verbs, the verb agrees with the subject, not with the predicate nominative. The flowers in the pot are a gift. (The verb, are, agrees with the subject, flowers, not the predicate nominative, gift.)
The result of the experiment was more effective medications. (The verb, was, agrees with the subject, result, not the predicate nominative, medications.)

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject.
Jake’s excuse for tardines (is, are) his morning chores.
1. Outdoor activities (seems, seem) the best method for teaching the nature class.
2. The total cost (was, were) hundreds of dollars more than we expected.
3. Exercising and dieting (remains, remain) a healthful way to live.
4. The game scores (was, were) a major disappointment.
5. Jana’s injured teeth (is, are) a source of much pain to her.
6. Pinks and oranges (makes, make) a beautiful sunset.
7. My greatest success this year (is, are) my grades.
8. The Porpoises (is, are) the best swimming team in town.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. The band director’s biggest disappointment (remains, remain) the clarinets.
10. The man’s remarks (was, were) an embarrassment to his listeners.
11. Our most important resource (is, are) our children.
12. The Carters (is, are) a happy couple.
13. The two lovely monuments (remains, remain) a testament to human courage.
14. The two robberies (was, were) a mystery to the police.
15. The problem (is, are) too many cooks in the kitchen.
16. The cause of the accident (was, were) faulty brakes.
17. The noisy neighbors (was, were) a constant problem.
18. The cost of pollution (is, are) higher medical bills.
19. The reason for the delay (is, are) the strikes in the trucking industry.
20. The sounds of the birds (was, were) the only disturbance.
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

165

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under the simple subject. Draw two lines under the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject.
The results of the election (is, are) finally available.
1. Bill’s best feature (is, are) his beautiful brown eyes.
2. Your postcards from Hawaii (was, were) a welcome treat.
3. The library books (is, are) a donation from a patron.
4. The videos about whales (is, are) my favorite present.

6. Angie’s and Carla’s haircuts (looks, look) a sight!
7. The joy of Stella’s life (is, are) her nieces and nephews.
8. Last night’s losses (seems, seem) a shame.
9. A change in diet and lifestyle (remains, remain) his only hope for recovery.
10. The falling leaves (becomes, become) a blanket of red and gold.
11. The result of last night’s poor score (was, were) extra hours of practice for the team.
12. The delivery (was, were) several truckloads of appliances.
13. The pioneers’ light source (was, were) candles.
14. Our worst problem (is, are) the bats in the attic.
15. The pep club’s donation (was, were) two dozen boxes of used clothing.
16. Endangered species (is, are) a continuing environmental problem.
17. The result of Bob’s knee injury (was, were) torn ligaments.
18. The individual bright colors (becomes, become) a dull blur at dusk.
19. The main issue in the campaign (is, are) taxes.
20. The genie’s gift (was, were) three wishes.
ᮣ Writing Link Write three or four sentences about a report you have prepared for one of your classes. Make your verb agree with your subject in each sentence.

166 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

5. The gas tanks on those trucks (is, are) a safety problem.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 47

Subject-Verb Agreement in Inverted Sentences
In most sentences the subject comes before the verb. However, some inverted sentences begin with a prepositional phrase followed by the verb and then the subject. The verb in such sentences must always agree with the subject, not the object of the prepositional phrase. V
S
Up the tree crawls the bear.

V
S
Up the tree crawl the bears.

V
S
There is a bear in that tree.

Grammar

In sentences that begin with here or there, do not confuse either word with the subject.
Look for the subject following the verb.
V
S
Here come the bears down the tree!

Questions are inverted sentences. In such constructions, a helping verb often comes before the subject.
V
S
V
Does the bear live in a den?

V
S
V
Do the bears fish for salmon?

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a line under the subject. Choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject, and write it in the blank.
On the sidelines [
1. [

Are

stand

you [

2. Here [

are

prepared

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. On the walls [

is

hang

5. Along the sidewalks [ comes Do

a stack of decorations. (is, are) the decorations we already put up. (hangs, hang)

extends

a long banner. (extend, extends)

Luella, the chairperson of the committee. (comes, come)

7. In her hands [
8. [

for the festivities tomorrow? (Is prepared, Are prepared)

the fliers about the founder’s day celebration. (is, are)

3. Beside that bench [

6. Here [

many eager players ready for action. (stand, stands)

is

a list of tasks to be completed. (is, are)

a few of those tasks [

9. Under the trees [

gather

12. [

Does

was

you? (Does interest, Do interest)

the people who want to help. (gather, gathers)

10. From the apartment building [
11. There [

interest

pour

the sounds of the band practicing. (pours, pour)

an article about this event in today’s paper. (was, were) the paper [

13. There on the sidewalk [
14. Down the street [

moves

support wait our plans? (Does support, Do support) the photographers. (waits, wait)

a series of floats. (moves, move)
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

167

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. [

the photographers [

Do

shoot

a picture of the floats? (Does shoot, Do shoot)

16. Behind the floats [

soar

17. There [

a photograph of our founder on each of them. (is, are)

18. [

is

Does

three huge balloons. (soars, soar)

the crowd [

recognize

the photographs? (Does recognize, Do recognize)

come

20. There [

good reasons to plan another celebration next year. (is, are)

are

sounds of enjoyment. (comes, come)

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw a line under the subject. Choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject and write it in the blank(s).
Near one of those curbs [
1. [

Does

2. Here [

stands

a rock concert [ are comes

4. On her every word [

our committee. (hangs, hang)

hurry

6. Into the newspapers [

the workers. (hurry, hurries)

goes

7. Up on the wall [
8. On the radio [

airs

a notice of her appearance. (goes, go)

appear

10. [
11. Here [

an announcement about the concert. (airs, air)

the ticket sellers [ is 12. There [

are

16. There [

is

17. Here [

are
Does

know

our tickets ready? (Does have, Do have) the correct price? (Does know, Do know)

several songs that she did as an encore. (is, are) yells 14. Outside the building [
15. Inside the office [

have

a review of Linda’s concerts last week in Detroit. (is, are)

13. Across the gym [

18. [

many enticing posters. (appears, appear)

the printer [

Do

like a good idea? (Does sound, Do sound)

a message from rock star Linda Light. (comes, come)

hangs

5. Into the building [

Does

sound

some suggestions for our next fund-raiser. (is, are)

3. From her agent [

9. [

a bus-stop shelter. (stand, stands)

Grayson for help with the electronic system. (yells, yell) parks ring

a reporter from the local paper. (parks, park) the phones. (rings, ring)

a huge demand for tickets. (is, are) the passes we need to keep for the press. (is, are) the school radio station [

plan

to tape the concert?

(Does plan, Do plan)
19. Behind the curtain [
20. In all our hearts [

sits lurks the microphone. (sits, sit) anticipation. (lurks, lurk)

168 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

19. From the crowd [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 48

Subject-Verb Agreement and Special Subjects
A collective noun names a group (see Lesson 1, pp. 47–48). In a sentence, a collective noun is singular when it names the group as a whole. It is plural when it refers to individual members of a group.
Singular:
Plural:

The team takes the bus.
The cast rehearses the play.
The team get regular physical exams.
The cast sign autographs for the audience.

Grammar

Some nouns ending in -s, such as mumps, measles, and mathematics, take singular verbs. Other nouns ending in -s, such as scissors, pants, binoculars, and eyeglasses, take plural verbs. Many nouns that end in -ics are either singular or plural, depending on the context. Singular:
Plural:
Singular:
Plural:

Mathematics is my favorite subject.
My pants are muddy from the river.
Politics is that professor’s area of expertise.
That candidate’s politics were dirty during the campaign.

A noun of amount can refer to a single unit, in which case it is singular. It can also refer to several individual units, in which case it is plural.
Singular:
Plural:

Ten weeks is the period of the first term.
Ten weeks are needed to complete that research.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the subject. Fill in the blank with the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject in the context of the sentence.
The recycling club [
1. The band [

asks

plays

2. Congress [

school songs at halftime. (plays, play)

plans

3. Measles [

is

4. The six months [

to adjourn early this session. (plans, plan) no longer the dread disease it once was. (is, are)

have dragged

5. The orchestra [
6. My family [

dress are 7. Your binoculars [ is 9. Three eggs [

are was since my best friend moved. (has dragged, have dragged) in black for concerts. (dresses, dress)

sick with the flu. (is, are) were 8. Seven feet [

10. Athletics [

for the entire neighborhood’s support. (asks, ask)

a big help at our star party. (was, were) a long distance to jump. (is, are) too many for this recipe. (is, are) the only thing Jack wanted to pursue. (was, were)
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

169

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. The cast [

were

each bringing a dish to the theater party. (was, were)

12. Statistics [

show

a link between smoking and lung cancer. (shows, show)

13. Twenty dollars [

is

too much for this video. (is, are)

14. My doctor says aerobics [

is or are

15. Your scissors [

under the desk. (was, were)

were

16. Twenty-four hours [

a good way to get fit. (is, are)

pass or passes

very slowly when you’re waiting for a test grade.

17. The committee [

tries

to finish its work. (tries, try)

18. Fifty stories of the building [

are

19. My eyeglasses no longer [
20. Aerobics [

finished. (is, are)

work

are

. (works, work)

exercises that strengthen the heart and lungs. (is, are)

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the subject. Fill in the blank with the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject in the context of the sentence.
Two years [
1. [

Are

2. [

pass

Is

before Gwen returns to her hometown. (passes, pass)

your pliers on the workbench? (Is, Are) politics his specialty? (Is, Are)

3. The public [

wants

campaign reform. (wants, want)

4. The six o’clock news [

covers

5. These trousers [

do

local events. (covers, cover)

not match my shirt. (does, do)

6. The committee [

chooses

7. Three months [

constitutes

8. [

fifty cents enough for a tip? (Is, Are)

Is

9. Athletics [
10. Measles [

a season. (constitute, constitutes)

was

the subject of discussion at the school board meeting. (was, were)

is

usually a childhood disease. (is, are)

11. The science faculty [

is

12. The music faculty [
13. Ten dollars [

were was 14. Our team usually [

meeting at the museum. (is, are) all at the concert. (was, were)

the amount of the refund. (was, were) wins 15. But the team usually [
16. Often the team [

a recycling plan today. (chooses, choose)

loses give two out of three games. (wins, win) to the Eagles. (loses, lose) away their caps as souvenirs. (gives, give)

170 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

(passes, pass)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 49

Subject-Verb Agreement and Compound Subjects
Some sentences have more than one subject. A compound subject that is joined by and or both...and is usually plural. However, some compound subjects have two parts that make up one unit. These take a singular verb.
Plural:
Plural:
Singular:

Molly and Mabel are racing.
Both Aunt Fran and Uncle George have arrived.
Milk and cookies is a good snack.

Singular:
Singular:
Plural:

Grammar

Compound subjects joined by or, nor, either...or, or neither...nor always have a verb that agrees with the closer subject.
Either Mark or Carlo was the winner.
Neither the Morgans nor Mr. Hale is coming to the dinner.
Neither the book nor the calendars are on sale.

When a compound subject is preceded by many a, every, or each, the subject takes a singular verb.
Many a student and teacher has come to Ms. Randolph for advice.
Every Tom, Dick, and Harry has an opinion.
Each tree and fence post is covered with political signs.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a line under the compound subject of each sentence. Choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject, then write it in the blank.
Many a bird and squirrel [

visits

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Every orchard and farm [

was damaged

2. Spaghetti and meatballs [

our backyard feeders. (visit, visits)

is

a regular meal at our home. (is, are)

3. Neither Grace nor her sisters [

take

4. Either the squirrels or the opossum [
5. The bat and the ball [

by the storm. (was damaged, were damaged)

the early bus. (takes, take)

chews

are

Ed’s. (is, are)

6. Every seed, nut, and suet ball [

was eaten

7. Each bird and field mouse [

is

8. Both movies and books [

are

enjoyable. (is, are) is skates

11. Both my shoes and socks [
12. Either my dad or my brothers [

. (was eaten, were eaten) hungry. (is, are)

9. Neither the soup nor the casserole [
10. Either Lani or Marcia [

through the storage boxes. (chews, chew)

hot. (is, are)

in the race today. (skates, skate)

are

full of burrs. (is, are) meet me at the bus station. (meets, meet)
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

171

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. Neither the dogs nor the cat [

likes

too much sun. (likes, like)

14. Every earring, necklace, and bracelet [

was sold

at the fund-raiser. (was sold,

were sold)
15. Each geranium and lily [

is

blooming. (is, are)

16. Many a horse and cow [

has lived

17. Both my arms and legs [

ache

19. Ham and eggs [

after a long climb. (aches, ache)

disagree

is offered

over the script. (disagrees, disagree)

for breakfast at that restaurant. (is offered, are offered)

20. Either the coach or the players [

have

21. Neither the jacket nor the shoes [
22. Lox and bagels [

fit

is

23. Many a spy and traitor [

. (fits, fit)

Jacob’s favorite snack. (is, are) was caught

24. Either the washer or the drier [

by the detective. (was caught, were caught)

is running

25. Both Jesse and Malachi [

are

26. Each video and CD [

to answer the letter. (has, have)

. (is running, are running)

honor students. (is, are)

is

half price. (is, are)

27. Every surfboard and sailboat [

is rented

28. Many a captain and first mate [

has swerved

. (is rented, are rented) to avoid that wreck. (has swerved,

have swerved)
29. Neither the cat nor her kittens [
30. Each chair, desk, and table [

are sleeping is covered

31. Neither the chairs nor the table [
32. Both Rhoda and Pallas [
33. Oil and vinegar [

. (is sleeping, are sleeping) with books. (is covered, are covered)

fits

score

makes

in the truck. (fits, fit) well on spelling tests. (scores, score)

a good salad dressing. (makes, make)

34. Neither the horses nor the cow [

is

35. Neither the hurricane nor the tornadoes [

restless. (is, are) are expected

to hit here. (is expected,

are expected)
36. Many a plaintiff and defendant [

has passed

through these doors. (has passed,

have passed)
37. Each cap and gown [

is reserved

38. Both soccer and softball [

. (is reserved, are reserved)

are

172 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

favorites of mine. (is, are)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

18. The producer and director [

in this barn. (has lived, have lived)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 50

Subject-Verb Agreement and Intervening Expressions
Certain expressions seem to create a compound subject but do not. Accompanied by, as well as, in addition to, plus, and together with are expressions that introduce phrases that tell about the subject. However, the subject remains singular and takes a singular verb.
The President, as well as the Cabinet, is expected tonight.
The mayor, accompanied by her staff, eats lunch in the cafeteria.

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw a line under the subject. Then write in the blank the form of the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Use the present tense of the verb.
Joe, as well as his brothers, [
1. Folk, in addition to rock, [

delivers

papers in the morning. (deliver)

is

my favorite music. (be)

2. Weight lifting, as well as wrestling, [

takes

strength. (take)

3. Jupiter, plus Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, [

is

4. The truck, as well as a car and a bus, [

is

a gas planet. (be) involved in the wreck. (be)

5. The players, plus the coach and manager, [

travel

6. A hoe, in addition to a rake and a ladder, [

is

7. The singer, accompanied by her bodyguards, [

arrives

by bus. (travel) missing from the garage. (be) tonight. (arrive)

treats

many patients. (treat)

9. A plane, in addition to a service truck, [
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. The doctor, together with a large staff, [

sits

on the runway. (sit)

10. Nancy, plus her parents and grandparents, [
11. My bicycle, as well as my skates, [

goes

needs

to Florida for the holidays. (go)

repair. (need)

12. The toolshed, together with the garage and the greenhouse, [
13. The bank, as well as the arcade, [

opens

14. The VCR, plus the compact-disc player, [

makes

seems

17. The Big Dipper, accompanied by the Little Dipper, [
18. The city, as well as the suburbs, [

votes

19. The bike, plus the skates and the skis, [
20. Cereal, together with fruit and milk, [

near the stream. (sit)

tomorrow. (open)

15. The watermelon, as well as the cantaloupe, [
16. Dan, in addition to his friends, [

sits

a good holiday gift. (make) is ripe. (be)

depressed. (seem) circles the polestar. (circle)

today. (vote) belongs provides

to Oona. (belong) a good breakfast. (provide)
Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

173

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw a line under the subject. Then write the form of the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject. Use the present tense of the verb when you write it. helps Lisa’s paycheck, in addition to her friend’s income, [
1. A helicopter, as well as a light plane, [

searches

2. The mail carrier, plus the grocery delivery boy, [
3. The bear, in addition to her cubs, [

in that den. (live)

builds

6. The trapeze artist, in addition to her partner, [
7. Cory, accompanied by his nephew, [

performs

is

12. My savings, plus a little extra, [
13. Grandma, plus my Aunt Clara, [

my favorite class. (be)

give visits me enough for my mother’s present. (give) regularly. (visit)

14. A moat, together with armed knights, [

plays

surrounds meets the castle. (surround) many people on his travels. (meet)

shortstop for the baseball team. (play)

17. Mel, in addition to Madonna and Roy, [

has

the flu. (have)

chases

19. Mr. Randolph, accompanied by his family, [
20. Hail, as well as rain, often [

tonight. (speak)

several miles each weekend. (run)

11. Science, together with geography, [

18. The puppy, as well as her mother, [

good on Mark. (look)

speaks

runs

15. Tod, accompanied by his parents, [

in each show. (perform)

his own plane. (pilot)

looks

9. The candidate, as well as her opponent, [

16. Juan, as well as Mike, [

log cabins. (build)

pilots

8. The gray suit, accompanied by a vest, [

10. Sandy, plus Gerry and Pam, [

the dog. (fear)

well with hot soup. (go)

5. Mr. Marcos, accompanied by his sons, [

Grammar

fears

lives

goes

for the missing hikers. (search)

accompanies

everyone around the yard. (chase) is driving across the country. (be)

a tornado. (accompany)

ᮣ Writing Link Write three or four sentences about the activities you do with your family or friends. Write at least two sentences that use one or more of the phrases you learned about in this lesson. Be sure your verbs agree with your subjects.

174 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Bread, as well as cheese, [

pay the bills. (help)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 51

Subject-Verb Agreement and
Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects
Not all subjects are nouns. Many subjects consist of indefinite pronouns. A verb must agree in number with an indefinite pronoun used as a subject.
Everything about the party was perfect.
One of the windows is broken.
Nothing on television tonight interests me.
Many of our friends study Spanish.
A few of the trees are stunted.

Grammar

Singular:
Singular:
Singular:
Plural:
Plural:

Some pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending upon the nouns to which they refer in the sentence.
Singular:
Plural:

All of the punch is gone.
All of the players are exhausted.

Indefinite pronouns fall into three groups, as shown in the following chart.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Always Singular

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Always Plural
Singular or Plural

each either neither one several some everyone everybody everything no one few all

nobody nothing anyone anybody both any anything someone somebody something many most none

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw one line under the indefinite pronoun subject. Draw two lines under the correct form of the verb.
Several of my friends (swim, swims) on the school team.
1. Many of the passengers (is, are) unhappy with coach service.
2. A few of the swimmers (was, were) ready to leave the pool.
3. Everything in the window (look, looks) expensive.
4. Something in the basement (has, have) eaten the vegetables.
5. One of the dogs (hunt, hunts) alone.
6. Some of the tomatoes (was, were) spoiled.
7. Everybody in the class (has, have) voted.
8. No one (answer, answers) the phone at the Caldwells.

Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

175

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Nothing (seem, seems) to please Linda.
10. All of the grass (is, are) brown from the drought.
11. Anybody who was there (know, knows) that Randy gave a good speech.
12. One of the contestants (was, were) late.
13. Nobody in our class (like, likes) the new movie.
14. Several of the squirrels (has, have) raided the sunflower sack.
15. Most of the class (do, does) push-ups each morning.

17. Everything at the museum (was, were) fascinating.
18. Both of my aunts (is, are) from Poland.
19. Nobody in the audience (understand, understands) the play.
20. None of the players (was, were) tired.
21. Many of the old pirate ships (has been, have been) lost in that area.
22. Neither of the deer (use, uses) the salt lick.
23. Several of the class officers (was, were) ill.
24. Nothing on the menu (interest, interests) me.
25. One of the defendants (has, have) pleaded not guilty.
26. Several of the judges (has, have) ruled on their cases.
27. Everybody in the room (was, were) freezing.
28. Several of the high-school students (earn, earns) money after school.
29. Somebody in our community (has, have) won that huge prize.
30. All (is, are) well with the world.
31. Both of the twins (sing, sings) in the choir.
32. Someone (has, have) painted the old chairs.
33. Few of the people polled (approve, approves) of the new policies.
34. All of the spaghetti (was, were) gone.
35. Everyone here (has, have) finished lunch.
36. One of the babies in the nursery (is, are) crying.
37. Few of the people invited (is, are) coming.
38. Anyone at all (is, are) eligible to enter the race.

176 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

16. None of the mothers (like, likes) this arrangement.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 7

Review

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the subject of each sentence. Then, choose the verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject and write it in the blank.
Katia [

looks

forward to singing in the choir. (look, looks)

1. The nerves in my body [
2. Here [

lies

tingle

the tomb of the unknown soldier. (lie, lies)

4. All of the campers [

plays prepare swings

Does

Julia, as well as Paul. (play, plays) for the coming storm. (prepare, prepares)

from a vine. (swing, swings)

6. The coaches of the football team [
7. [

Grammar

3. Down by the schoolyard [

5. Tarzan [

when I am excited. (tingle, tingles)

plan

for the big game. (plan, plans)

the Senate, as well as the House, approve the bill? (Do, Does)

8. Peppermint candy, as well as fruitcake and eggnog, [

is

traditionally served

during the holidays. (is, are)
9. Across the European countryside [

travel

Killile and Mary. (travel, travels)

10. The Vietnamese pot-bellied pig, as well as the common dog or cat, [

makes

a great

pet! (make, makes)
11. The books [

were

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

12. Into the street [

a heavy load. (was, were)

gallop

13. The Olympic team [

the horses! (gallop, gallops)

train

hard with personal coaches. (train, trains)

14. Electronics, as well as mechanics, [
15. Hotcakes and sausage [
16. My cat [

eats

is

is

a very lucrative field. (is, are)

my favorite meal. (is, are)

his food when no one is watching. (eat, eats)

17. The distance from my house to the shopping mall [

spans

many kilometers.

(span, spans)
18. The audience [

roars

with laughter. (roar, roars)

19. Bridget and Mary Jo [

visit

20. A few of the lights [

do

their new neighbors downstairs. (visit, visits) not work. (do, does)

Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

177

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–7
ᮣ Exercise 1 Label each noun con. if it is concrete, abst. if it is abstract, col. if it is collective, and prop. if it is proper. Underline each conjunction. prop. abst. con. Kanya felt happiness when she saw her new house. abst. con.
1. Fritz’s pride was hurt when he fell, but there were no other injuries.

col. con. con. con. con.
3. The gaggle of geese rested peacefully by the shore of the lake until the dog arrived. col. con. abst. 4. If the entire family pitched in to help, they still might be able to make it to the game on time. prop. con. col. con.
5. Abe will plan little surprises for his family as long as he has a part-time job. prop. abst.
6. Walt Whitman once wrote: “Peace is always beautiful.” abst. col.
7. High aspirations keep many people motivated. prop. con. con. col.
8. Whenever Sally sees a rainbow, she thinks of an imaginary pot of gold. con. con. con. 9. The heather in the fields was beautiful with its purplish-pink leaves. con. prop.
10. We read the newspaper while we were waiting for Sid. col. prop. con. prop.
11. As long as our group was visiting New York City, we went for a walk in Central Park. con. abst. col. 12. Because it was a dreary day, listlessness was felt throughout the class. col. con. con. con.
13. The water-skiing team wore wet suits whenever the water or weather was too cold. con. con. con. 14. Many students were feeling better about school because of the peer-helper program. abst. con. con. con. con. 15. Anxiety ran high as the competitors for the leading roles waited for the results of the auditions. prop. con. abst. abst.
16. Janet thought a video camera would be the best way to preserve family memories. prop. con. con. 17. Kenji ate cookies as long as there were some on the plate. col. abst. con. 18. The committee resolved their differences so that the meetings would run successfully. con. con. con. 19. The students returned to their desks before the bell rang. con. abst. con. 20. The gruff old man showed such gentleness to the stray dog.

178 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

abst. abst. con. con. 2. Neither anger nor jealousy would help the candidate win the election.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write the correct form of the verb asked for in the blank. Underline each prepositional phrase.
Dayung [

disposed

of the oil in the proper manner. (past tense of dispose)

1. The Morgans [

hundreds of travel brochures during their travels

throughout the years. (present perfect tense of accumulate)
2. The wind [

the snow into awesome drifts. (past tense of arrange)

3. The highway patrol [

all travelers about the icy road conditions.

(future tense of caution)
Kacie to do a better job on her test. (past perfect tense

of enable)
5. Winning this medal [
6. Mom [

my every expectation! (present tense of surpass) the thermometer after each use. (present perfect tense

of disinfect)
7. Marty [

anyone who has also suffered a personal loss. (present tense

of console)
8. The boy [

the injured bird in his arms all the way home. (past perfect

tense of cradle)
9. The climbing expedition hopefully [

the summit before the blizzard

hits. (future perfect tense of reach)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. The gull [

down eagerly to the water for its food. (past tense of swoop)

11. For the special occasion, the couple [

themselves with family and

friends. (future perfect tense of surround)
12. The vines [
13. Attending the conference [

themselves around the fence. (past perfect tense of twist) the staff in preparation for the year ahead.

(future tense of energize)
14. After his long illness, Marcos [

behind in his schoolwork. (present

perfect tense of feel)
15. Vanesa [
16. You [

herself from negative influences. (present tense of alienate) the lathe and other machines by the end of this semester. (future

perfect tense of operate)

Unit 7, Subject-Verb Agreement

179

Grammar

4. The tutor [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. The horses [

slowly around the arena before the competition begins.

(future tense of gallop)
18. On tests, we all [
19. I [

to do our best. (present tense of endeavor) never [

better food in my entire life. (past perfect

tense of taste) without her gloves. (future tense of freeze)

ᮣ Exercise 3 Draw one line under the complete subject in each sentence. Draw two lines under the correct form of the verb.
Every hill and valley (is, are) a beautiful sight each fall.
1. Immunization (remain, remains) a requirement for school enrollment.
2. Each of the workers on the crew (paint, paints) at a different speed.
3. Every teacher in the school (evaluate, evaluates) each student’s progress.
4. Neither the cake nor the cookies (has, have) been touched.
5. (Do, Does) the hunters wear safety clothing?
6. Across the shaky bridge (rattle, rattles) the antique cars.
7. Uncle Bob and Aunt Joan (thrill, thrills) to the music of the Glenn Miller Band.
8. Neither of the teams, the Falcons or the Knights, (is, are) this year’s conference champion.
9. Each rowboat and canoe (is, are) being repainted for the next tourist season.
10. The attorneys in the case (make, makes) an appeal tomorrow.
11. Slick roads and fog (is, are) a major concern for travelers.
12. The newspapers on the stand (was, were) sold out by noon.
13. Every quiz, paper, and test (has, have) been a concern for Joel.
14. None of the members of the audience (applaud, applauds) loudly.
15. Over the horizon (appear, appears) the posse.
16. Ham and cheese (seem, seems) to be my favorite sandwich.
17. Every car, truck, and bus (go, goes) across this bridge to reach the island.
18. Snowmobiling in the northern woods (is, are) a wonderful winter sport.
19. One of the fishermen (has, have) lost his rod and reel in the lake.
20. “Early to bed and early to rise” (is, are) a good suggestion to live by.

180 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

20. Myra’s hands [

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 8: Using Pronouns Correctly
Lesson 52

Personal Pronouns: Case
Pronouns that are used to refer to persons or things are called personal pronouns. Personal pronouns have three cases, or forms, called nominative, objective, and possessive. The case of a personal pronoun depends on how it is used in a sentence. The chart below lists the personal pronouns, their cases, and their uses.
Function in
Sentence
subject or predicate nominative Singular Pronouns

Plural Pronouns

Nominative

I, you, she, he, it

we, you, they

Objective

me, you, her, him, it

us, you, them

direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition Possessive

my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its

our, ours, your, yours, their, theirs

replacement for possessive noun(s)

We gathered in the cafeteria for a meeting.
Dan thought the disc was yours.

Grammar

Case

Taylor brought her to the game.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct pronoun.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Bring the packages to (they, them).
1. When the early settlers arrived in this country, (they, them) had little time for school.
2. Those who wanted (them, their) children to read would teach (they, them) at home.
3. There were no schools for (their, them) children to attend.
4. The most important subject for (their, them) was how to plant.
5. As the settlements grew, formal education became more important to (they, them).
6. Reading, writing, and arithmetic helped (they, them).
7. Education became a community effort, and the entire community benefited from (it, its).
8. Schoolhouses were generally built on land not suitable for farming, and the school yard rarely had any trees in (it, its).
9. Early schoolhouses were heated by smoky fires. Later (they, them) had stoves.

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

181

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. Families sent a load of firewood when (they, their) sent (them, their) children to school.
11. Since paper was expensive, little of (it, its) was used.
12. Each family made (it, its) own ink from ink powder.
13. Handwriting was very important. (It, Its) was often considered more important than spelling.
14. Stitching samplers was a way a young girl could show (she, her) sewing skills and (she, her) knowledge of the alphabet.
15. Since the Bible was often the only book a family owned, (it, its) was usually the first reader.

17. A woman was expected to quit teaching after (she, her) married.
18. Schoolmasters often used discipline that today would seem very cruel to (we, us).
19. A schoolmaster would sometimes punish (him, his) students physically.
20. One of the rules for students was this: Respect (your, yours) schoolmaster. Obey (he, him) and accept (him, his) punishments.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Label each italicized pronoun nom. (nominative), obj. (objective), or pos.
(possessive) case.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

nom. pos. They shook their clothes to get out the sand. pos. Our country’s history is full of exciting tales about settling the West. nom. pos. pos. We may not realize what our ancestors went through to settle our great country. pos. In the 1840s, the pioneers began their trek across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. nom. pos. pos. They encountered many hardships on their treacherous journey to their new homes. obj. pos.
These adventurers had to plan wisely to know what to take with them because their

lives depended on these decisions. pos. pos. pos. 6. The Conestoga wagon, with its broad-rimmed wheels and its white canvas roof, was their obj. home for the journey that would take them many weeks. pos. pos.
7. Upon reaching their destination, the pioneers had to choose a place to build their homes and plant crops. obj. pos.
8. This planting would provide them with food for their first winter. nom. nom. nom. 9. It was not an easy life for the pioneers, but they found they were all willing to help each other. nom. nom.
10. If you had lived in the 1840s, would you have moved west?

182 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

16. A male teacher was expected to have a more disciplined way about (he, him).

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 53

Pronouns with and as Appositives; After Than and As
Use the nominative case for a pronoun that is the appositive of a subject or a predicate nominative. Use the objective case for a pronoun that is the appositive of a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.
The winners, Mitzi and she, collected their trophies. (nominative)
Give the tickets to the ushers, Bart and him. (objective)

Grammar

When an appositive follows a pronoun, choose the case of the pronoun that would be correct if the appositive were omitted.
We winners collected our trophies. We collected our trophies. (nominative)
Give the tickets to us ushers. Give the tickets to us. (objective)
In elliptical adverb clauses using than and as, choose the case of the pronoun that you would use if the missing words were fully expressed.
I am always hungrier than he. (Read: I am always hungrier than he is.)
The directions puzzled Phil as much as me. (Read: The directions puzzled Phil as much as they puzzled me.)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct pronoun. Identify the case by writing nom. (nominative) or obj. (objective) in the blank. Some sentences have more than one pronoun to identify. nom., obj.

The singers, Nora and (I, me), gave our friends, Sue and (they, them), front row seats for the concert.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

nom.

1. The contestants, Conrad and (I, me), were both nervous.

obj.

2. The judges presented the winners, Sylvia and (I, me), with engraved plaques.

obj.

3. The newspaper article described the three fastest runners on the team, Sarah,
Jacques, and (I, me).

nom.

4. The best goalies on the soccer team, Amy and (she, her), both wanted to play in the championship game.

nom., obj.

5. The two teachers, Mr. Barnes and (she, her), explained the rules of the classroom to (we, us) students.

nom.

6. The three lost campers, Rich, Manuel, and (I, me), returned to camp in the morning. obj.

7. The volunteers wanted to help the flood victims, Kisha and (he, him).

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

183

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

nom. nom., nom.

8. (We, Us) voters sent a message at the election.
9. The two class officers, (he, him) and (I, me), have to organize the food drive before Thanksgiving.
10. Naz and Jenny are better athletes than (they, them).

nom.

11. No one could have been more excited than (I, me).

obj.

12. These algebra problems confuse Rashonda as much as (I, me).

nom.

13. Eleanor chose brighter colors for her picture than (I, me).

obj.

14. The bus picks up An-Mei as early as (I, me).

nom.

15. When I spilled my juice, he was more startled than (I, me).

nom.

16. I could tell Conrad was more nervous than (I, me).

nom.

17. No one I know is a better quarterback than (he, him).

obj.

18. The loss of electricity was less inconvenient for me than (they, them).

nom.

19. What do you think? (We, Us) three are the winners!

nom.

20. When Sarah, Rhoda, and I returned from outdoor survival camp, I had more mosquito bites than (they, them).

nom.

21. It’s so frustrating. I try to work as fast as (they, them), but I always finish last.

nom.

22. Neither of last year’s leads, Ricardo or (he, him), was in the play this year.

obj.

23. English grammar seems easy for both of the editors of the school newspaper,
Joe and (she, her).

nom.

24. The two forwards, Raoul and (he, him), shared the MVP award for the basketball team last year.

nom.

25. I am usually satisfied with much less money than (they, them).

nom.

26. Carlos was more disappointed than (I, me) when we were both cut from the soccer team.

nom.

27. The two teenagers, Saul and (she, her), usually have dinner ready when their grandmother gets home from work.

obj.

28. The new computer software was easy to master for both students, Gretchen and (he, him).

obj.

29. We are sending blankets and winter clothes to the earthquake victims we know, Katherine and (she, her).

184 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

nom.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 54

Who and Whom in Questions and Subordinate Clauses
Use the nominative pronoun who for subjects. Use the objective pronoun whom for the direct or indirect object of a verb or verbal or for the object of a preposition.
Who wants to try out for the play? (nominative)
Whom did you see at the mall? (objective)
Jarod, who lives next door, has a trampoline. (nominative)
Gwen, whom he had known for years, was now an actress. (objective)

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write who or whom in the blank to make each sentence correct.
My sister, [

who

likes to play basketball, is trying out for the team.

1. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, [
United States, was born in 1882.

was elected the thirty-second president of the

2. He was the only child of James Roosevelt, [ family in New York.
3. Franklin’s mother, [ him. was named Sara Delano Roosevelt, was very devoted to

4. Franklin was a very athletic young man [ swimming. 5. In 1905, he married Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. Eleanor, to [ she was ten years old.

descended from a well-to-do Dutch

was an expert in boating and was a distant cousin.

Sara Roosevelt objected as a wife for Franklin, was orphaned when

7. At the wedding the bride was given away by another Roosevelt [ and Franklin admired.
8. This Roosevelt, [

both Eleanor

was Eleanor’s uncle, was Theodore.

9. Theodore Roosevelt, [ became president when William McKinley was assassinated, was one of the most popular presidents in U.S. history.
10. In 1920, Franklin ran for vice president as the running mate for James M. Cox, [ the voters rejected in favor of Warren Harding.
11. Less than a year later, the young, athletic Franklin, [ activity, was stricken with poliomyelitis.

greatly enjoyed physical

12. His mother, [ was forever present in Franklin and Eleanor’s life, wanted him to retire from politics and live as a country squire.
13. His wife, Eleanor, [ involved in politics.

he relied for advice and support, urged him to remain

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

185

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. In 1928, Franklin Roosevelt, [ was elected governor of New York.

had been paralyzed by polio seven years earlier,

15. When the stock market crashed in 1929, Herbert Hoover, [ president in 1928, was blamed for the economic disaster.
16. Many voters wondered to [

had been elected

they might turn for new leadership.

17. In 1932, the voters elected Franklin Roosevelt, [ had nothing to fear but fear itself.

encouraged them by saying they

19. FDR, with [
Allies triumph.

the world fought for freedom in World War II, did not live to see the

20. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, [ was one of the twentieth century’s most skillful political leaders, is the only person elected to the U.S. presidency four times.
21. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, [

was called Eleanor, was born in 1884.

22. Her father, Elliott, [
England.

was Theodore Roosevelt’s brother, sent her to school in

23. Franklin Roosevelt, to [ few years after their wedding.

Eleanor was married, embarked on a political career a

24. Eleanor and Franklin had five children, of [
25. Franklin, [

little has been written.

was battling polio, relied on his wife to perform many tasks.

26. She, [ joined the Women’s Trade Union League, also served as financial chairperson for the women’s division of the state Democratic Party.
27. President Roosevelt, [ at times was considered a controversial figure, was almost outshone in some respects by Eleanor.
28. Some people made jokes about the woman to [ important jobs.

the President entrusted many

29. Franklin, [ often stayed at the White House, relied on Eleanor to tour the nation and report on current conditions.
30. Press conferences for women correspondents were instituted by Eleanor, [ through several gender barriers.
31. Beginning in 1936, Eleanor, [
32. She wrote for people with [
33. For those to [ her influence.

broke

was First Lady, wrote a daily newspaper column. she wished to share her experiences.

she is unfamiliar, it may be difficult to understand the depth of

34. Mrs. Roosevelt, [ was concerned about the plight of children during the
Depression, took an avid interest in the President’s plans to help them.

186 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

18. FDR, [ the world will never forget, brought America into World War II to help
Western Europe defend itself against Adolf Hitler.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 55

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement in Number and Gender
An antecedent is the word or group of words to which a pronoun refers or that a pronoun replaces. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter). A pronoun’s antecedent may be a noun, another pronoun, or a phrase or clause acting as a noun.
Paula brought her grandfather to speak to the class.

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Complete the sentence by adding a personal pronoun that agrees with the antecedent. Underline the antecedent.
Carla left [

her

gloves on the kitchen table.

1. The students should have [

books by Friday.

2. Every person must bring [

own towel to gym class. started [

3. Many older Americans know the exact date [
4. Only three club members paid [

first job.

dues by the deadline.

5. If you think the colors clash, we will change [

.

6. When my mom and her four sisters were children, [
7. Claude and Norman practice [

all shared one big bedroom.

sidestrokes every day.

8. Gloria works for two hours every day after [

leaves school.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. Sometimes people without experience are intimidated by computers. [ needn’t be.
10. Gabriel and Chad don’t want to work after school, but [
11. Natasha and Paul found [

need the money.

share an interest in classical automobiles.

12. George and Susan both brought [

snakes to science class when we studied

reptiles.
13. Some students don’t take class elections very seriously; [
14. Each participant can be very proud of [
15. I think my grandma is the best gardener in [

should. accomplishments. neighborhood.

16. They finally decided Jack must have the tickets in [
17. Dad says all of [

room.

children spend too much of [

time watching

television.
Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

187

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Ramona and her friends left [
19. The college sends most of [
20. Abdul and Larry showed [

biology books in the library. messages to students by electronic mail. could hit a ball out of the ballpark.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct each personal pronoun in italics so it agrees with its antecedent in the sentence. Cross out the incorrect pronoun, and write the correct word above it. Do not change any pronouns that already agree with the antecedent in number and gender.

1. Maria and Sean thought the computer was just what they needed to make their business work.
2. The artists displayed her paintings in the new gallery.
3. David forgot to pay her club dues.
4. Most students in Ms. Cynkar’s class really enjoyed their lessons.
5. Kristen organized its desk for better efficiency.
6. My friends and I attended the football game; then he walked uptown.
7. Fred does not neglect his health.
8. Jacob likes the game of soccer. It plays often.
9. Did Kay lose the assignment sheet from our notebook?
10. Angela was too busy with her college courses.
11. The author had become accustomed to the criticism about their books.
12. The pioneers spent many hours preparing its homes for winter.
13. Martina would like to give his opinion on the topic.
14. Each animal makes their own unique sound.
15. Sandy succeeded in attaining her goal.
16. Did Jack lend you their pencil?
17. This tree has not yet shed their leaves.
18. Brian decided to take responsibility for their own chores.
19. Each student spent extra time learning the concepts we hadn’t mastered.
20. At dawn, Miguel folded their sleeping bag and left the tent.

188 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

their
The musicians began tuning her instruments.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 56

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement in Person
A pronoun must agree in person with its antecedent. When the antecedent of a pronoun is another pronoun, be sure that the two pronouns agree in person.
Bryan gave his old guitar to Jacob.

We want our money back!

Juan is planning [

his

vacation.

1. The students in Mrs. Nakleh’s social studies class discussed how [

would spend

the vacation.
2. Kristen thought her younger brothers might be frightened when [

were close to

snakes.
3. Alligators are again plentiful in the Southeast, and hunting [
4. Jason was spending the week with [

is now allowed.

dad in Boston, where [

were

going to watch two Celtics games.
5. Alfredo likes to be by the sea, where [

can smell the air with [

salty taste.
6. People can watch the seagulls swoop down to find [
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

7. Each businessman gave [
8. We wanted to see [

dinner in the Boston Harbor.

report at the board meeting. new apartment before moving in.

9. In the spring, the robin was busy building [

nest.

10. Anita plays both volleyball and basketball, but volleyball is [
11. Sam and Jose, who sing duets, agree [
12. Michael’s father wants [

favorite sport.

need more practice before the contest. to take geometry and accelerated English next year.

13. Cats like to relax in the sun and stretch [

bodies.

14. Brett’s nickname is “Stretch,” which refers to [

height.

15. Nathan and Elizabeth cannot go out for pizza because [
16. That particular fish has black stripes along [
17. I saw so many things that impressed [

have terrible colds. sides. in Washington, D.C.
Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

189

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Fill in the blank with the correct personal pronoun. Underline the antecedent for each pronoun.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

18. Colleen moved to New York to work for an uncle and [

wife.

19. We, as citizens of the United States, have to take responsibility for [

country’s

success.
20. Sidney moved to the city of Seattle and became a member of [

city council.

her
Katrina wants to finish his homework before dinner.
1. The first thing Mario realized when you backpacked was how heavy the pack could feel.
2. When Connor heard Rose sing, you were amazed at the high notes she could reach.
3. Barry finds it hard to concentrate when there is so much going on around you.
4. Jianming will be the first person in her family to go to college, where you plans to study medicine.
5. You can get such sore muscles when they run farther than usual.
6. The ice was so slick that with the first step I fell on your face.
7. I just love to smell fresh bread baking when you get up in the morning.
8. Sometimes I am so tired when you get off work that you fall asleep without eating my dinner.
9. I often fall asleep in the living room when you read late at night.
10. I looked and looked until you couldn’t see it anymore.
11. My mom is so patient with me. You can’t help but love her.
12. I studied so hard for this test that you thought you knew everything.
13. When they turn fourteen, tell them you should consider volunteer work at the hospital.
14. We visited with my grandparents, who are so active they tired you out.
15. The baby wiggled so much I thought I were going to drop him.
16. After the scouts trekked up the mountain side, it collapsed in relief when you reached the summit. 190 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 2 Find the personal pronouns that have antecedents within each sentence or sentence group. Draw one line under the personal pronoun. Draw two lines under its antecedent. Change the personal pronoun to agree in person with its antecedent. Correct the verb if necessary.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 57

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement with
Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents
In general, use a singular personal pronoun when the antecedent is a singular indefinite pronoun, such as anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone, or something. If the antecedent refers to a person and the gender is not specific, it is usually most acceptable to use he or she, him or her, or his or hers.

Grammar

Each of the boys folded his sleeping bag. Anyone can bring his or her favorite CD.
Use a plural personal pronoun when the antecedent is a plural indefinite pronoun, such as several, both, few, and many.
Both of the runners broke their previous records.
Some indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence: all, any, enough, more, most, none, and some.
We will play if enough of the students bring their equipment.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write a personal pronoun that agrees with the indefinite pronoun antecedent in the sentence. Underline the antecedent.
Few of the glee club members forgot [
1. Everyone has to finish [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Many will find that [

their

music.

assignment before Thursday. uniforms from last year are now too small.

3. Does anyone disagree with me? Let [

say so now.

4. Someone took the wrong jacket. If [
5. All of the computers lost [

returns it, please call me. power. 6. Many of the graduates did not even recognize [
7. Both of the contestants were nervous; [

classmates at the reunion. kept shifting their feet.

8. After gym on Monday, only one of the boys made it to [
9. Everyone must pay for [
10. One of these girls assembled [
11. No one should lend [
12. Each of the girls had to show [

next class on time.

ticket before boarding the bus. own computer. comb to anyone else. could make ten baskets in a row.

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

191

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. Everyone who gets a ninety or better on the final can submit [ application for the accelerated course.
14. All of the band members will be in [

seats ten minutes before the performance.

15. Everybody can take a break whenever [

needs one.

16. Neither of the girls made the team of [

choice.

17. Each of the students in English class named [

favorite author. own combination.

19. Isn’t it strange how all of our parents think [

know just how we feel?

20. During the blackout, everyone coped in [[

own way.

21. A few of our students don’t seem to understand how [
22. Remember to put everything back in [

can help.

place.

23. Some of our neighbors have already shoveled [

sidewalks.

24. You can keep the money you found since nobody says it belongs to [
25. Several of my friends are going. [

.

parents say it’s okay.

26. Mike said he has something important to tell me. I wonder what [
27. We thought we had plenty of sugar, but we ran out of [
28. Most of the trees lost [

is. before we finished baking.

leaves in Saturday’s storm.

29. Do any of them know the answer? It doesn’t seem [

do.

30. Since most of the volunteers signed up for another rotation, [

must be happy

doing the work.
31. Neither of the students failed [

test.

32. Anybody would be happy to have this album in [
33. I will take both. Will you send [
34. Some of the cheese has mold on [

collection.

to me?
.

35. Some of the books have very sophisticated vocabulary in [
36. Does anybody have a comb in [
37. Few understand how much [

locker? can contribute.

38. None of the rivers in the area overflowed [

banks.

39. Anything you can do will be appreciated. [
40. Most of the old silver had lost [

192 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

.

is more than will be done otherwise. shine. Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

18. For added security, everyone must memorize [[

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 58

Clear Pronoun Reference
Make sure that the antecedent of a pronoun is clearly stated and that a pronoun cannot possibly refer to more than one antecedent. Do not use the pronouns this, that, which, and it without a clearly stated antecedent. If a pronoun seems to refer to more than one antecedent, either reword the sentence to make the antecedent clear or eliminate the pronoun. Avoid the indefinite use of the pronouns you and they.

The home team played the visiting team, and they lost the game.
The home team played the visiting team, and the visiting team lost the game.
1. In the mid-1800s the best way to get a letter from New York to San Francisco was to ship it around South America, which was slow and expensive.
In the mid-1800s the best way to get a letter from New York to San Francisco was to ship it around South America, but this method was slow and expensive.
2. Clipper ships took about three months to make the trip, which was too long.
To make the trip clipper ships took about three months, which was too long.
3. Even after railroads began to be built, you couldn’t take them across the country.
Even after railroads began to be built, they did not go across the country.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. They did not have railroad tracks between Missouri and the Pacific Coast.
There were no railroad tracks between Missouri and the Pacific Coast.
5. This was called the “great American desert,” where they didn’t live.
This was called the “great American desert,” where few Americans lived.
6. Some stagecoaches crossed this land, which was very slow.
Some stagecoaches crossed this land, but stagecoach travel was very slow.
7. You could get mail to Missouri, which was sent from New York in four days.
Mail could be sent from New York to Missouri in four days.
8. Then the mail carriers had to cross the plains and then maneuver through the mountains, which stretched for 1,500 miles.
Then the mail carriers had to cross the plains, which stretched for 1,500 miles, and then maneuver through the mountains.

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

193

Grammar

ᮣ Exercise 1 Rewrite each sentence to eliminate any unclear pronoun reference. Answers may vary. Suggestions are given.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. You could get a letter from Missouri to California in 25 days, which was almost 2,000 miles.
A letter could be sent from Missouri to California, a distance of almost 2,000 miles, in 25 days.
10. Then in 1860, they created the Pony Express.
Then in 1860, the Pony Express was created.
11. This was a series of relay stations where fresh horses and riders waited to take the mail, which were much faster than stagecoaches.
The Pony Express was a series of relay stations where fresh horses and riders waited to take the mail. It was

12. They carried the mail 220 miles each day.
The Pony Express riders carried the mail 220 miles each day.
13. At first, the relay stations were 25 miles apart, which was too far for them to run at full speed.
At first, the relay stations were 25 miles apart, a distance that was too far for horses to run at full speed.
14. Intermediate depots were set up every 10 to 15 miles where you could change mounts.
Intermediate depots, where riders could change mounts, were set up every 10 to 15 miles.
15. Your mail got from Missouri to San Francisco in 10 days.
Mail got from Missouri to San Francisco in 10 days.
16. The Pony Express received no subsidy from the government, which stopped operating after a year and a half.
The Pony Express, which stopped operating after a year and a half, received no subsidy from the government.
17. The Pony Express came to be one of the most colorful episodes of the American West, which was a financial disaster.
The Pony Express, which was a financial disaster, came to be one of the most colorful episodes of the
American West.
18. Then in 1861, the first telegraph lines were stretched across the country, which allowed you to send messages faster.
Then in 1861, the first telegraph lines, which allowed messages to be sent faster, were stretched across the country. 19. At almost the same time, the Pony Express stopped operating, which was very expensive.
At almost the same time, the Pony Express, which was very expensive, stopped operating.
20. In 1869, they built the first transcontinental railroad.
In 1869, the first transcontinental railroad was built.

194 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

a system that was much faster than stagecoaches.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 8 Review
ᮣ Exercise Cross out each inappropriate pronoun and write the correct word above it. her 1.
2.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

195

Grammar

3.

Dominique is displaying their paintings in her father’s office.
We
Us students decided to change our plans. your You
Choose you courses wisely. Your will only be a sophomore once. them Mrs. Zimmerman and Mr. Cane are great teachers. Try to get her for at least one class.
Whom
Who did you think we would choose? her she them Sheila generally takes longer to finish their chores than the rest of us. Do you think her likes it?
I
my
I try to finish some of my homework in study hall so they don’t have to carry home their books.
I
My advisor suggested I try either French or Spanish for my foreign language, but you won’t
I
I know what you like until you’ve tried it. myself I try to get to school early on Thursdays, but it’s hard to get yourself going in the morning. they Give George and Allen the homework from the classes he missed. his, her, his or her
Everybody must see their advisor this week. she The co-presidents of the Service Club, Rashid and her, are trying to organize a food drive for
Thanksgiving.
their
The members of the football team all celebrated the victory with its voices raised high. his, her, his or her
Everyone who takes art must provide their own pastels. who Ginny looks so much like her sister, whom is a senior, that it is hard to tell them apart. he Jose’s dad doesn’t have to work this weekend, so they might be able to drive us to the game.
Who
Whom do you think will get the soprano solo for the spring concert? he Our leading scorers, Ryan and him, will get trophies at the ceremony.
I do
I take the bus with Sinead and Javier, but they get off before me. she Sonya sold more raffle tickets this year than her did last year. she Neither of the girls could remember just why they chose this course. me She, together with Rhea and I, is ready to audition now. him Please give the new schedules to the co-captains, Yong and he.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1– 8

1.

Grammar

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

v.
d.o.
The pilot guided her plane to the runway. subj. v.
d.o.
Leanne, my friend, gave me the picture on that table.
v. i.o.
Give me your homework after school. app. p.n.
Mr. Kwan, the class advisor, is a graduate of Harvard. subj. d.o.
Karen not only ran in the marathon but also set a personal record.
v.
subj.
What is the reason for your tardiness? subj. p.a.
p.a.
The puppy was frightened but friendly as the visitors arrived.
v.
d.o.
I passed the exam! subj. p.n.
My mother is a civil engineer for the government.
v.
d.o.
Close all the animal cages before you leave tonight.
v.
p.a.
The cake tasted delicious. subj. v.
d.o.
v.
Abdul missed the bus and was late for work.
i.o.
d.o.
Joshua gave me a dozen roses for my birthday. subj. v.
What a lousy concert that was! subj. app.
p.a.
Sarah, our student council president, became speechless.
v. subj.
v.
Have you ever traveled down the Mississippi River by steamboat? subj. subj. v.
v.
Both the garage and the car were destroyed by the storm. subj. p.n.
p.n.
Franklin was an inventor and a statesman.
v.
d.o.
Please shut the window because it is raining. subj. p.a.
p.a.
The practical joke was neither clever nor funny.
v.
v. i.o.
d.o.
Did the roller coaster ride give you a thrill? app. v.
d.o.
Mr. Sampson, the principal, read the morning announcements over the public address system. subj. d.o.
The director shot some spectacular footage in the Alps. subj. v. i.o. app. Your father gave me this book, a collection of poems.

196 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Label each word or phrase that is italicized to indicate its use in the sentence. Use these abbreviations: subj. (subject), v. (verb), i.o. (indirect object), d.o. (direct object), p.n.
(predicate nominative), app. (appositive), or p.a. (predicate adjective).

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

subj. v.
24. Stop! Your time is up.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw two lines under the verb or verb phrase. In the blank, write its tense: present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect. Label each pronoun: nom.
(nominative), obj. (objective), pos. (possessive). pos. past present perfect

past present future

pos.
1. The Iowa farmer has planted his crops.
2. The parade will have passed the city park by noon. pos. 3. The insensitive people laughed loudly at my new ideas. nom. pos.
4. I cheer tirelessly at our football games. pos. obj.
5. Your roommate will call you soon.

past perfect

pos. obj. 6. Mom and my sister had baked the cookies for us.

future perfect

nom. pos. 7. Maybe we will have built our new home by then.

present past future past perfect
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

future perfect

The cat slithered across her owner’s porch.

pos.
8. The coach always insists on faithful attendance at our practices.
9. The airplane landed safely after the severe storm. nom. obj.
10. When will you help with mine?
11. The math team had solved every single problem on time.

pos. pos. present perfect 12. Your workers have finished their duties on time. future past future perfect past perfect present future future perfect

nom.
13. I shall always crave chocolate ice cream. obj. 14. The musicians’ mothers made the costumes for them.
15. The candles will have burned to nothing by tonight. pos. 16. Our president had opened the board meetings on time. pos. 17. Sometimes our thoughts turn to the upcoming weekend.
18. Mia will graduate with academic honors.
19. David will have waxed three cars by ten o’clock.

Unit 8, Using Pronouns Correctly

197

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

past perfect future perfect past future

pos. pos. 21. Your beautiful art project will have caught their attention. obj. 22. At the grocery store, the flustered cashier gave her too much change. pos. 23. Will your parents travel to Europe? nom. pos.
24. We hope for good health throughout our lives.

ᮣ Exercise 3 Correct the following sentences. Cross out any incorrect words and write the changes above them. Look for subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and correct verb tense. works her
Susan work for his uncle after school. calls him, her, or him or her
1. If the teacher call your name, please respond to them.
We
2. Us voters will go to the polls on Tuesday to elect our government officials. make They are
3. Golden retrievers makes wonderful family pets. It is easy to train, too.
Whom
4. Who are you inviting to your party? is I
5. Concert choir are my favorite class. You am often asked to sing solos. his, her, or his or her
6. No one can register for classes without their advisor’s signature. works She
7. Jennifer work at the library. Her is always reading the latest best-seller. has 8. The soybean crop have withered in the drought. was 9. My most enjoyable vacation were hiking through the Rocky Mountains. are Their
10. Frank Lloyd Wright and I.M. Pei is famous architects. His work is known throughout the world. knows his
11. Eric know a great deal about computer programming, but he won’t share its knowledge. visit they their 12. Cassie and Jess often visits Hawaii, where she can enjoy his favorite sport, surfing.
Give
them
13. Gave the extra programs to Kurt and Sean. They will know what to do with it. their 14. Certain members refused to pay its monthly dues. look I
I
15. When I looks at the artwork done by the seniors, we wonder if we will ever be able to do as well. 198 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

present

pos. nom. 20. The other members of our tour had taken more pictures than we.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 9: Using Modifiers Correctly
Lesson 59

Modifiers: Three Degrees of Comparison
Most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees: the positive, or base, form; the comparative form; and the superlative form.
The positive form of a modifier cannot be used to make a comparison. (This form appears as the entry word in the dictionary.)

Grammar

The comparative form of a modifier shows two things being compared.
The superlative form of a modifier shows three or more things being compared.
Positive:
Comparative:
Superlative:

The brown calf is heavy.
The cat ran swiftly.
The white calf is heavier than the brown calf.
My dog ran more swiftly than the cat.
The spotted calf is the heaviest calf in the herd.
I ran most swiftly of all.

In general, form the comparative by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est. (In some cases a spelling change is required.) green hot ugly greener hotter uglier

greenest hottest ugliest

loud true pretty

louder truer prettier

loudest truest prettiest

Use more and most (or less and least for the opposite) to form the degrees of comparison in the following situations:
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. adverbs that end in -ly.
I see Sesto’s point more clearly than Gabrielle’s.
2. modifiers of three or more syllables.
I think the green house is the most attractive house on the block.
3. whenever adding -er and -est sounds awkward.
John was more afraid than Carol.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Supply the comparative and superlative forms of the following modifiers.
POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

happy

happier

happiest

tinier

tiniest

1. tiny

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

199

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

bravest

more comfortable

most comfortable

4. long

longer

longest

5. icy

icier

iciest

6. heartily

more heartily

most heartily

7. hearty

heartier

heartiest

8. hesitant

more hesitant

most hesitant

9. big

bigger

biggest

10. just

more just

most just

11. pretty

prettier

prettiest

12. loud

louder

loudest

13. slow

slower

slowest

14. rapidly

more rapidly

most rapidly

15. shiny

shinier

shiniest

16. loving

more loving

most loving

17. low

lower

lowest

18. savory

more savory

most savory

19. wobbly

wobblier

wobbliest

20. scary

scarier

scariest

ᮣ Writing Link Write four sentences using (1) the comparative of flat; (2) the superlative of keen;
(3) the comparative of swiftly; and (4) the superlative of frugal.

200 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

braver

3. comfortable

Grammar

2. brave

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 60

Modifiers: Irregular Comparisons
A few modifiers form their comparative and superlative degrees irregularly. Memorizing is the most helpful way to master them.
MODIFIERS WITH IRREGULAR FORMS OF COMPARISON
COMPARATIVE
better better worse worse farther further less more more

SUPERLATIVE
(the) best
(the) best
(the) worst
(the) worst
(the) farthest
(the) furthest
(the) least
(the) most
(the) most

Grammar

POSITIVE good well bad badly far (distance) far (degree, time) little (amount) many much

ᮣ Exercise 1 Complete each sentence with the correct form of the modifier in parentheses.
The exhausted tennis champ played [
1. Yosef’s test score was [
2. That was [

4. The Flying A was [
5. She stammered [
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

better

the worst

3. Carrie was [

8. Clara garnered [

match of the tournament. (bad)

than Harold’s. (good)

day of my entire life. (bad)

more

patient than Eduardo. (much)

the farthest

ranch from town. (far)

badly or worse or the worst

6. Sand, Shells and Time was [
7. Anton had delved [

the worst

the best further photo in the contest. (good)

into psychology than I had suspected. (far)

the most

votes of any candidate. (many)

9. The new roof withstood the storm [

better

10. With five children at home, Mary had [

than the shutters. (well)

the least

11. Isabel was hired instead of Alan because she had [
(many)
12. The adoption of a baby brought Carlos and Anita [ ever known. (much)
13. The woman’s condition was [

during her first speech. (badly)

worse

14. The school board’s plan for redistricting received [ expected. (little)

free time of any member. (little) many or more the most

qualifications. joy that they had

than it was yesterday. (bad) less enthusiasm than

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

201

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. Anna maneuvered her horse [ the worst

17. Melanie walked [

of all the teenagers. (well)

of all. (badly)

farther

and [

farther

18. Doctors found that the new strain of the virus was the [
19. Have you ever heard a [

bad or worse

26. Jim put forth his [

Grammar

pleasure from his radio than from his

the farthest

worse

she had ever been from home. (far)

than last week. (badly) good or best

effort on his vegetable garden. (good)

27. “There’s no sense in discussing this any [

further

28. Which of the two children collected [

more

29. Carla finished the marathon in [

better

30. Many landlords allot [

the least

time than Sarah or Liza. (well)

money possible for maintenance. (little)

32. Of all the children, Rena showed the [
(much)

more most 33. Both men had an ill temper, but John’s was [ best less

. (bad)

from the drought than the ones on the worst

of all the

Al carried the peat moss, the heavier it seemed. (far)

38. Holiday shopping seems to bring out the [
39. A hurricane is [

concern for the missing puppy. worse 36. Ruta was embarrassed because she had behaved [ disappointed children. (badly) farther details left out of the

of all in loose soil with lots of sun. (well)

35. The crops by the creek suffered [ the hillside. (little)

37. The [

,” shouted the young man. (far)

apples? (many)

31. Charles was upset when he found there were [ report than were included. (many)

34. Vegetables grow [

detail. (far)

in twelve years. (bad)

more

24. Two hundred miles was [

one yet. (bad)

than his last one? (good)

the worst

23. The old man received [ television. (much)

25. I bowled [

furthest

better

22. Last night’s storm was [

worst

speech? (bad)

20. The professor explored each topic to its [
21. Was Mickey’s rendition [

every day. (far)

worse

worst

tempers of the year. (bad)

than a tropical storm. (bad)

40. The psychiatrist delved into the [

202 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

furthest

recesses of the man’s mind. (far)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

16. Jorge batted [

the best

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 61

Modifiers: Double and Incomplete Comparisons
Do not make a double comparison by using both -er or -est and more (less) or most
(least).
Incorrect:
Correct:
Incorrect:
Correct:

A redwood grows more taller than an oak.
A redwood grows taller than an oak.
Billie is my most closest friend.
Billie is my closest friend.

Unclear:
Clear:
Unclear:
Clear:

Grammar

Do not make an incomplete or unclear comparison by omitting other or else when you compare one member of a group with another.
Mercury is closer to the sun than any planet.
Mercury is closer to the sun than any other planet.
My aunt has more pets than anyone.
My aunt has more pets than anyone else.

Be sure your comparisons are between like things.
Unclear:
Clear:
Clear:
Unclear:
Clear:
Clear:

The head of a gorilla is larger than a chimpanzee. (The head of a gorilla is not larger than a whole chimpanzee.)
The head of a gorilla is larger than that of a chimpanzee.
The head of a gorilla is larger than a chimpanzee’s.
Maria’s hair is darker than Elke.
Maria’s hair is darker than that of Elke.
Maria’s hair is darker than Elke’s.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle any double or incomplete comparisons. Write C in the blank if the sentence is correct.
Marcia’s papers are more neater now.
1. One of the most scariest rides at an amusement park is the roller coaster.
2. Our candidate gave the most clearest answer.
C

3. Leigh liked ice cream better than sherbert.
4. Elaine finished the book sooner than anyone.
5. Jamaal’s schedule was tighter than Fred.
6. Lazy students in my class are most likeliest to fail.

C

7. Do you like pork chops better than lamb chops?
8. Brett can type more faster than I.
9. Seth can swim faster than anyone on the team.
Unit 9, Using Modifers Correctly

203

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. New York is the most largest of the four cities.
11. The patient was feeling more better today.
C

12. Four-cylinder engines get better mileage than eight-cylinder engines.
13. A rabbit’s ears are longer than a cat.
14. A teacher spends the most largest amount of time in preparing lessons and in grading papers.
15. The Joneses’ house cost less than the Murphys’.
16. Minneapolis is colder than any city I’ve lived in.
17. My mom says that I’m the most worst procrastinator in the family.

C

18. Henri likes sirloin better than any other meat.
19. Kristen is more happier in her job than most individuals.

C

20. English grammar is less consistent than Italian grammar.
21. Janice has more better study habits than Nicole.
22. The Irish wolfhound is the most largest dog I’ve ever seen.
23. An eagle’s claws are more powerful than a chicken hawk.
24. I like the Cleveland Browns better than Los Angeles.

C

25. The new catcher is a better hitter than anyone else on the team.
26. This oak chair is more solid than any piece of furniture.
27. That is the most tamest horse in the stable.
28. More than any insect, ants and bees have an organized society.
29. Elephants are larger than any land animals.

C

30. Brian was more hopeful than his friend about being selected for the team.
31. The Nile is the most longest river in the world.
32. His house was more bigger than ours.

C

33. Because he had many years of experience, Julio’s knowledge was broader than that of any other beginner.
34. Jenny was the most clumsiest gymnast on the school’s team.
35. This book is funnier than any book I’ve ever read.
36. Don’t you think Joe Montana is a better quarterback than any football player?

204 Writer’s Choice Grammar Workbook 9, Unit 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

C

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 62

Using Good or Well; Bad or Badly
Always use good as an adjective. Well may be used as either an adverb of manner telling how ably something is done or as an adjective meaning “in good health.”
The beginning is a good place to start. (adjective)
You look good in blue. (predicate adjective)
Can you see well from your seat? (adverb of manner)
Aren’t you feeling well? (predicate adjective meaning “in good health”)

Grammar

Always use bad as an adjective. Therefore, bad is used after a linking verb. Use badly as an adverb. Badly almost always follows an action verb.
Route 7 has bad curves. (adjective)
Harry’s hair looks bad. (adjective following a linking verb)
I feel bad that your candidate lost the election. (adjective following a linking verb)
Carrie sings badly. (adverb following an action verb)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Fill each blank with the correct form of good, well, bad, or badly.
It is a smart idea for a person to have a [

good

hobby.

1. The newly formed Riverside Writers Club was off to a [
2. Margit was elected president because she edited [
3. All seventeen members felt [

good

good or bad well start.

.

about helping each other improve their skills.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Consuelo found that reading others’ manuscripts helped her to recognize the [ spots in her own work.
5. Receiving criticism made Sean feel [ helped him improve. bad 6. While [ universal concern.

bad

good or bad

until he realized that such comments really

grammar plagues everyone at times, style development is also a

7. So far, every meeting had gone [ well or badly .
8. In January, the meeting was cancelled due to a [

bad

winter storm.

9. Dan missed the March meeting because he was not feeling [
10. Knute Petersen (editor of the Daily News) presented a [ free-lance opportunities.

well good . overview of local

11. One of the most popular meetings was a talk by a magazine editor discussing [ and [

bad

good

submissions.

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

205

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. A writer’s submission would be rejected if it did not fit in [ needs. 13. In April, Robert enthusiastically announced the [ assignment from Boys’ Life.
14. He attributed the acceptance to a [

good

well

good

news that he had received an

query letter.

15. Excitement spread through the group because each member [ plateau. 16. As the months passed, each member found ways for [ help. good

badly

coveted this new

fellowship as well as peer

17. Hector’s humorous stories prompted Sarah to comment, “He writes [ well or badly , but I’m not sure he is [ well or bad

!”

18. The Riverside Writers Club is one of many peer support groups that provide [ needed encouragement for their members.
19. Neophyte writers generally respond [

well

badly

to peer review and encouragement.

20. If you and your friends write, forming a similar group is a [ and effort.

good

investment in time

ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle each incorrect use of good, well, bad, or badly. Write the correct word on the blank. Write C if the sentence is correct. well Not everyone does good at the same thing.

badly

1. Some people write bad and have no interest in writing at all.

well

2. A writing club would not serve their needs very good.

badly

3. Kermit wanted bad to start a local theater group in his small town.

C

4. He felt this would be a way to gain some good experience in his area of interest.

bad

5. Any hope for a successful start looked badly at first, but Kermit was determined.

good

6. Soon everything looked well as more people became interested and contributed their time and effort to the cause.

well
C

7. The group was able to find a play that suited their needs good.
8. Now was a good time to solicit money from local businesses to subsidize the first performance.

badly badly 9. Space to rehearse and perform was needed bad.
10. This was an exciting time, and it felt as if things would never go bad for the theater group again.

206 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

with the publisher’s

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 63

Double Negatives
In general, do not use a double negative (two negative words in the same clause). Use only one negative word to express a negative idea. Most negative words have positive forms. You can usually use positive forms to correct double negatives.
POSITIVE
either ever any, a anybody NEGATIVE none no one nothing nowhere

POSITIVE any any one anything anywhere

Incorrect:
Correct:
Correct:
Incorrect:
Correct:
Correct:

We haven’t been to no concerts this year.
We haven’t been to any concerts this year.
We’ve been to no concerts this year.
Kathy never did nothing to justify expulsion.
Kathy never did anything to justify expulsion.
Kathy did nothing to justify expulsion.

Grammar

NEGATIVE neither never no nobody

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle each phrase containing a double negative. Rewrite the phrase correctly in the blank. Write C if the sentence is correct. would be no or wouldn’t be any

There wouldn’t be no opportunity for the entire team to go to camp. C

1. Football camp is really nothing like summer camp.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

aren’t any or are no

2. There aren’t no activities that are unrelated to the sport of football.

have no or don’t have any

3. You don’t have no reason to be there unless you truly want to play.

doesn’t leave any or leaves no

4. Football camp doesn’t leave no opportunity to sleep late.

C

5. Nobody ever went to football camp to rest!

C

6. After breakfast, which no one ever misses, conditioning activities begin. Nothing will ever

7. Nothing will never protect a player from injury more than conditioning. There are no or There aren’t any don’t practice anything

8. There aren’t no exercises that the players find easy.
9. We don’t practice nothing but drills to prepare us for the actual game. Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

207

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

C

10. Players can never learn enough about the importance of commitment. ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle the two negative words in each double negative. Rewrite the sentence correctly in the blank. Write C if the sentence is correct. Answers may vary. Some suggestions are given. Staying at home all summer never is no fun. Staying at home all summer never is any fun.
1. The first time I went to summer camp, I didn’t expect to have no fun. The first time I went to

2. When my parents dropped me off, there wasn’t no one around that I knew. When my parents dropped me off, there was no one around that I knew.
3. Because I was the last to arrive, I didn’t get no choice of bunks. Because I was the last to arrive,
I didn’t get any choice of bunks.
4. I wasn’t getting nowhere with making my bunk until my counselor helped me.

I was getting

nowhere with making my bunk until my counselor helped me
5. It took a long time to fix the sheets, and I was afraid I wouldn’t get no supper. It took a long time to fix the sheets, and I was afraid I wouldn’t get any supper.
6. In the mess hall, I sat beside Carlos, who hadn’t made no friends either. In the mess hall, I sat beside Carlos, who had made no friends either.
7. I won’t never forget Carlos because he became my best friend at camp. I will never forget Carlos because he became my best friend at camp.
8. One day when there wasn’t no one around, we tied the counselor’s shaving gear to the rafters.
One day when there wasn’t anyone around, we tied the counselor’s shaving gear to the rafters.
9. Carlos and I promised not to play no tricks on each other. Carlos and I promised not to play any tricks on each other.
10. I never got bitten by no mosquitoes because I wore plenty of insect repellent. I never got bitten by any mosquitoes because I wore plenty of insect repellent.
11. When we hiked in the woods, we weren’t allowed to build no fires. When we hiked in the woods, we weren’t allowed to build any fires.
12. We looked for wild animals, but we didn’t see nothing but birds and squirrels. wild animals, but we didn’t see anything but birds and squirrels.

208 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

We looked for

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

summer camp, I didn’t expect to have any fun.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 64

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
Place modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear.
Misplaced modifiers modify the wrong word, or they seem to modify more than one word in a sentence. To correct a misplaced modifier, move the modifier as close as possible to the word it modifies.
Floating in the wind, Hannah stared wistfully at the kite.
Hannah stared wistfully at the kite floating in the wind.
A new man’s suit was in the closet.
A man’s new suit was in the closet.

Grammar

Misplaced:
Clear:
Misplaced:
Clear:

Dangling modifiers seem logically to modify no word at all. To correct a dangling modifier, supply a word the dangling phrase can sensibly modify.
Dangling:
Clear:
Dangling:
Clear:

Working all night long, sleep was welcome.
Working all night long, Francis welcomed sleep.
After a valiant effort the blaze still raged uncontrollably.
After a valiant effort the firefighters still faced a blaze that raged uncontrollably. If the word only is not placed immediately before the word or group of words it modifies, the meaning can be unclear.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Unclear:
Clear:
Clear:
Clear:

Dan only has art on Monday.
Dan has only art on Monday.
Dan has art only on Monday.
Only Dan has art on Monday.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Circle each misplaced modifying phrase and draw an arrow to the word it should modify. If the sentence is correct, place a C in the blank.
Ice cream was served to everyone in a dish.
1. Proposing new menus, healthier school lunches would be offered by the new dietitian.
2. Standing in the cool shower, the summer heat didn’t feel so intense to Danilo.
3. Throw Mama from the train a kiss.
4. Listening to the scanner, the accident sounded extremely serious to Kent.

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

209

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

C

5. Daydreaming quietly, Kai was reflecting on her wonderful excursion to Bermuda.
6. Climbing down from their seats, the stands seemed to sway slightly as people left.
7. Every week while doing the yard work, the mower seems to break down for Carl.
8. Nicole and Isra helped prepare for the prom, working as hard as possible.

C

9. Trying not to scratch herself, Lorena was miserable because of the poison ivy.

Grammar

10. Two deer were spotted by the hunters licking the block of salt in the pasture.
11. Thomas developed pictures for the newspaper of the football games.
12. Climbing into bed, the tornado siren began to blow, scaring the children.
13. At noon, Karen encountered heavy traffic driving to the bank.
14. Erin must have found at least ten sources researching her term paper.
C

15. A delicious lunch with all the trimmings was served to the staff.
16. The president waved to the thousands of people riding in his black limousine.
17. The bears began eating their meal of ants rising from their afternoon naps.

C

18. With great energy, the horses entered the race track.
19. Stumbling over another player’s foot, the crowd gasped as the receiver ran on for a

C

20. Circling overhead, the hawk was searching for its next meal.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Circle any misplaced or dangling modifier. If the sentence is correct, place a C in the blank.
While rafting, the supplies had no chance of staying dry.
1. Sleeping soundly, the alarm clock startled me with its harsh ringing.
2. Walking along the beach, a shell cut Harry’s foot.
C

3. Catching sight of our friends, we waved frantically.
4. While mowing the yard, the mail carrier’s horn announced his presence.
5. Driving along the freeway, the deer ran into the woods.

C

6. Needing a ride to the airport, Mrs. Wiggins called a taxi.

210 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

touchdown.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

C

7. Because I was shy, I had some difficulty making new friends.
8. After standing in line for half an hour, the clerk announced that the store was closed.
9. A story was told to the children with a happy ending.
10. Working at my desk, the sudden noise was startling.

C

11. Gloating over his victory, Bill bored the other wrestlers with his bragging.
12. Running home, my heel came off my shoe.

C

13. Draining the radiator, I replaced the antifreeze.

Grammar

14. Lost in the woods, survival was uppermost in our minds.
15. Lying on the couch, my snack fell to the floor.
16. Reading intently, her entrance broke my concentration.
C

17. Savoring each moment, Eileen and Tracy watched the sunset.
18. A holiday was given to the employees with pay.
19. Walking in the woods, a squirrel darted across Tanya’s path, startling her.
20. After smiling at his girlfriend, Achim’s solo went very well.

C

21. As a successful attorney, Andrea was widely sought.
22. Tired and hungry, a meal and a bed sounded good to me.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 3 Insert a caret (^) to show where the word only should be placed to match the meaning in parentheses.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I watch cartoons on Saturday mornings. (I do nothing else on Saturday mornings.)
^
The green truck was speeding down the gravel road. (There was no other green truck.)
^
The green truck was speeding down the gravel road. (No more than one truck was speeding.)
^
The green truck was speeding down the gravel road. (There was no other gravel road.)
^
Potatoes are the main product of Idaho. (No other state has potatoes as a main product.)

5. Potatoes are the main product of Idaho. (There is no other major product from Idaho.)
^
^
6. Kerry played soccer while attending Northridge High. (Kerry participated in no other sport.)
^
7. Kerry played soccer while attending Northridge High. (Kerry did nothing else but play soccer
^
while in high school.)
8.

Jeanne liked to drive her convertible. (No one enjoyed driving the convertible except Jeanne.)
^

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

211

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. Jeanne liked to drive her convertible. (Jeanne didn’t like driving if the car was not her
^
convertible.)
10. Esther got three books from the library. (No one got the same number of books as Esther.)
^
11. Esther got three books from the library. (Esther got no more than three books.)
^
12. Rover was Adam’s pride and joy. (Rover was the one thing in which Adam took delight.)
^
13. Rover was Adam’s pride and joy. (The other members of the family didn’t care as much for
^
Rover as Adam did.)

15. Airplanes are Linda’s favorite mode of transportation for long trips. (When the trip is short,
^
Linda prefers some other form of travel.)
16. I bought Dad a screwdriver set for Christmas. (No one else got Dad a screwdriver set.)
^
17. I bought Dad a screwdriver set for Christmas. (I bought screwdrivers for no one but Dad.)
^
18. I bought Dad a screwdriver set for Christmas. (I bought one thing for Dad.)
^
ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph about a family outing. Correctly use 2 or 3 modifying phrases and circle them. Use the word only at least once.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

14. Airplanes are Linda’s favorite mode of transportation for long trips. (Linda will make long trips
^ nothing but an airplane.) on 212 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 9 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Supply the comparative and superlative forms of the following modifiers.
SUPERLATIVE

more interested

most interested

2. true

truer

truest

3. luxurious

more luxurious

most luxurious

4. quick

quicker

quickest

5. nice

nicer

nicest

6. speedily

more speedily

most speedily

7. hardy

hardier

hardiest

8. charismatic

more charismatic

most charismatic

9. happy

happier

happiest

10. righteous

more righteous

most righteous

11. noble

nobler

noblest

12. clumsy

clumsier

clumsiest

13. little (amount)

less

least

14. rapidly

more rapidly

most rapidly

15. grimy

grimier

grimiest

16. caring

more caring

most caring

17. able

abler

ablest

18. savory

more savory

most savory

19. calm

calmer

calmest

20. worrisome

more worrisome

most worrisome

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar

COMPARATIVE

1. interested

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

POSITIVE

213

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–9
ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw two lines under the simple predicate in each sentence. Label any direct object
d.o. and any indirect object i.o.
i.o.
d.o.
Ms. Chung gave her students some good advice.
d.o.
1. Dylan returned his library books last night.

i.o. d.o.
3. Father will buy me a car for my sixteenth birthday.
d.o.
4. Did Keshia shovel the snow from the driveway?
i.o.
d.o.
5. She gave the weary mail carrier a glass of water.
i.o.
d.o.
6. Mr. Hayashi handed the flight attendant his ticket.
d.o.
7. Our house needs a new coat of paint.
i.o.
d.o.
8. Mai left the amiable waiter a large tip.
i.o.
d.o.
9. The chef promised me his recipe for moo goo gai pan.
i.o.
d.o.
10. Mr. Lichtenberg gave the football players a pep talk.
d.o.
11. Toto’s makes the best pizza in town.
i.o.
d.o.
12. On your vacation will you send us a postcard?
d.o.
13. The scientist remembered the correct equation.
d.o.
14. This year Westland High relinquished the state title.
d.o.
15. The symphonic choir sang five songs at the concert.
i.o.
d.o.
16. Tiffany wrote her grandmother a long letter.
i.o.
d.o.
17. Please save me a piece of the cake.
i.o.
d.o.
18. The babysitter read the children a bedtime story.
i.o.
d.o.
19. The editor can give the writer suggestions on following the textbook guidelines.
d.o.
20. The loud, screeching noise startled Tony.

214 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

d.o.
2. Our advisor suggested the community project to the class.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the simple subject. Identify the verbal or verbal phrase in each sentence by drawing a circle around it. In the blank, write whether the verbal or verbal phrase is a gerund, a participle, or an infinitive. infinitive gerund

The merry carolers tried to sing together.
1. Reading biographies is one of Kevin’s favorite pastimes.

participle

2. The heavy snowfall buried the abandoned truck.

participle

3. A man carrying a dozen red roses walked into Miss Carter’s classroom.
4. Many stuntmen were used in making this movie.

infinitive

5. Li Cheng forgot to register for the computer class.

participle/participle

Grammar

gerund

6. They hiked along the trail, over decaying logs and snarled underbrush. gerund

7. Kim made extra money by tutoring students in math.

gerund

8. Skiing is a great winter sport.

infinitive infinitive 9. It takes courage to admit our mistakes.
10. Aisha tried to wait patiently for the phone call.

gerund

11. The best place for running is the Olentangy bike trail.

gerund

12. Making costumes for the school play is a big job.

gerund

13. We achieved a victory by scoring a basket in the last minute.

infinitive

14. The tuxedo was too expensive to buy.

participle

15. Peg woke to the aroma of frying bacon.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

gerund

16. Speaking before a large group isn’t easy for many people.

gerund

17. My mother insisted on returning the damaged goods.

participle

18. The homeless man discovered the deserted building.

infinitive

19. The dream of the Wright brothers was to build the first successful airplane. participle

20. The raging wind knocked down power lines and tree limbs.

ᮣ Exercise 3 Underline the correct word given in parentheses. Draw an arrow to the word it modifies. Our school orchestra always performs (good, well).
1. The poison ivy itched (bad, badly) for at least a week.

Unit 9, Using Modifiers Correctly

215

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

2. What is the (taller, tallest) building in the country?
3. As the winter storm raged on, the city streets became (more icier, icier).
4. The freshly baked bread smells (good, well).
5. Randy has (many, more) baseball cards than anyone else.
6. Much to the doctor’s dismay, the small child grew (worse, ill) each day.

8. Mrs. Greiner cried because she felt (bad, badly) about the loss of her pet.
9. Jason has (the least, less) sales experience than Ben.
10. Wyoming is (more farther, farther) from here than Indiana is.
11. Sukey reads very (good, well) for her age.
12. We couldn’t find (any, no) birdseed at the hardware store.
13. Calculus is a (more difficult, difficulter) mathematics than algebra.
14. Of the three boys, Michael is the (cuter, cutest).
15. Jeff wanted (badly, bad) to add that stamp to his collection.
16. Veronica’s (badly, bad) attitude was the source of much of her discontent.
17. Our student teacher wore the (most ugliest, ugliest) dress yesterday!
18. Her father bought the (more expensive, most expensive) car on the lot.
19. Who scored (the most, more) goals during the game, Colin or Jess?
20. Of the two sisters, Carla is (the least, less) popular.

216 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Grammar

7. The test that Mr. Rivera gave was the (most simplest, simplest) of all.

Usage

Usage

217

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 10: Usage Glossary
Lesson 65

Usage: a to altogether
Words that are similar are sometimes misused. a, an Use a in front of words that begin with a consonant or “yew” sound. Use an in front of words that begin with any other vowel sound. a house, a university; an animal, an honor. a lot, alot A lot should always be two words or avoided completely.
There are a lot of new computer products on the market. a while, awhile A while is made up of an article and a noun. Awhile is an adverb.
Let’s think for a while, then we’ll continue awhile with the lesson.

Usage

accept, except Accept is a verb meaning “to receive” or “to agree to.” Except can be a verb, though it is often used as a preposition meaning “but.”
I accept your explanation that footballs fly straight, except in high winds. affect, effect Affect is a verb meaning “to influence.” Effect can be a noun meaning
“result” or a verb meaning “to accomplish.”
Artificial lighting can affect the nutritional cycle of plants. (verb)
Artificial lighting can have an undesirable effect on plants. (noun)
Exposure to both daylight and darkness effects good health in plants. (verb)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ain’t Ain’t is unacceptable in speaking and writing unless used as a direct quote.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct term in each sentence.
Their kitchen has (alot, a lot) of modern conveniences.
1. Do not use the emergency exits, (accept, except) in case of fire.
2. Blue-screen matting is a common special (effect, affect) in television and movies.
3. Mr. Chen will be coming back to his office in (a while, awhile), if you’d like to wait.
4. The track coach will not (accept, except) applications submitted after the first of the year.
5. Matthew was studying the cause and (affect, effect) of historical events.
6. We waited at the restaurant (a while, awhile) before going out into the cold.
7. Jules was working on (an, a) history paper when I called.

Unit 10, Usage Glossary

219

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. Does committing too many fouls (effect, affect) the score?
9. It (is not, ain’t) incorrect to omit the leading zero on some decimal numbers.
10. It should take less than (an, a) hour to complete this test.

all ready, already All ready means “completely ready.” Already means “by this time.”
Matthew was all ready to perform his gymnastics routine.
Janice was already capable of reading college-level textbooks. all right, alright This should always be two words.
Any flavor of ice cream is all right with me! all the farther, all the faster These are unacceptable in writing. Use as far as and as fast as instead.
Walk as far as you want and as fast as you can to build stamina.

We were all together for the last time at our class picnic.
Our class picnic was an altogether wonderful experience for everyone.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C. all right

Changing the drama club meeting to Thursday was alright with the members. altogether
C

1. I was all together astonished at the outcome of the story.
2. The fire had already raged out of control when the emergency vehicles arrived.

all ready

3. The architect was already to present his design to the construction company.

all right

4. Is it alright to wear a striped necktie with a plaid shirt?

C

5. The ice hockey player skated as fast as he could to get by the left wing.

already

6. Cole had all ready toasted the bagels by the time his parents woke up.

C all together as far as all right

7. Hasan asked if it was all right to use a calculator during the exam.
8. The band members asked, “May we go altogether on the same bus?”
9. To the lake and back was all the farther we had to go.
10. Will traveling by car be alright with Curtis?

220 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

all together, altogether All together means “in a group.” Altogether means “completely.”

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 66

Usage: amount to could of amount, number Use amount when referring to nouns that cannot be counted. Use number when referring to nouns that can be counted.
The Appalachian Mountains have a vast amount of fog.
We have a small number of dictionaries in the branch library. bad, badly Bad is an adjective. Badly is an adverb.
This cold weather has been bad for the farmers.

The crops were badly damaged.

being as, being that These expressions should not be used in writing. Replace them with because or since. beside, besides Beside means “at the side of.” Besides means “in addition to.”
My dog likes to curl up beside me.

There are other things in life besides television.

between, among Use between to compare one person or thing with another. Use among to show a relationship in which more than two persons or things are considered as a group.

Usage

The sculptor had to choose between marble and granite.
The trees in Oregon are among the tallest in the Pacific Northwest.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct word in each sentence.
There is a large (amount, number) of fat on this steak.
1. Earth’s atmosphere lies (between, among) the surface of the planet and the edge of outer space.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. The air we breathe contains only a small (amount, number) of oxygen.
3. The atmosphere consists of different elements and layers, some portions of which have been
(bad, badly) polluted.
4. (Besides, Beside) human-made pollutants, gases, steam, and ash from volcanoes contribute to air pollution. 5. A large (amount, number) of clouds reside in the lowest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere.
6. (Beside, Besides), scientists can predict weather by studying the troposphere.
7. Clouds play an important role in the earth’s weather (because, being that) they contain water.
8. The water that clouds bring as rain or snow is (bad, badly) needed to sustain life.
9. Stratocumulus clouds are one of the largest types of clouds, and they contain a small (amount, number) of light and dark areas.

Unit 10, Usage Glossary

221

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. There are other by-products of clouds (beside, besides) rain; electrified regions within the cloud discharge, creating lightning.

borrow, lend, loan Borrow is a verb meaning “to take something for a limited time.”
Lend means “to give for temporary use.” Loan is a noun.
May I borrow your pen?

Please lend me your pen.

We got a loan from the bank.

bring, take Bring means “to carry from a distant place to a closer one.” Take means “to carry from a nearby place to a more distant one.”
Bring your books to me.

Take a jacket to the game tonight.

can, may Use can to indicate the ability to do something. Use may to indicate permission to do something.
I can finish reading before dinner.

May I finish reading after dinner?

can’t hardly, can’t scarcely These expressions are double negatives. Avoid using them.

could of, might of, must of, should of, would of The preposition of is incorrect here; use the helping verb have instead.
The loud noise might have startled the dog.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C. borrow can hardly can Chris would like to loan that book from Tina.
1. People can’t hardly walk when sidewalks are covered with ice.
2. Hot air may mix with cold air to cause powerful currents.

bring

3. Blizzards take with them a lot of snow, wind, and low temperatures.

can scarcely

4. You can’t scarcely imagine the total destruction a tornado can cause.

C

5. Winter weather brings winter storms such as ice storms and blizzards.

must have

6. The tornado that hit Illinois in 1925 must of been the worst in history.

could have

7. There was no way this killer storm could of been prevented.

can
C
lend

8. One may never be safe from a tornado in a mobile home.
9. Another type of violent storm is a hurricane, which can be tracked with satellites, airplanes, and radar.
10. Before such a storm is due to hit, people loan each other tools and materials to board up their houses.

222 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

I can hardly wait for vacation. The driver can scarcely see through the snow.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 67

Usage: different from to regardless different from, different than The expression different from is preferred.
Although there are similarities, a clarinet is different from a soprano saxophone. doesn’t, don’t Doesn’t is used with he, she, it and all singular nouns. Don’t is used with
I, you, we, they, and all plural nouns.
She doesn’t like cold weather.

We don’t have a hockey team.

emigrate, immigrate Emigrate means “to go from one country to another to live.”
Immigrate means “to come to a country to live.”
The entire family plans to emigrate from Russia next year.
Most people who immigrate to the United States live in coastal states. farther, further Use farther to refer to physical distance. Use further to refer to degree or time. Usage

We traveled farther today than we did yesterday.
We will discuss this topic further at our next meeting. fewer, less Use fewer to refer to nouns that can be counted. Use less to refer to nouns that cannot be counted.
There are fewer students enrolled in the city’s elementary schools this year.
It takes less time to travel one mile in a car than on a bicycle.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct word in each sentence.
(Fewer, Less) than twenty people attended the student council meeting.
1. Cleveland is (farther, further) from Columbus than is Cincinnati.
2. José (doesn’t, don’t) want to go to the rock concert.
3. Two families recently (immigrated, emigrated) to the United States.
4. In the 1980s, (less, fewer) Vietnamese settled in the United States than in the previous decade.
5. Ahmed (doesn’t, don’t) think Arizona will be any hotter than Saudi Arabia.
6. Denise and Colin (doesn’t, don’t) share the same opinion about the movie.
7. Los Angeles is very (different from, different than) New York.
8. The tired child could not walk any (farther, further).
9. A black hole is (different from, different than) other stars because it can’t be seen.
10. I have (fewer, less) than five puppies left from the litter.
Unit 10, Usage Glossary

223

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

good, well Good is an adjective. Well is an adverb.
It was a good book.
The team played well. had of Of should not be used between had and a past participle.
I thought I had read this book before. hanged, hung Use hanged when referring to death by hanging. Use hung in all other instances. In the Old West, they hanged people for stealing a horse.
The librarian hung the sign on the door. in, into Use in to mean “inside.” Use into to indicate movement from outside to a point within. Meet me in the cafeteria.
I’m going into the cafeteria.

The mouse tried to run across the room, regardless of the cat.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C. well regardless into Helena plays the guitar very good.
1. Our school will continue its community service projects irregardless of funding. 2. When my father had an aching back, he climbed in the bathtub very carefully.

C

3. Many animal species face extinction in the wild.

C

4. Tanya likes to dress well when she goes on a date.

C

5. The school drama club hung posters around town to advertise the school play.

well

6. Subway systems must be ventilated good.

had

7. The history teacher believed he had of explained the assignment thoroughly.

regardless hanged into

8. My guidance counselor said that irregardless of my grades, I should take geometry next year.
9. The mob hung the outlaw from a large oak tree.
10. We put our cans, bottles, and newspapers in the recycling bin.

224 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

irregardless, regardless Irregardless is a double negative and should not be used.
Regardless is the only correct usage.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 68

Usage: this kind to reason is because this kind, these kinds Use this and that with singular words. Use these and those with plural words.
This kind of metal won’t rust.

These kinds of paints are lead-free.

lay, lie Lay means “to put” or “to place.” Lie means “to recline” or “to be positioned.”
Lay your cards on the table.

My dog likes to lie in the sunshine.

learn, teach Learn means “to receive knowledge.” Teach means “to give knowledge.”
You can’t teach an old dog new tricks unless it’s willing to learn. leave, let Leave means “to go away.” Let means “to permit.”
You may leave when you finish the test.
Don’t let the grease settle in the pan.

This roller coaster feels like a jet!

Usage

like, as Like is a preposition and introduces a prepositional phrase. As is often a subordinating conjunction and introduces a subordinate clause.
We won the game as the final buzzer sounded.

loose, lose Loose means “free” or “not fitting tightly.” Lose means “to have no longer” or
“to fail to win.”
These new shoes are too loose.

Don’t lose your ticket.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct word in each sentence.
(This kind, these kinds) of muffin is Crystal’s favorite.
1. Our class (learns, teaches) that the animal kingdom has a well-defined social order.
2. Many animal parents (teach, learn) hunting and survival skills to their young.
3. Coyote cubs can make noises that sound (like, as) human babies crying.
4. Predatory birds won’t (leave, let) their young move out of the nest until the babies have been prepared for life.
5. Like humans, animals quickly (learn, teach) to recognize their limitations.
6. Animals build their lives around (these kinds, this kind) of limitations because they cannot alter their environments.
7. A tiger may (lay, lie) its catch in a protected spot.
8. A tiger senses it should (lay, lie) in the shade of a tree on a hot day.
Unit 10, Usage Glossary

225

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. To thrive within their environments, animals have tools and instincts they cannot (loose, lose).
10. Owls have sharp eyes and strong talons to locate and capture small animals (as, like) field mice.

passed, past Passed is the past form and the past participle of the verb to pass. Past may be an adjective, a preposition, an adverb, or a noun.
We passed this building an hour ago!
We drove past this building an hour ago!

Have you eaten any pizza this past week?

precede and proceed Precede means “to go or come before.” Proceed means “to continue” or “to move along.”
Which selection will precede Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony in tonight’s program?
You may proceed with your presentation. raise, rise Raise means “to cause to move upward.” Rise means “to go up.”
Raise the flag at 7:30 A.M. sharp.
Does the sun rise over the eastern or western horizon?

The reason he left early is that he came down with a fever.
He left early because he came down with a fever.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C. raise passed raise reason is that proceed C rise C precede C passed Please do not rise the blind.
1. Yesterday, Tabitha past a wildlife reserve while riding her bicycle.
2. She wants to rise awareness of the importance of these reserves.
3. The reason is because wildlife contributes much beauty, scientific value, survival value, and economic value.
4. Scientists must precede with their studies of wildlife.
5. The reason is that they gain valuable medical knowledge through such research. 6. Certain animals need protection so they can raise every morning.
7. The American bald eagle is the national bird of the United States and an important part of our country’s past.
8. Observation and study must proceed any action taken to remedy the wildlife situation. 9. This raises the question, “Which animals, where, how, and to what extent should hunters be permitted to hunt?”
10. In 1973 the government past the Endangered Species Act.

226 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

reason is because This expression is redundant and should not be used.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 69

Usage: respectfully to where at respectfully, respectively Respectfully means “with respect.” Respectively means “in the order named.”
Tim respectfully handed the ball back to the referee.
Blue and magenta are primary and secondary colors, respectively. says, said Says is the third-person singular of the verb say. Said is the past tense of say.
He always says he’ll call.

He said he would call back tomorrow.

sit, set Sit means “to place oneself in a sitting position.” Set means “to place” or “to put.”
You may sit at this table.

Please set the table with napkins.

than, then Than is a conjunction. Then is an adverb.
Cats are more agile than dogs.

Layna was a young girl then.

We like this song.

Usage

this here, that there Here and there shouldn’t be used after this and that. This and that should be used alone.
I don’t like that color.

where at At is a preposition and should not be used after where.
Where is city hall?

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct word in each sentence.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

After shopping, I need to (sit, set) for a while.
1. Thirty years ago, cars were about 25% heavier (than, then) they are today.
2. I don’t know (where, where at) the new stadium is going to be built.
3. My aunt moved into (that, that there) building ten years ago.
4. Maya (respectfully, respectively) submitted her paper to her English teacher.
5. Yesterday Tim (says, said) to me that he wants to learn how to snow ski.
6. Don’t (sit, set) too many boxes on the table.
7. (Where at, Where) is the lunchroom?
8. To get to the lunchroom, go through (that there, that) door and turn to your right.
9. Dan and Alta, (respectively, respectfully), baked brownies and apple pie for the cast party.
10. If you need more light, (sit, set) next to the window.

Unit 10, Usage Glossary

227

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Correct the word in italics. If the word is correct, write C. respectively The band and the orchestra will play the first and second selections listed in the program, respectfully.

Set where C

1. Sit that heavy package on the chair by the window.
2. Do you know where my school jacket is at?
3. George Foreman lost to Muhammad Ali in 1974; then twenty years later he beat Michael Moorer to regain the heavyweight championship.

this
Where

4. Please take this here floppy disk to the computer lab.
5. Where is the reference section of the library at?

sit

6. Let’s set near home plate so we can watch the pitcher.

C

7. Our art class and our science class took tours of the art museum and underground caves, respectively.
8. That there horse is the most beautiful stallion I’ve ever seen.

than

9. A blue whale is much bigger then an elephant.

where

10. José wanted to visit the Alamo where Davy Crockett fought at.

ᮣ Writing Link Write four sentences about your favorite season using four rules from this lesson.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

That

228 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 10 Review
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the correct word in each sentence.
The car had every special feature (accept, except) a sunroof.
1. The city library (loans, lends) books that our school library doesn’t have.
2. A baboon is (different from, different than) a gorilla.
3. Rayna dragged her heavy suitcase (awhile, a while) before she stopped to rest.
4. The class enjoyed the fair because the event offered (alot, a lot) of rides, games, and exhibits.
5. I must try to (lie, lay) my keys in the same place every day.
6. Benedict Arnold’s treachery did not (effect, affect) the outcome of the Revolutionary War.
7. The nonfiction of Isaac Asimov is very popular (between, among) young people.
8. Henry Ford (farther, further) improved assembly line methods to cut the cost of producing cars.

Usage

9. The elephants at the circus performed remarkably (good, well).
10. The Thanksgiving Day parade (past, passed) my uncle’s apartment in New York City.
11. Nina had a (lose, loose) tooth from her fall, so she went to the dentist after school.
12. Swimming is better exercise (than, then) jogging because it doesn’t hurt the knees.
13. Mark’s mother asked, “Did you (bring, take) your permission slip home so I can sign it?”
14. The snowstorm in Chicago (must of, must have) caused the delays at the airport.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

15. “Mr. Stewart, (can, may) I leave the room to go to speech therapy now?”
16. (Irregardless, Regardless) of the cool water, Kaveetha went swimming in the ocean.
17. Tia threw the ball (into, in) the basket to win the game for her team.
18. We (preceded, proceeded) with the lesson even though the workbooks had not yet arrived.
19. The florist (sat, set) the plant on the windowsill to absorb more sun.
20. Will your parents (leave, let) you go to the movie with me Friday night?
21. Mrs. Chang (hanged, hung) a colorful mobile over her baby’s crib.
22. The choir sold bakery goods to (raise, rise) money for the field trip.
23. The cooperation (between, among) the teachers and the staff has contributed to the success of the school.
24. Recycling has (all ready, already) helped the cleanliness of the environment.

Unit 10, Usage Glossary

229

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–10
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the pronoun in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. Then write the type of sentence in the blank: simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex. complex simple complex Though Gustav prepared for the worst, (she, he) hoped for the best.
1. Kenny is waiting for (his, their) father to give him directions.
2. Although Sonya hopes to win the scholarship, (she, he) is saving money for college.

compound

3. The Woo family invited us to dinner, and (we, they) returned the compliment by taking them to a movie.

simple compound complex

5. Zina liked the acrobats, but (her, his) little sister preferred the clowns.
6. A star displayed (their, its) brilliance in the night sky.
7. Isra’s uncle, (who, whom) often entertains, makes a special punch with cranberry juice and sparkling water.

simple complex 8. Chet (himself, itself) painted the new mural.
9. Mikasi and Poloma brought their golf clubs, even though (she, they) do not expect to have time to play more than nine holes.

compound-complex

10. After Grandmother went back to school, (she, they) became a reporter, and we started watching her on the news.

complex

11. Hugh was not excited about watching the videotape of an erupting volcano because (he, it) has seen one in person.

simple

12. Keith’s older brother taught (them, him) how to guide a horse.

simple

13. Basir’s family is preparing food for (them, their) Kwanza celebration.

complex

14. Before Marcia mails the letter, ask (her, him) to see me.

complex

15. The person to (who, whom) Jenny wishes to speak is on vacation.

simple compound 16. The setting sun cast (its, their) last rays over the horizon.
17. Ms. Ortiz planted that beautiful garden (himself, herself), yet she rarely visits it.

complex

18. The toddler loved his well-worn coat, though (he, it) was missing two buttons.

230 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

simple

4. George and Rafi will perform (his, their) act at the talent show.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

complex

19. Since Mr. Conti is selling (him, his) computer, he might be selling some of his software, too.

complex

20. Marcus, (who, whom) collects comic books, will send some books to the local children’s hospital.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by choosing the correct modifier in parentheses.
Julian is a [

better

tennis player than Brad. (better, best)

1. Wilson performed [
2. The sun shone [
3. That was the [

well

at the piano recital. (good, well)

more brightly worst 4. The Spanish club had [ meeting. (fewer, fewest)

yesterday than today. (more brightly, most brightly)

television program Nick had ever seen. (worse, worst) fewer refreshments at the March meeting than at the February

5. The special effects in this movie are the [

7. Tony makes the [

bad best I have seen. (greater, greatest)

because she missed her mother’s birthday. (bad, badly)

Usage

6. Katherine felt [

greatest

minestrone soup I have ever tasted. (better, best)

most exciting
8. The [ part of the entire journey occurred when Regina found the buried treasure. (more exciting, most exciting) more challenging
9. The hiking trail was [ challenging, most challenging)
10. Blake selected the role with the [

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

11. Roberto’s lemon cake was [
12. Ms. Rollins felt [

worse

fewest

good

than the tourists expected. (more lines to learn. (few, fewest)

, but his apple pie was extraordinary. (good, well)

today than she did yesterday. (worse, worst)

13. This morning’s balloon flight was [ interesting, most interesting)

more interesting

than yesterday’s. (more

14. Luigi insisted that galloping his horse through the forest was the [ experience imaginable. (more exhilarating, most exhilarating)

most exhilarating

15. Some critics believe the musical score was composed [ composer with inventiveness. (bad, badly)

badly

, but Dante credits the

16. Because of the misunderstanding, Julia found herself [ current situation. (less, least)

less

informed about the

more willing
17. Tanya and Clarice appeared [ members of the club. (more willing, most willing)

to volunteer their time than the other

18. The Silver Arrow is considered the [

train in this area. (faster, fastest)

19. My father is the [

wisest

fastest

person I know. (wiser, wisest)
Unit 10, Usage Glossary

231

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

20. Bonnie has been accepted into the advanced karate class even though she is [ than the other students. (younger, youngest)

younger

ᮣ Exercise 3 Underline the word in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence.
The weather might (affect, effect) the team’s chances of winning.
1. Patrick asked his sister if she was feeling (alright, all right).
2. Everyone wanted to go ice skating (accept, except) Kirsten.
3. Mr. Harper (could of, could have) given the twins a ride to the amusement park.
4. Ronda left her term paper (between, among) her notebook and her history book.
5. (Irregardless, Regardless) of the newspaper’s account of the parade, ten bands marched in all.
6. My friend (emigrated, immigrated) from Italy when he was five years old.
7. The color guard will (precede, proceed) the first regiment.

9. First Frederica will show us the dance steps. (Than, Then) we will try them ourselves.
10. The players (respectfully, respectively) placed their hands over their hearts during the national anthem. 11. Ryan and Luisa have (already, all ready) finished their science fair project.
12. Each guest will (bring, take) one dish to the potluck dinner.
13. Dr. Carly will sit (beside, besides) Aunt Rose, and Justin will sit next to Anna.
14. The catcher (don’t, doesn’t) like to chase foul balls.
15. Roosevelt High School is (farther, further) from our school than Polk High School.
16. Rick (passed, past) all the necessary tests to become a lifeguard.
17. This week our cooking class will (learn, teach) how to make a soufflé.
18. Please do not (loose, lose) the concert tickets before we reach the theater.
19. The medal-winning gymnast glided through her routine (like, as) a gazelle.
20. The show choir will (raise, rise) their voices when the music indicates a crescendo.
21. (This here, This) program radiates wit and charm.
22. Grandmother used her finest china to (set, sit) the table for Thanksgiving dinner.
23. The new job had a definite (affect, effect) on Priscilla’s family.
24. Delia’s mother (hanged, hung) new draperies in the living room.

232 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Usage

8. (Lay, Lie) the basket on the shelf next to the other one.

Mechanics

Mechanics

233

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 11: Capitalization
Lesson 70

Capitalization of Sentences
Capitalize the first word of every sentence, including the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence.
The new barn was built to stable fifteen horses.
Kerry smiled and said, “You are the best coach in the whole school.”
Capitalize the first word of a sentence in parentheses that stands by itself. Do not capitalize a sentence within parentheses if it is contained within another sentence.
Participation in soccer is growing rapidly. (Some think the growth is too slow.)
Enrico asked for an instrument (his first choice was a tenor saxophone) for his birthday. Do not capitalize the first word of a quotation that cannot stand as a complete sentence.
The review praised the students as “caring young citizens.”
Do not capitalize an indirect quotation. An indirect quotation gives the meaning of an original statement without repeating it word for word. It is often introduced by the word that. The brochure said that brown bears are plentiful in the park.

Mechanics

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw three lines under each letter that should be capitalized. If a sentence is correct, write C in the blank to the left of the sentence.
I looked everywhere for the book. (my dad wanted to borrow it.)
1. the striking colors of autumn leaves are admired by nearly everyone.
2. They come in varying shades of red, orange, and yellow. (when the sun shines on yellow leaves, they look bright gold!)
3. those who must dispose of the fallen leaves (especially sanitation workers) seldom share the enthusiasm of mere observers.
C

4. Nature’s autumn array serves as a reminder that a large, recurring problem has once more arrived.
5. Burning leaves creates a pollution problem. (all the smoke and particles fill the air.)
6. Burning leaves is also a fire hazard. (it must be done in a well-controlled environment and watched at all times.)
Unit 11, Capitalization

235

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

C

7. Some municipalities (for these reasons) have banned the burning of leaves.
8. local governments have devised several methods of handling this annual problem.
9. mulching (chopping leaves into fine pieces) greatly reduces the volume of trash.
10. some cities require mulching before pick-up by the sanitation department.

C

11. One way to accomplish mulching is to use a lawn mower with a special mulching blade.
12. A local newspaper states, “mulchers save our city thousands of dollars each year.”
13. trash collection costs are lowered because of the tons of leaves that do not require disposal. 14. mobile mulchers (lawn mowers) provide direct benefits, besides saving time and labor.

C

15. Through the process of decomposition (leaf mulch decomposes quickly), the soil becomes well fertilized.

C

16. A magazine article states that mulching “provides long-lasting benefits to the soil.”
17. An encyclopedia (referring to mulching) explains, “it helps the soil retain water by reducing evaporation.” (the encyclopedia also states that mulching helps reduce the number of weeds.)
18. the leaves are also excellent (along with coffee grounds and grass clippings) to use for

19. compost makes soil more fertile to improve plant production.
C

20. It is best to allow compost to decay (about three to six months) before using it.

C

21. Karen (an avid gardener) says that she does not break up the leaves before composting.
22. Instead, she spreads the leaves over her garden for the winter. (she later tills them into the soil in the spring.)
23. She also states, “leaves make a good mulch for roses.”

C

24. Leaf mulch also provides food for earthworms (which contribute to the growth of plants).
25. a nature magazine states that earthworms improve the soil by keeping it loose and aerated.
26. by reducing the strain on landfills and recycling the debris, everyone benefits.
27. returning the leaves to the soil changes a liability to an asset.
28. most people still use a rake (usually metal or bamboo) to rake their leaves.
29. leaf blowers, however, have become popular replacements for lawn rakes.

C

30. Leaf blowers can be either gas or electric (see your local hardware store).

236 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

compost.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 71

Capitalization of Proper Nouns
Capitalize names of individuals. Capitalize titles used before a name or in place of it.
Capitalize titles that specify family relationships when they are used with a person’s name or in place of it.
Vincent van Gogh
Governor Richards
This is Aunt Jane.

Catherine the Great
How do you do, Governor?
Where is Dad?

Pope Pius XII
Have you seen the governor?
This is my aunt.

Also capitalize these names, terms, and titles: ethnic and national groups, languages, religious terms; organizations, institutions, political parties and their members (but not the word party), firms; monuments, buildings, bridges, and other structures; trade names; documents, awards, laws; geographical and calendar terms, historical events and periods; planets and other heavenly bodies; compass points (but not directional words); ships, trains, aircraft; specific school courses; titles of literary and artistic works.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Nobel Prize
Asia
Rhode Island
Dallas
Nile River
Elm Street
Monday
February
Memorial Day
Civil War
Iron Age

Saturn the Northwest west of town
Titanic
World Cultures II world history the Iliad
“The Lottery”
Boston Globe
“Stardust”
The Bull from the Sea

Mechanics

Native Americans
Swahili
Greek Orthodox
Passover
the University of Iowa
Republican party
Ford Motor Company
Empire State Building
Golden Gate Bridge the Meadowlands
Kleenex tissues the Bill of Rights

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw three lines under each lowercase letter that should be capitalized. Strike through (B) each capitalized letter that should be lowercase.
/
Kara’s oil Portraits resemble the paintings of grandma Moses.
1. The new girl’s Name was Althea Smithson.
2. His Grandfather’s diary told of meeting president Roosevelt.
3. Are you one of doctor Johnson’s patients?
4. Alaina works after school as a Volunteer at mercy hospital.
5. Have you met my Mother?
6. The ending was corny, complete with a rendition of “Home On The Range.”
7. While in France, we must visit the eiffel tower.
Unit 11, Capitalization

237

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. Have you ever been to Yellowstone national park?
9. His accent was a musical mixture of english and italian.
10. Japan and the united States are separated by the pacific ocean.
11. When did president Lincoln issue the emancipation proclamation?
12. According to the world book encyclopedia, Henry Hudson explored hudson strait and Hudson bay while looking for the northwest passage.
13. Jerry’s telescope is powerful enough to see the Moons of Jupiter.
14. Leonard Bernstein was a renowned conductor of the new york philharmonic.
15. Do you have señora Perez for Freshman Spanish?
16. Is the mississippi river one of the borders of Illinois?
17. Political unrest in the middle east caused great concern for the tourists.
18. Have you read the memoirs of the Native American chief Red Fox?
19. The Empire state building was once the tallest building in the world.
20. Our space program suffered a serious setback with the challenger mishap.
21. Joy earns outstanding grades in latin, english, and algebra.
22. Consuelo hopes to get a Basketball scholarship at the university of North Carolina.

24. I just had a visit from father Mulcahy.
25. Chariot races were regular features at circus maximus in Ancient Rome.
26. The Islamic book of holy writings is called the quran.
27. The adams high school french club meets every other thursday.
28. A favorite christmas story is the gift of the magi.
29. One of our gold depositories is located at fort Knox, Kentucky.
30. Many employees of the Chrysler corporation belong to the united automobile workers, one of the largest labor unions in the united states.
31. Maria and Harvey ate dinner at the olde town inn.
32. A joint session of congress includes members of both the house of representatives and The senate. 33. My cousin took astronomy 101 when she went to College in the Midwest.
34. I read an article about Sports Cars in last month’s car and driver magazine.
35. During world war II, my Grandmother worked with the red cross in the philippine islands.

238 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

23. The first african american to play in the american league was Larry doby.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 72

Capitalization of Proper Adjectives
Capitalize proper adjectives (adjectives formed from proper nouns). Most proper adjectives fit into the following categories:
1. Adjectives formed from names of people
Victorian architecture
Jeffersonian politics
Gregorian chant
Clinton administration
Elizabethan poetry
Napoleonic era
2. Adjectives formed from specific days or holidays, place names, and names of national, ethnic, and religious groups
Hungarian goulash
Christmas decorations
Australian folklore
Hispanic students
Thursday evening
Jewish synagogue

ᮣ Exercise 1 Draw three lines under each lowercase letter that should be capitalized. Strike through (B) each capitalized letter that should be lowercase.
/
The carter Administration dealt with oil shortages, rising tax rates, and the iranian Hostage situation. 1. The book of japanese fairytales was beautifully illustrated.

Mechanics

2. Jamal and Kenny always enjoyed hearing Holiday tales.
3. Many people find it quite surprising to see gregorian chants becoming popular these days.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Carlita is particularly fond of chinese food.
5. A tasty pizza topping is canadian bacon.
6. The stranger looked as though he had stepped out of a dickensian novel.
7. The company performed a wagnerian opera.
8. Many interesting tales are found in swedish folklore.
9. Communism was based on marxist doctrines.
10. Do may flowers really come from april showers?
11. Some holidays have Religious origins; others have secular roots.
12. The entire community looked forward to the annual italian festivities.
13. The tibetan Terrain can be treacherous.
14. There are german polkas as well as polish polkas.
15. The library at Main and Elm is a good example of georgian architecture.
Unit 11, Capitalization

239

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. Masaccio is credited as the founder of renaissance painting.
17. Randall Cunningham is a great american Football star.
18. The buffet menu included swedish meatballs.
19. Alice wanted to vacation on the mediterranean coast.
20. The Heritage Festival featured a thrilling demonstration of african tribal chants.
21. There are so many arthurian tales it is difficult to separate history from myth.
22. The basketball team reviews game films every monday evening.
23. Every room of the old mansion contained a franklin stove.
24. Originating on an island in the English Channel, jersey cattle provide the richest milk of all breeds. 25. My irish setter has a mahogany coat.
26. The entire family enjoyed watching disney movies.
27. What was the highlight of your caribbean cruise?
28. Forty-one democratic governors attended the conference.
29. The United States imports large amounts of colombian coffee.
30. Israeli Troops protect all residents of the country.

32. Tanya played a hungarian polka on her accordion.
33. We visited a Gettysburg Battlefield on our trip.
34. Molly owned recordings of all nine Beethoven Symphonies.
35. After yom kippur services at Temple Beth Shalom, we continued to fast until sundown.
36. The Dogwood tree in the backyard has beautiful white blossoms.
37. We carved our halloween pumpkin on a warm october day.
38. Luba went to her grandmother’s house for thanksgiving dinner and ate turkey.
39. I would love to own a steinway Grand Piano.
40. Beverly Sills, the great american Operatic Soprano, sang with the Metropolitan Opera.

240 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

31. James Borland is an english professor.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 11 Review
ᮣ Exercise Correct the capitalization in each sentence. Draw three lines under each lowercase letter that should be capitalized and a single slash (B) through any capital letters that should be
/
lowercase.
Mr. osborne, my Report on the jazz age is finished.
1. leif erikson was a norse explorer who came to north america.
2. Thick ice buries most of antarctica, the Continent that surrounds the south pole.
3. Gone With The Wind is a classic american novel.
4. The Postman delivered an invitation to Achim’s Graduation party.
5. small in stature, mother Teresa is a giant in caring.
6. The Gotham City philatelic society meets on Wednesday Evenings. (philately is the hobby of stamp collecting.)
7. Rolanda had great difficulty (She loves languages) deciding whether to study german or spanish. 8. Karin was honored with the employee-of-the-month award.
9. Lord Byron once wrote, “the vile are only vain; the great are proud.”

Mechanics

10. Which roman ruler was first called caesar?
11. the hiking party gave a wide berth to the Wild Boar.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

12. Little John and robin hood lived in Sherwood forest.
13. The Monroe doctrine remains controversial to this day.
14. “I Want to Hold Your Hand” was a great beatles hit.
15. The first nuclear-powered submarine (the Uss nautilus) sailed under the ice at the North pole.
16. ursa major is the scientific name for the big dipper.
17. Anton studied shakespearean drama at the University.
18. At the mortgage-burning ceremony, president Masterson received the Title Deed from the vice president of the bank.
19. The Toyota is a Car that originated in japan.
20. There was no World Series in the Autumn of 1994 because of the Baseball strike.

Unit 11, Capitalization

241

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–11
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline each adjective or adverb clause. Draw an arrow from the clause to the word it modifies. In the blank, write adj. (adjective) or adv. (adverb) to tell what kind of clause it is. adj. We took the highway that runs south from here.
1. There may come a time when you will need my phone number.

adv.

2. I shall visit Aspen, Colorado, if I can afford it.

adv.

3. While we were gone, Mr. Salazar cared for our pets.

adv.

4. The meeting began earlier than we had expected.

adj.

5. The city from which I came is a large metropolis.

adj.

6. The exchange student that you met was from Spain.

adv.

7. Do not give your opinion unless you are asked.

adj.

8. Sam’s proudest possession was a baseball that was signed by Roberto Alomar.

adv.

9. Our soccer team played a great defensive game although they finally lost.

adv.

10. When you called, I was raking the leaves.

adj.

11. Uncle Leo, to whom I told my crazy dream, just laughed and laughed.

adj.

12. Monet is the artist whose paintings are on display.

adj.

13. The Iowa farmer, whose place I bought, moved to southern California.

adv.

14. Apply an ice pack if your knee begins to swell.

adv.

15. Whenever it storms, our roof leaks.

adj.

16. The necklace that I like is too expensive.

adv.

17. After I do my homework, I can go to the movies.

adj.

18. The house where my grandmother grew up was torn down.

adj.

19. The rancher whom we asked for directions was very helpful.

adv.

20. Hakeem, running as fast as he was able, finished the race first.

242 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

adj.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline the correct word or words in parentheses.
Sean planned the student council meeting (good, well).
1. The play we saw last weekend was very (good, well).
2. The deer ran (more swiftly, most swiftly) through the open field than the fox.
3. The teacher gave the students (a, an) example to follow as they were working out the equation.
4. Simba was the (most noisiest, noisiest) puppy in the litter.
5. After little preparation, he performed (bad, badly) on the test.
6. The principal’s reprimand had little (effect, affect) on the unruly student.
7. A dark and shrouded figure emerged (sudden, suddenly) from the house.
8. Of all the fresh vegetables, I like beets (less, the least).
9. Matt, our star basketball player, was taller (than, then) Mr. Cooper.
10. The abandoned building across the street is the (oldest, most oldest) in the city.
11. My elderly aunt has (a, an) honest face.
12. (Beside, Besides) soup and salad, they had a croissant.
13. The peaceful protest (proceeded, preceded) through the capital city.
14. Bananas appear to ripen more quickly than (any, any other) fruit.
15. My friend never eats (no, any) candy.

Mechanics

16. The crowd listened (respectfully, respectively) as the minister eulogized the hero.
17. I will (accept, except) full responsibility for my brother’s actions.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

18. Columbus is (further, farther) south than Cleveland.
19. These hiking boots are (cleaner, more cleaner) than yours.
20. Mrs. Ichiko (immigrated, emigrated) to the United States in 1968.
21. Yesterday, it snowed so hard we (couldn’t hardly, could hardly) see the highway.
22. (Irregardless, Regardless) of what my opponents say, I am (a, an) avid supporter of the school levy.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Draw three lines under each lowercase letter that should be capitalized. For each italicized word write in the blank com. (common noun) or prop. (proper noun). com. Two famous landmarks in Washington, D.C., are the lincoln memorial and the capitol.

prop.

1. While in the west, our family climbed pikes peak in rocky mountain national park.

com.

2. In american history class we are studying world war II.

Unit 11, Capitalization

243

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

com.

3. because of the baseball strike, the world series wasn’t held in 1994.

prop.

4. great changes took place during the industrial revolution.

prop.

5. The boat navigated the ohio river from Cincinnati to Louisville.

com.

6. I read an article about martin luther king jr. in last sunday’s newspaper.

com.

7. The fourth of july is an american holiday.

prop.

8. When in chicago, we went to the top of the sears tower.

com.

9. on our flight from san francisco to sacramento, we flew over yosemite national park.

prop. 10. the metropolitan museum of art is located in new york city. com. 11. For thanksgiving dinner we took grandma and grandpa to a restaurant. prop. 12. On may 20, 1927, charles lindbergh touched down near paris, france. com. 13. tutankhamen reigned as king of egypt from about 1347 B.C. to 1339 B.C. com. 14. My most difficult courses in school are geography and spanish. prop. 15. india, a country found in southern asia, was once a british colony. prop. 16. linus pauling, an american chemist, received two nobel prizes. com. 17. My sister’s favorite book is by laura ingalls wilder. prop. 18. The navajo are the largest Native American group in the united states.

com. 20. The massive steamboat rolled lazily along the mississippi river. prop. 21. pope john paul II met with the President at the white house. prop. 22. The brooklyn bridge spans the east river from Brooklyn to manhattan island.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

com. 19. the indianapolis 500 automobile race is held every memorial day weekend.

244 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 12: Punctuation,
Abbreviations, and Numbers
Lesson 73

End Punctuation: Period, Exclamation Point, and
Question Mark
Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence and at the end of a polite command.
Declarative Sentence:
Polite Command:

The computer room is at the end of the hall.
Please close the door when you leave the room.

Use an exclamation point to show strong feeling and indicate a forceful command.
Oh, my gosh!

What a great jacket!

Watch out!

Jump!

Use a question mark to indicate a direct question.
Who knows the answer to the riddle?

Is this the right bus stop?

Do not place a question mark after an indirect question (one that has been reworded so that it is part of a declarative sentence).
Jason wondered whether he would be accepted into the program.
She asked if she could hand in her paper early.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill




Where are we going after the game?
1. Most people have heard of the Nobel Prize.
2. Six prizes are given each year to outstanding people in various fields!



3. The six fields are physics, medicine or physiology, literature, chemistry, peace, and economics. 4. Do you know which one is the most recently created.
5. The economics prize was awarded for the first time in 1969!
6. The other prizes have been given for more than 90 years?
7. The prizes were created by a Swedish industrialist and inventor named Alfred Nobel!



8. Nobel, who lived from 1833 to 1896, became fascinated by explosives when he was working in his father’s factory in Russia.
9. The young Alfred invented a process in which an explosive called nitroglycerine could be exploded in a controlled situation?
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

245

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Place a check in the blank next to each sentence that has correct end punctuation.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________



10. Even though he was a gifted inventor, Nobel never attended a university.



11. In fact, he attended school for only one year!
12. Nitroglycerine proved to be a dangerous material to work with, and several explosions in Nobel’s factories caused many deaths?



13. Among the people who died in a factory in Sweden was Alfred’s younger brother, Emil.
14. Eventually he discovered a way to mix nitroglycerine with a kind of sandy clay!
15. The clay made the nitroglycerine more stable and less likely to explode unexpectedly?



16. The new blasting product was put to many peaceful uses, such as mining, road construction, and tunnel building.
17. Nobel’s invention, which he called dynamite, also became a weapon of war!
18. The inventor wondered if he could do something to promote peace and good will among people to make up for the deadly uses of his invention?



19. A very rich man at the time of his death, Alfred Nobel decided his money should be used to create prizes for those who had helped the world’s people.



20. In this amazing way, the inventor of a deadly explosive honors people who have saved lives! ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by adding a period, an exclamation point, or a question mark as needed.

1. Sweden, the homeland of Alfred Nobel, is an interesting and beautiful country .
2. Do you have any idea how far north this country is ?
3. Many North Americans are surprised to learn that Sweden is as far north as Hudson Bay ! or .
4. In spite of its northerly location, Sweden has a temperate climate .
5. Winters are long and cold, but the summers can be quite warm .
6. In northernmost Sweden during the winter, the sun never rises above the horizon ! or .
7. How would twenty-four hours of darkness affect you ?
8. Many Swedes who live above the Arctic Circle combat the gloom by lighting candles .
9. This desire to spread light in the darkness of winter is the basis for the holiday honoring Saint
Lucia, which charms each year’s Nobel Prize winners .
10. Because of the tilt of the earth, a summer day in northern Sweden lasts for twenty-four glorious hours ! or .
11. Swedes celebrate the warm weather and bright days on the country’s most beloved holiday .
12. June 24, Midsommardag—Midsummer Day—is a glorious festival of merrymaking .

246 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

I can’t believe I’m going to Europe !

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 74

Colons
Use a colon to introduce a list, especially after a statement that uses words such as these, the following, or as follows.
Denise has lived in these three cities: Albuquerque, Sacramento, and Boulder.
The following students should report to the guidance counselor’s office: Dwight
Robinson, Angela Martinez, Michael Byrne, and Li Chen.
Do not use a colon to introduce a list if the list immediately follows a verb or a preposition. Among the prizes offered were a camera, a calculator, and a radio.
The people at the next table ordered their pizza with green peppers, onions, black olives, and anchovies.
Use a colon to introduce a long or formal quotation. A formal quotation is often preceded by words such as this, these, the following, or as follows.
The governor repeated the following words of Motavato, chief of the Southern
Cheyennes: “Although wrongs have been done to me, I live in hopes. I have not got two hearts.”
Use a colon between the hour and minute of the precise time, between the chapter and verse in biblical references, and after the salutation of a business letter.
Job 6:1–8
Leviticus 4:22–27

Sir or Madam:
Dear Ms. Rayburn:

Mechanics

1:25 P.M.
8:57 A.M.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Insert a colon where necessary. If the sentence is correct, write C in the blank.
You will need the following tools:a hammer, a screwdriver, and a wrench.
1. The school bus came every morning at about 7 45.
C

2. The animals I liked best at the zoo were the elephants, the giraffes, the electric eels, and the baboons.
3. Many people remember President John F. Kennedy’s famous statement from his inaugural address “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”

C

4. Don’t forget the following items: a bathrobe, soap, slippers, a towel, and a washcloth.

C

5. I’ll pick you up at 7:30 sharp.

C

6. The most popular sports in the United States are football, basketball, and baseball.
7. Try to deliver the package between 1145 and 12 15.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

247

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. I’ll never forget his final words “Don’t look back—something might be gaining on you.”
C

9. To whom it may concern:
10. The following are the main steps in booting up the computer 1. turn the unit on; 2. log on; 3. select the software program you want.

C

11. Their study group had written a song using Hamlet’s famous speech: “To be or not to be; that is the question.”

C

12. A tin-roof sundae is made from vanilla ice cream, chocolate syrup, peanuts, and whipped cream.

C

13. This morning’s reading is from the book of Luke 7:15–22.
14. Make sure you follow this advice Neither a borrower nor a lender be.

C

15. Ms. Richardson asked if we knew who the author of the novel was.
16. The essay for the contest had to be on the following subject former House Speaker
Thomas “Tip” O’Neill’s saying that all politics is local.

C

17. The last three people in line were Jason, Mary-Margaret, and Dawn.
18. Our presentation consisted of the following a report, a bulletin board, an audiotape, and a fashion show.
19. The following books were chosen by the group: Middlemarch, The Old Man and the

Sea, Song of Solomon, Wuthering Heights, and The Scarlet Letter.
20. When it’s 1100 in the morning in New York, it’s 4 00 in the afternoon in London.
C

21. The fencing club’s poster had a picture of a fencer, followed by the caption: “Fencing— try it once and you’ll get the point!”
22. My dad’s favorite song has the line “Life’s a hotel at best; you’re here as a guest.”

C

23. To make popcorn, follow these instructions: 1. add the oil to the pan; 2. pour in the popcorn; 3. shake the pan over the heat as the popcorn pops.
24. These are the magazines she read regularly Time, Newsweek, Sports Illustrated, and

People.
C

25. The children’s favorite vegetables were corn, broccoli, peas, and carrots.

C

26. The police officer took the 6:15 train to Haverford.
27. Angela’s parents grew these crops soybeans, corn, wheat, and oats.
28. The following streets will be closed for curb repair Main Street, Broad Street, High
Street, M.L. King Drive, Southwest Boulevard, and Northern Lights Avenue.

248 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

C

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 75

Semicolons
Use a semicolon to separate main clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, yet, and for).
She can’t play the saxophone, but I know she’d like to learn.
She can’t play the saxophone; I know she’d like to learn.
Use a semicolon to separate main clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb (such as however, therefore, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, and subsequently) or by an expression such as for example or that is. In general, a conjunctive adverb or expression such as for example is followed by a comma.
Some people in our group refused to take the assignment seriously; therefore, we received a D on our project.
Use a semicolon to separate the items in a series when the items contain commas.
Italians have created an almost unlimited number of pasta shapes and sizes, among them orecchiete, which means “little ears”; capellini, or “angel hair”; and orzo, which look like small grains of rice.
Use a semicolon to separate two main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction when the clauses already contain several commas.

Mechanics

The book was very long, almost six hundred pages, and contained more than seventyfive characters, which made keeping track of them difficult; but I loved it anyway and would recommend it to anyone.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Place a check on the blank next to each sentence that is correct.


Kristy, who finished first, won the trophy; however, Marla won the award for most improved.
1. Nobel Prizes are awarded each year in six areas; which are physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and economics.



2. The prizes were created by Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel; they are administered by various organizations in Sweden and Norway.
3. Five of the six prizes are given by Swedish organizations for example, the physics, chemistry, and economics prizes are awarded by the Royal Academy of Sciences.



4. The sixth prize, for peace, is awarded by a committee appointed by the Norwegian parliament; how it came to receive this duty is an interesting story.
5. During Alfred Nobel’s life, Norway belonged to Sweden; and the inventor stated in his will that Norway should award the peace prize.

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

249

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

6. Today, even though Norway and Sweden are separate and independent countries, which came about early in this century, the Norwegians have kept the right to award the peace prize, it is a source of pride to all Norwegians.


7. Winners of a Nobel Prize receive a cash award from Alfred Nobel’s estate; the award is currently worth about $950,000.
8. Up to three people may share the prize, for example, the prizes in science and peace are often awarded to several people.
9. Winners of the different prizes are usually announced in October or November; late in the year.



10. Winners receive their prizes in a ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred
Nobel’s death; these include a gold medal, a diploma, and a check.
11. During Nobel week in Sweden, many festivities take place; that is, banquets, dances, parties, and receptions.



12. Nobel week takes place at the same time as the Swedish holiday honoring Saint Lucia; consequently, prizewinners are serenaded by groups of young girls who also take part in a pageant on December 13.



13. One young girl, wearing the traditional costume of a white robe and a crown of candles, represents the saint; others dress as her attendants.
14. Prizewinners also give lectures during Nobel week; their only obligation.

Mechanics



15. Many famous scientists, writers, and world political figures have won Nobel Prizes; however, many others have not.

17. Some of the greatest writers of this century were passed over by the Swedish Academy, the committee that awards the prize in literature; for example, Virginia Woolf, Marcel
Proust, and James Joyce.


18. Some peace prizes have also gone to controversial figures; these include Henry
Kissinger, U.S. secretary of state, and Yasir Arafat, leader of the Palestine Liberation
Organization.
19. In setting up the prizes; Alfred Nobel wrote only that the prizes should go to those who have “conferred the greatest benefit” on the world’s people.



20. The roster of Nobel Prize winners contains some of the greatest figures in the scientific, literary, and diplomatic life of the last hundred years; no other award is held in higher regard. 250 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

16. The decisions of the various committees are often criticized, no one can make a perfect decision every time.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 76

Commas and Compound Sentences
Use commas between the main clauses in a compound sentence. Place a comma before a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, yet, or for) that joins two main clauses.
The members of the choir went to the concert, and the artists’ group went to the museum. Many tourists visit Miami in the summer, but most people go during the colder months. You may omit the comma between very short main clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction unless the comma is needed to avoid confusion.
Dad raked the leaves and I washed the car. (clear)
I went to English class and gym comes next. (confusing)
I went to English class, and gym comes next. (clear)

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Cross out commas used incorrectly using the delete symbol ( ). Some sentences may be correct.
On Saturday we visited Capitol Hill,and tomorrow we want to visit the monuments.
1. Many important discoveries in the field of science are the result of work done by women, and the achievements of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin are no exception.

3. Her parents were English educators living in Cairo,and Dorothy spent the first four years of her

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

life in the Egyptian city.
4. Her father was interested in archaeology, and her mother shared his interest by collecting unusual plants and studying ancient methods of weaving cloth.
5. While at school in England, Dorothy first learned about the science of chemistry, and her interest was to lead her to a scientific career.
6. She became fascinated by the study of crystals, and even set up a small laboratory in her family’s home when she was 14.
7. Certain natural substances are actually made up of tiny crystals, but many people do not know that even aspirin is crystalline.
8. Substances made of crystals can look quite different,yet all crystals share important characteristics. Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

251

Mechanics

2. Dorothy Crowfoot was born in Egypt and moved to England when she was a child.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

9. All crystals are solid, and have regular shapes.
10. Patterns in crystals repeat themselves over and over, and crystals with flawless repetition are said to be perfect.
11. Dorothy finished high school,and she decided to attend Oxford University.
12. Dorothy studied at Oxford for four years, but then she received an offer to be an assistant to a famous chemist at the University of Cambridge.
13. She became familiar with a research technique called X-ray diffraction,and this method became one of the foundations of her career as a scientist.
14. Later she returned to Oxford to teach and do research.
15. She received a laboratory space in which to work and continued her studies of crystals, but another element soon appeared in her life.
16. She met a young man named Thomas Hodgkin, and the couple was married a short time later.
17. World War II began shortly after her marriage,but Dorothy’s work was not interrupted.
18. The war led to Dorothy’s first major scientific success, and her discovery was to have farreaching consequences.
19. A British scientist named Alexander Fleming had several years earlier discovered a special

20. The mold was called penicillin,and it grew naturally.
21. Doctors knew that penicillin could cure diseases caused by bacteria, yet it was available in such small quantities that it could not be used in widespread applications.
22. It was a medical dream to learn to “grow” penicillin artificially in a laboratory,for then it could be manufactured in large quantities.
23. Dorothy started to work on this problem, but it proved to be very difficult to crystallize the penicillin molecules.
24. Dorothy and her assistants analyzed the structure of penicillin using the X-ray diffraction technique, and the discoveries they made changed the history of medicine.
25. Penicillin and similar drugs can now be manufactured in large quantities, but this breakthrough could not have been achieved without the work of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin’s team of scientists.

252 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

mold, that could destroy harmful bacteria.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 77

Commas in a Series and Between Coordinate Adjectives
Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
Josh caught the pass, dodged a tackler, and sprinted for the goal line.
No commas are necessary when all of the items are connected by conjunctions.
She was the kindest and wisest and gentlest person I have ever known.
Nouns that are used in pairs (bread and butter, sweet and innocent, bacon and eggs) are usually considered single units and should not be separated by commas. If such pairs appear with other nouns or groups of nouns in a series, they must be separated from the other items in the series.
The storm is expected to cause thunder and lightning, heavy rains, and gusting winds.
Place a comma between coordinate adjectives that precede a noun. Coordinate adjectives modify a noun equally. To determine whether adjectives are coordinate, try to reverse their order or put the word and between them. If the sentence still sounds natural, the adjectives are coordinate.
The sergeant ordered a slow (and) cautious (and) orderly approach.
The sergeant ordered a slow, cautious, orderly approach.

) unnecessary commas. Some sentences

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Delete ( may be correct.

The weather today will be warm, sunny, and windy.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Her pen rolled off her desk,onto the floor,and under the cabinet.
2. Sheep, cattle,poultry,and swine are all raised in Ohio.
3. My mouth is watering just thinking about those big,juicy tomatoes!
4. Darnay wanted to borrow my best, red pen for the interview.
5. Would you like mashed potatoes, or baked potatoes, or scalloped potatoes?
6. The audience loved the movie, cheered at the end, and left happy and satisfied.
7. The Montinis have just put in a new, wooden deck.
8. He often said that people could either lead, follow, or get out of the way.
9. The little, brown house on Adams Street is for sale again.
10. Logging, cattle farming, and mining all pose a threat to the Amazon basin’s rain forest.
11. Rita looked out on the playground, saw the child fall, and ran out to help him.
12. Thomas enjoys both hiking, and fishing.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

253

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. The man had a black, and blue bruise on his leg,a cut on his forehead,and a scratch on his hand.
14. Don’t eat the food, don’t drink the water, and don’t breathe the air—then you’ll be fine!
15. My dad put the new lamp in our, dining room.
16. The spring beauty is a little, pink, and white flower that blooms in early March.
17. Alaska is the biggest state,Rhode Island is the smallest,and California has the most people.
18. The character was pictured as a rough-and-ready, ornery, and argumentative frontiersman.
19. Her favorite vegetables are carrots, green beans, and zucchini.
20. Raymont was having a hard time choosing between the Toyota, and the Mercury, and the
Pontiac.
21. They took a trip to Vermont to see the beautiful, fall colors.
22. The woods echoed with the sounds of birds, insects, and different, kinds of small mammals.
23. We went on the roller coaster, the Ferris wheel, and the bumper cars.
24. The strange bird we saw was yellow, and blue.
25. He had never been on an airplane,a bus, or a train!
26. Wait in this line,get your ticket,and take it to the cashier.
27. My birthday was a cold and drizzly and miserable day.

29. The bus stopped in Dayton,Springfield,Columbus,and Zanesville.
30. I presented my report, asked if there were any questions, and then turned the meeting over to the president.
31. It was so hot that we took off our shoes and socks, hats, and jackets.
32. The people of the community are its most valuable, important resource.
33. The political candidate solicited money, bought TV time,and ran newspaper ads, for his campaign. 34. The members of the Spanish Club always served ham and bean, chicken and noodle, and vegetable beef soups on election night.
35. The red, velvety coals from the campfire were glowing in the dark.
36. The long,winding,steep trail was the cause of a hot,dusty, and exhausting hike.
37. Teri wanted the small spotted puppy, but her sister liked the big golden retriever.
38. That new restaurant makes the juiciest, and tastiest, and biggest hamburgers in town.

254 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

28. He yelled that he was sick, and tired of the way they treated their cat.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 78

Commas and Nonessential Elements
Use commas to set off nonessential participles and infinitives and their phrases (see
Lesson 19, pp. 91-92, and Lesson 21, pp. 95-96). Do not set off essential phrases.
Waving, the man came toward us. (nonessential)
The man waving to my mother is my uncle. (essential)
Her goal, to become a doctor, has finally been achieved. (nonessential)
To win is her goal. (essential)
Use commas to set off nonessential adjective clauses (see Lesson 26, pp. 107–110). Do not set off essential clauses.
Bangkok, which is the capital of Thailand, is an intriguing city. (nonessential)
People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. (essential)
Use commas to set off nonessential appositives (see Lesson 20, p. 94). Do not set off essential appositives.
My brother, Bill, loves cars. (nonessential—The writer has only one brother.)
My brother Bill loves cars. (essential—The writer has more than one brother.)
Use commas to set off interjections (such as oh and well ) and parenthetical expressions
(such as on the other hand and without a doubt).
Oh, I can hardly believe it!
Last year, on the other hand, you could have taken journalism.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

) unnecessary commas. Some sentences

John went to the restaurant, to eat lunch.
1. Just thinking about the test, made her nervous.
2. Abraham Lincoln,an Illinois congressman,was born in Kentucky.
3. An old bicycle,battered and rusted,lay in the creek.
4. The actress went to school in Nashville,the capital of Tennessee.
5. Robert,breathing heavily,ran an extra lap around the track.
6. OK,you win.
7. Franklin’s father, to be honest, is not interested in baseball.
8. Walking to school, is good exercise.
9. Russell,walking to school,wondered how the tryouts would go.
10. To save enough money to buy a pair of in-line skates, was his goal.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

255

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Insert commas where necessary. Delete ( may be correct.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

11. The performance, which we rehearsed for two months, was a smashing success!
12. The car, that the drunk driver hit, was totally demolished.
13. The little dog with the jeweled collar was behaving badly.
14. Oh,I suppose you’re right about that.
15. Disappointed by his performance,Harry left the room.
16. Someone who is really interested in animals, should get the job at the zoo.
17. To grow cactuses at home is not easy.
18. To prevent computer damage,many people use surge protectors.
19. I have the strangest feeling, that something peculiar is about to happen.
20. Our tour guide,the young man in the safari hat,is a native of Kenya.
21. All students will,of course, be responsible for their own lunches.
22. Animals that are active at night are said to be nocturnal.
23. It was obvious that the man, getting off the plane, was her father.
24. Colorado Springs,where I was born,is in central Colorado.
25. That coat is,without a doubt,the warmest one I have ever owned.
26. Yes, I now understand the assignment.

28. Melissa, who loves all sports,also finds writing poetry enjoyable.
29. To be a loyal friend, is an admirable quality.
30. You would enjoy Mesa Verde National Park,a place I have visited.
31. Our committee will have the list of nominees tomorrow,by the way.
32. Is the young lion, standing on that ledge, one of the zoo’s new animals?
33. The Statue of Liberty is a symbol that represents opportunity.
34. The woman, sitting on the bench, is my aunt.
ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph about your favorite entertainer. Use one adjective clause, one interjection, and one parenthetical expression.

256 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

27. A coyote,howling sadly, added a lonely feeling to the fall evening.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 79

Commas and Introductory Phrases
Use a comma after a short introductory prepositional phrase (see Lesson 18, pp. 89–90) only if the sentence would be misread without it. (However, a comma setting off a short introductory prepositional phrase is not incorrect.)
For the children inside, the playhouse seemed like a magical world. (comma needed to prevent misreading)
Inside the box was the money stolen from the stagecoach. (comma not needed)
During the winter the building is drafty. (comma not needed)
Use a comma after a long prepositional phrase or after the final phrase in a succession of phrases. During the exciting game’s final three minutes, the fans began to cheer wildly.
In the middle of the night on the stroke of twelve, the man’s eyes opened wide and he stared into the darkness.
Do not use a comma if the phrase is immediately followed by a verb.
In the middle of the train station stood the famous writer.
Use commas to set off introductory participles and participial phrases. (See Lesson 19, pp. 91–92.)
Growling, the dog advanced toward the wolf.
Appealing to the jury, the lawyer made her final remarks.

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Place a check in the blank next to each correctly punctuated sentence.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill



Moving cautiously, the little boy climbed the tree.
1. In baseball gloves are used by the fielders.



2. During the commercial after this one, I’ll try to telephone Andrew.



3. By the railing was the captain’s special telescope.
4. Seeing the crash we ran out to see if we could help.
5. Inside the calzone, were sausage, cheese, and onions.



6. Standing behind the man in the blue suit, DeJuan looked impatient.



7. In the small space above the closet was a frightened and mewing Mimi.
8. Behind the dairy cows grazed in a pasture.



9. Smiling, the man behind the desk motioned us to come forward.
10. At the wheel of the sleek red sports car, was none other than my dad!
11. At the insistence of her parents she decided to attend.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

257

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. Laughing she handed me the photograph.


13. From the mouth of the cannon flew the Great Stromboli!
14. After the game boys thanked the referee.



15. Gazing intently at the scar on the stranger’s face, the sheriff stood up slowly.
16. At the beginning of the race through the downtown area, sat the timekeepers.



17. To those in need of help from the Red Cross, the plane was the best sight they had ever seen. 18. On the edge of the pond scum covered the reeds.
19. Catching a glimpse of the rescue team’s light the trapped miners let out whoops of happiness. 20. Beneath the cold water of Lake Superior, lay the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald.

ᮣ Exercise 2 Insert commas where necessary. Delete (

) unnecessary commas.

After two hours of tennis,the players cooled off by swimming.
1. Curling up in her favorite chair with a new book, Regina felt happy and calm.
2. Under the Egyptian sand, lay ancient temples, statues, and buildings.
3. For us, children are never a nuisance.

5. Spotting a familiar face in the crowd,the nervous performer seemed to relax a little.
6. In the middle of the night, she was awakened by a strange tapping sound at the window.
7. After the ridiculously expensive dinner,guests were astonished to be asked to leave immediately.
8. Spying a fish,the seagull dived straight down into the ocean.
9. Crying,the lost child could not be comforted.
10. Looking under the porch,I spotted a raccoon.
11. By the photograph of the pig, farmers signed their names.
12. After twelve hours of nonstop hiking,we finally came to the campsite.
13. Muttering,the man returned to the bench.
14. Settling itself on a high branch,the osprey carefully scanned the surface of the inlet.
15. To her,parents were both friends and teachers.
16. Underneath the piano, lay the missing string of pearls.

258

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

4. At the mouth of the river on the edge of the jungle, lay the village.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 80

Commas and Adverb Clauses and Antithetical Phrases
Use commas to set off all introductory adverb clauses. Use commas to set off internal adverb clauses that interrupt the flow of the sentence.
Before you sign that agreement, make sure you read it carefully.
Most people, if they eat too much, will get indigestion.
In general, do not set off an adverb clause at the end of a sentence unless the clause is parenthetical or the sentence would be misread without the comma.
Don’t come to the show unless you really want to see it. (comma not needed)
Use commas to set off an antithetical phrase. An antithetical phrase uses a word such as but, not, or unlike to qualify what precedes it.
She, not Michael, should have been elected class president.
Sheep, unlike cows, do not cause heavy damage to a pasture or a field.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Delete ( may be correct.

) unnecessary commas. Some sentences

The juror,not the detective,leaked the news, to the press.
1. If you have never heard the name of Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, you’re not alone.

3. Agnes was born where people of several nationalities lived.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

4. Although both Orthodox churches and Muslim mosques were plentiful in Agnes’s town,her family was Catholic.
5. After her father died,young Agnes became increasingly involved in the church.
6. She attended meetings about missionary programs whenever she could.
7. While she was attending one meeting, Agnes learned of the Sisters of Loreto.
8. These nuns performed missionary work in foreign countries, but especially in India.
9. After she expressed her interest in the Loreto nuns’ activities, a priest told her to wait until she was older.
10. When she became eighteen, Agnes decided she wanted to join the missionary nuns.
11. The main headquarters of the Loreto nuns was in Dublin, Ireland,not India.
12. Agnes’s family reacted differently when she told them she had decided to become a nun.

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

259

Mechanics

2. Although Agnes may be the most famous person in the world, few know her original name.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

13. Her brother Lazar,after he heard the news, was shocked.
14. Since Agnes was so full of fun,he felt a nun’s life would be unsuitable for her.
15. Her mother was proud, but sad.
16. She knew she might never see Agnes again if Agnes went to India.
17. To her family, it would be, almost as if their Agnes had died.
18. In 1928 Agnes went to Dublin to join the Sisters of Loreto.
19. After two years the Loreto sisters sent Agnes to India, where she started her new life.
20. When she took her vows to become a nun, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu became Sister Teresa.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Draw one line under each adverb clause. Then add necessary commas.
When she became principal,Ms. Jansen began to change the rules.
1. So that she could better serve God,Sister Teresa promised to remain in poverty, to take no pay for her work, and to own only a few things.
2. Although nuns cannot marry in the ordinary sense,many consider themselves to be brides of
Jesus.
3. Sister Teresa would wear the special robe and head covering, called a habit, of the nuns

4. After she visited Darjeeling near the Himalayan Mountains, Sister Teresa was sent to Calcutta.
5. In 1937 Sister Teresa took her final vows so that she could consecrate her life to her faith.
6. Although her first job was teaching at a Catholic girls’ school in a middle-class section of
Calcutta, Sister Teresa became aware of the poverty and misery of many residents of the city.
7. Then one day in 1946, when the regular food delivery failed to arrive at her convent, Sister
Teresa went into the city to buy supplies.
8. Although she knew Calcutta had some of the worst living conditions in the world, Sister Teresa was shocked at the things she saw.
9. Although convent life was peaceful,the streets of Calcutta were frightening and strange, with starving beggars and unsanitary conditions.
10. Sister Teresa,after she had this powerful experience, felt that God wanted her to work with the poor of Calcutta.

260 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

wherever she went.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 81

Commas with Titles, Addresses, and Numbers
Use commas to set off titles when they follow a person’s name.
Sylvia Chang, Ph.D.
Walter Jackson, mayor of Toledo
Christina Lundgren, M.D., will give the opening speech.
Use a comma after each part of an address, a geographical term, or a date.
Mason, Ohio, is the location of King’s Island.
Graham’s new address is 622 Van Buren Street, Richmond, Indiana 47374.
On Thursday, May 24, 1994, she received notification about the loan.
In a letter use commas as follows:
622 Van Buren Street
Richmond, IN 47374
November 11, 1996
Do not use commas if only the month and the day or only the month and the year are given. Do not use a comma between a state and a zip code.
July 12

January 1993

Columbus, Ohio 43210

Use commas to set off the parts of a reference that direct the reader to the exact source.
The quotation about overcoming oneself is from the Lao Tzu, Book One, Chapter 33.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Delete ( may be correct.

) unnecessary commas. Some sentences

Her Korean pen pal’s birthday was, August 9, 1980.
1. Please welcome our speaker tonight, Angelina Thomas, senator from New Mexico.
2. The Nobel Prize in physics is presented each year in Stockholm,Sweden.
3. However, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in, Oslo, Norway.
4. All the Nobel Prizes are awarded in a gala ceremony on December, 10 of each year.
5. Did you know there is a Kansas City, Missouri, and a Kansas City, Kansas?
6. The return address on the envelope was Christine Lundgren, M.D., 622 Van Buren Street,
Richmond, Indiana 47374.
7. When he gave his birth date as December 3, 1951, I knew he couldn’t be telling the truth.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

261

Mechanics

Ariel, the airy spirit, makes his first appearance in Act I, Scene ii, of The Tempest by
Shakespeare.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. Richard and Sarah’s address until September is 1892 Sunshine Drive, Arlington Heights,
Illinois 60005.
9. It looks as if the game on March 4 will decide the conference title.
10. The archaeology lecture will be given by Leopold M. Steinhauer, Ph.D., a noted Egyptian explorer. 11. A notice in the newspaper said that the classes would begin on Monday, September 12,1996.
12. The group’s concert tour includes performances in Saginaw, Michigan,and Wausau, Wisconsin.
13. I think you’ll find the answer to that question in Act III, Scene ii,of The Merchant of Venice.
14. My sister joined the navy in October, 1992.
15. The dentist handed him a card that read, “Dr. Ariella Blubaugh, D.D.S.”
16. You can redeem the coupons by sending them to, P.O. Box 398, Blacksburg, Virginia 24063.
17. The masquerade takes place in Act I, Scene iii, of the second part of Goethe’s Faust.
18. Stephen’s pen pal lives in Quito, Ecuador.
19. Please have your applications in by March, 21.
20. I have a recommendation from Anthony Wheeler, director of the Wheeler Institute.
21. Danielle’s brother in the army is stationed in Frankfurt, Germany.

23. The sweepstakes entries have to be postmarked by midnight on, April 30.
24. Send the entries to Contest, 1112 Northridge Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55401.
25. Until, September 1,1985,the Titanic, a grand but tragic ship, sat in total darkness two miles beneath the Atlantic Ocean.
26. A demonstration of CPR will be given in the auditorium by Elaine Hollister, R.N., head of nursing at Memorial Hospital.
27. The new tape and CD store is at 505, Butler Avenue.
28. Her little brother started school on September 1, 1990.
29. Marcelina Lopez is a, city councilwoman.
30. The address on the form read 901 Old Mill Road, Salida, Colorado 81201.
31. The last day of band camp is Friday,August 3.
32. I ordered my hiking boots from a Portland, Maine,company.

262 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

22. The letter introduced the new priest as Father Jeffrey Rhoades,S.J.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 82

Commas and Direct Address and in Tag Questions and Letter Writing
Use commas to set off words or names used in direct address.
Robin, have you ever been to the zoo?
Yes, sir, we can have lunch together this week.
Don’t forget to turn in your books, class.
Use commas to set off a tag question. A tag question (such as Do you? or Can I?) emphasizes an implied answer to the statement preceding it.
You don’t like raisins, do you?
You’ve read The Outsiders, haven’t you?
Place a comma after the salutation of an informal letter and after the closing of all letters.
Dear Ruben,
Sincerely,

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Cross out commas used incorrectly by using the delete symbol ( ). Write C in the blank if the sentence is correct as written.
Carlos, hand me my books.

Mechanics

1. No, my friend,I don’t think we shall ever meet again.
2. We’ve never been to Nebraska, have we?

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

3. Dear Brian,
4. You’ll try to get some sleep before the test, won’t you?
5. Excuse me,ma’am,the sign says not to feed the animals.
6. Don’t forget to call me on Saturday, Lena.
7. He knows about the deadline next week, doesn’t he?
C

8. Very truly yours, Ms. Julia Pataky

C

9. That’s the bus to Little Rock, isn’t it?
10. Dad, you’re the greatest!
11. Yes, Your Honor,I am prepared for trial today.
12. This shirt, doesn’t make my hair look orange, does it?
13. I guess I am disappointed, Mom, but I’ll get over it.
14. Listen, folks, and I’ll let you in on a little secret.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

263

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. They don’t really believe that, do they?
16. Dear Grandpa,
17. That’s not a very smart thing to do, is it?
18. Whoa,Brandy! Down,girl!
19. Those are Kerry’s gloves,aren’t they?
C

20. No, Officer, I did not see the flashing lights.
21. Jenny and Jillian didn’t already leave for the pool, did they?
22. All right,you guys,the party’s over!
23. Yes,Your, Majesty,the ambassador from Persia has arrived.
24. I don’t think Deanne left a forwarding address,did she?
25. Yes,Madame Chairman,I am happy to second the motion.

C

26. Miguel won first place in the judo contest, didn’t he?
27. You’re not paying attention, people.
28. Ricky,you shouldn’t walk down the stairs with a sucker in your mouth.
29. He won’t tell anyone, will he?
30. Dear, Mom and Dad,

C

32. She shouldn’t be messing around with that fuse box, should she?
33. All right,Bobcats, let’s go out and play our best game!
34. Electricity can be dangerous if you don’t know what you’re doing, can’t it?
35. Here, Mittens,come get your dinner.
36. Your friend, Anthony
37. The news story about us will be next, won’t it?

C

38. Good evening, sir. My name is Tom and I’ll be your waiter tonight.
39. I couldn’t have seen Tyrone at the play, could I?
40. Dear, Todd and Trevor,
41. Orange juice is a lot better for you than soda pop, isn’t it?
42. Go, team! Beat Washington High!

264 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

31. Attention,students.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 83

Commas in Review

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add commas where necessary. Delete commas used incorrectly using the delete symbol ( ).
To my surprise, Aunt Mary, bought tickets to the concert for Tony, Miguel, and me.
1. Jenny and I were planning to go to the parade, but when it started to rain, we decided to stay at her apartment and listen to music.
2. Although the other team had a big lead at halftime, we were barely able to eke out a victory.
3. Uncle Mervyn likes to work in his flower garden,and Aunt Jane spends most of her time spinning wool on her spinning wheel.
4. By the time we got to town,we found that the shoe store, the sporting goods store, and the clothing store were all closed.
5. Before they could play volleyball, players had to sign up for the team.
6. Among the sites we visited on our trip to New York was the Statue of Liberty,which was so crowded we couldn’t go to the top.

Mechanics

7. We also saw the Museum of Modern Art,my favorite spot of all.
8. Her grandparents celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary on May 3, 1994.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

9. The author, whose books I like best, is Walter Dean Myers.
10. Dad took a picture of Max and Mimi asleep on his favorite, red, easy chair.
11. Mr. Graves ran out of the house in a hurry, slipped on a patch of ice, and wound up in the emergency room with a broken wrist.
12. Sigrid Undset, a Norwegian novelist, won the Nobel Prize in 1928.
13. James Joyce,on the other hand,never won the Nobel Prize in literature.
14. Joyce, Ireland’s best-known novelist, lived most of his life outside the country.
15. Ben went to visit his cousins in Highland Park, a town outside Chicago.
16. Anyone, playing around with her food, is likely to make a mess.
17. The word smorgasbord, came into the English language from Swedish.
18. Well,I don’t think there’s anything more we can do about it now.
19. Along the sheer,rocky cliff hanging over the crashing waves,she crept along carefully, never daring to look down.

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

265

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

20. The actor’s favorite speech was in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing, Act IV, Scene ii.
21. In order to be considered healthy,foods should not be too high in fat or sugar.
22. You’re not serious about it, are you?
23. Could I have your schedule form,please?
24. Randall will have to study harder,or he’ll be in danger of losing his B average.
25. Can’t you try one more time, to reach her?
26. Hey,wait a minute!
27. Learning to downhill ski, is not as hard as you might think.
28. To create a sound that offers good stereo, speakers should be placed at least eight feet apart.
29. To become a member of the band, had been her goal for three years.
30. Sarah,did you mail a package to 522 Van Buren Street, Richmond,Indiana 47374?
31. Oh,I didn’t realize this was your magazine.
32. I can’t remember the last time I read such an exciting, electrifying novel!
33. Could you tell me, how to get to the city attorney’s office?
34. The group of weary explorers trudged on through the jungle, yet many had already given up hope of ever being found.

36. Ladysmith Black Mombazo, a famous choir from South Africa, has recorded many albums of religious and traditional music.
37. She won’t go along with our plan,nor will she try to think of a better one.
38. Anyone, who wants to go to the Spanish play, should sign up in advance with the club advisor.
39. That girl, reading the newspaper by the cafeteria door just moved here from Seattle.
40. Kristy missed the penalty kick, I’m sorry to say.
41. With this software program you don’t need to save your work every few minutes.
42. Chad was looking for the office of Janet Montgomery, M.D.
43. You are requested to appear in court on Thursday,August 18,1996,to give testimony on the case.
44. Inside the tumbledown and ramshackle old mansion,we found the evidence we were looking for.
45. You might still be able to sign up for the trip,if you hurry.

266 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

35. Breathing a sigh of relief, the coach shook hands with his assistant.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 84

Dashes to Signal Change and to Emphasize
Use a dash to set off an abrupt break or change in thought within a sentence.
The owl’s excellent sight—a valuable complement to its astounding ability to turn its head 270 degrees—makes it a master hunter, even at night.
Dashes may also be used to set off and emphasize supplemental information or parenthetical comments.
Melanie finished reading the book—the best she had ever read.
When Melanie finished reading the book—the best she had ever read—she had tears in her eyes.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Insert dashes where necessary. If the sentence is correct as written, write C on the blank. —

Born in Wapakoneta a small western Ohio city Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the moon.
1. The slight woman she smiled shyly and curtsied was Nelly Sachs.
2. Nelly Sachs the story of her life reads like a modern fairy tale was awarded the Nobel
Prize for literature.

Mechanics

3. Born in 1891 in Berlin the capital and leading city of Germany Nelly Sachs was the daughter of a well-to-do manufacturer.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

C

4. The Sachses lived in the most fashionable neighborhood in Berlin; who could have imagined what horrors this city would experience over the next half-century?
5. The Sachses like many other middle-class and well-to-do Germans of the early twentieth century were Jewish.
6. As a teenager, Nelly decided to try to develop her talent for writing abandoning her early interest in dance and began to compose stories and poems.
7. Her first poems based on her observations of nature and on her reading Nelly collected in a book.

C

8. In the 1920s Berlin was a cultural capital of Europe; many artists, writers, and musicians called it home.
9. The Sachs family unaware of the violent storm building in their homeland lived a quiet, respectable life.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

267

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

10. Looking out the windows of her home, Nelly might have seen organizers for a new political party the National Socialists, or Nazis.
11. In 1929 the economy of Germany and of all the industrialized world fell apart.
12. This period of economic hardship it was known as the Great Depression frightened people all over the world.
13. In Germany, many people believed that the leader of the Nazi party he was an Austrian who believed that power and might were Germany’s rightful future had the answers to
Germany’s devastating economic problems.
C

14. The confusion, fear, and economic hardships of the German people led many to become followers of the Nazis and their leader, Adolf Hitler.
15. Hitler had a simple explanation for all of the country’s problems “The Jews,” he claimed, “are poisoning Germany.”

C

16. Like poison, Hitler’s beliefs spread through German society, and in 1934 the Nazi leader became the country’s ruler.
17. The Nazis they now had total control of the country were prepared to enforce their will by imprisoning or murdering those who opposed them.

no longer citizes gradually eliminated the rights of Germans who were Jewish.
C

19. A brutal secret police force known as the Gestapo enforced the laws against Jews.

C

20. As the campaign became more intense, Nazi police prevented people from dealing with
Jewish doctors, lawyers, or retailers; Jews understood that the situation would only grow worse.

C

21. Thousands of Jews left Germany, although thousands more remained.
22. In the meantime, Nelly Sachs’s poetry because of its rhyme and subject matter had begun to be published.
23. As the Nazis moved closer to the Jews who remained many of whom were still loyal to their country Nelly and her mother were forced to move from their home.

C

24. Taking only a few of their possessions, they moved to a poorer neighborhood of Berlin.

C

25. In spite of the reduced circumstances she found herself in, Nelly tried to continue with her writing and other parts of her old life.

268 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

18. A series of laws they were known as the Nuremberg Laws and decreed that Jews were

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 85

Parentheses
Use parentheses to set off material that is not important enough to be considered part of the main statement.
The Dead Sea, at 397 meters (1,302 feet) below sea level, is the lowest spot on the earth’s land surface.
A complete sentence within parentheses is not capitalized and needs no period if it is contained within another sentence. If a sentence in parentheses is not contained within another sentence, both a capital letter and a period are needed.
In 1940 Nelly Sachs (she was almost fifty years old) was forced to flee Nazi Germany.
If a comma, a semicolon, or a colon is required, place it after the closing parenthesis.
During the year of Grandma’s birth (1939), many important historical events took place. Place a necessary question mark or exclamation point inside the parentheses if it is part of the parenthetical expression.
I saw your brother Tim (or was it Tom?) at the game.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Rewrite the sentences in the space provided, adding parentheses and punctuation where necessary. If a sentence is correct, write correct on the line.

Mechanics

Mr. Fox my biology teacher needs three volunteers to help with the field trip.
Mr. Fox (my biology teacher) needs three volunteers to help with the field trip.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. If my cousin comes to visit I really hope he does, I’m sure he’ll bring his banjo.
If my cousin comes to visit (I really hope he does!), I’m sure he’ll bring his banjo.
2. Peugeot and Renault neither is sold in the United States are both French automobiles.
Peugeot and Renault (neither is sold in the United States) are both French automobiles.
3. The TV show will air at 9:00 P.M. Eastern Standard Time 8:00 P.M. Central.
The TV show will air at 9:00 P.M. Eastern Standard Time (8:00 P.M. Central).
4. Giuseppe Verdi the Italian composer became popular during Italy’s drive for independence.
Giuseppe Verdi (the Italian composer) became popular during Italy’s drive for independence.

5. Can you imagine close your eyes and try staying at a hotel that doesn’t have electricity?
Can you imagine (close your eyes and try) staying at a hotel that doesn’t have electricity?

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

269

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

6. If you like that idea, then LeConte Lodge in Tennessee is for you! correct 7. Racing bicycles yes, I know you have a mountain bike are very efficient machines.
Racing bicycles (yes, I know you have a mountain bike!) are very efficient machines.
8. Gina told me you lost her denim jacket. correct 9. A person should eat two to four servings from another food group fruit is a good one.
A person should eat two to four servings from another food group (fruit is a good one).
10. One source of ascorbic acid Vitamin C is orange juice.
One source of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is orange juice.
11. Peter Gabriel he was once in the band Genesis has performed solo for almost twenty years.
Peter Gabriel (he was once in the band Genesis) has performed solo for almost twenty years.
12. When you get a letter from your pen pal I hope you get it soon, let me know right away.
When you get a letter from your pen pal (I hope you get it soon), let me know right away.
13. I’m applying for a pen pal myself. correct correct
15. Birds flying south migrating is one unmistakable sign of fall.
Birds flying south (migrating) is one unmistakable sign of fall.
16. My grandfather always talks about his favorite baseball player, Stan the Man Musial.
My grandfather always talks about his favorite baseball player, Stan (the Man) Musial.
17. African elephants they’re rightly feared by many people differ from Asian elephants.
African elephants (they’re rightly feared by many people) differ from Asian elephants.
18. At birth a typical Asian elephant weighs about 260 pounds about 118 kilograms!
At birth a typical Asian elephant weighs about 260 pounds (about 118 kilograms)!
19. His parents left on a tour of Scandinavia Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.
His parents left on a tour of Scandinavia (Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark).
20. Did you hear that Luis he’s my brother’s friend was accepted at Harvard?
Did you hear that Luis (he’s my brother’s friend) was accepted at Harvard?

270 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

14. It sounds like fun to write to someone in a foreign country.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 86

Quotation Marks for Direct Quotations
Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation. Separate introductory or explanatory remarks from the quotation with a comma.
The man looked at Angie and said, “I believe you are to blame for this.”
Do not use a comma after a quotation that ends with an exclamation point or a question mark. “What are you doing here?” the police officer asked.
When a quotation is interrupted by explanatory words such as she said, use two sets of quotation marks.
“An aged man is but a paltry thing,” wrote the Irish poet William Butler Yeats, “a tattered coat upon a stick.”
Do not use quotation marks in an indirect quotation.
Father said the train was running late.
Use single quotation marks around a quotation within a quotation.
“I heard the announcer say, ‘You win a new car,’” he explained excitedly.
In writing dialogue, begin a new paragraph and use a new set of quotation marks every time the speaker changes.
Little Crow asked quietly, “Are you ready for the ceremony?”
“I don’t know,” White Wing replied, not daring to look at the older man.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

“Fools need advice most” Ben Franklin wrote, but wise men only are the better for it.
“Fools need advice most,” Ben Franklin wrote, “but wise men only are the better for it.”
1. The poster read, It’s 11:00. Do you know where your kids are
The poster read, “It’s 11:00. Do you know where your kids are?”
2. My reply he explained, was I would never do that “My reply,” he explained,“was ‘I would never do that!’”
3. Rehearsals start on Monday announced the director. I hope everyone will be on time
“Rehearsals start on Monday,” announced the director. “I hope everyone will be on time.”
4. Everybody get down the woman screamed when the car exploded.
“Everybody get down!” the woman screamed when the car exploded.
5. The scarecrow told Dorothy that some folks went this way and others went that way. correct Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

271

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Rewrite the sentences in the space provided, adding or deleting quotation marks and other punctuation where necessary. Some sentences may be correct.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

6. The school nurse asked Charlie, Are you feeling better now?
The school nurse asked Charlie, “Are you feeling better now?”
7. Ms. Wallinchek assigned Patrick Henry’s speech” said Annie.
“Ms. Wallinchek assigned Patrick Henry’s speech,” said Annie.
8. The one in which he says Give me liberty or give me death asked Tonya.
“The one in which he says, ‘Give me liberty or give me death’?” asked Tonya.
9. May I help you asked the girl behind the counter.
“May I help you?” asked the girl behind the counter.
10. We got our history tests back yesterday, Matt explained.”
“We got our history tests back yesterday,” Matt explained.
11. I got a B plus he added proudly. “I got a B plus,” he added proudly.
12. The woman walked up to my mother and asked Do you know me
The woman walked up to my mother and asked, “Do you know me?”
13. William boasted “that he had read The Scarlet Letter in one night.”
William boasted that he had read The Scarlet Letter in one night.
14. We have a problem said Grandpa with a worried look a big problem

15. The forecast for tonight said the meteorologist is snow
“The forecast for tonight,” said the meteorologist, “is snow.”
16. Christina Rossetti is my favorite poet declared Megan.
“Christina Rossetti is my favorite poet,” declared Megan.
17. The clerk explained how the radio worked. correct
18. Lincoln warned “that a house divided against itself could not stand.”
Lincoln warned that a house divided against itself could not stand.
19. Did the announcement say, Only sophomores need report at 3:30
Did the announcement say, “Only sophomores need report at 3:30”?
20. When Jose mentioned “that he might be going to the chess club meeting,” I asked Do you mind if I come along
When Jose mentioned that he might be going to the chess club meeting, I asked, “Do you mind if I come along?” 272 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

“We have a problem,” said Grandpa with a worried look, “a big problem.”

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 87

Quotation Marks with Titles of Short Works, Unusual
Expressions, and Other Marks of Punctuation
Use quotation marks to enclose titles of short works, such as stories, poems, essays, newspaper and magazine articles, book chapters, and songs.
“The Tell-Tale Heart” (short story)
“Self-Reliance” (essay)
Use quotation marks to enclose unfamiliar slang and unusual expressions.
Jamal explained that in football a “pick” is a pass interception.
Place commas and periods inside closing quotation marks.
“I Like to See It Lap the Miles,” a poem by Emily Dickinson, is about a train.
Place a colon or semicolon outside closing quotation marks.
This is my opinion of Emily Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”: it’s one of the greatest poems ever written.
Place a question mark or an exclamation point outside the closing quotation marks when it is part of the entire sentence but inside if it refers only to the quoted matter.
Did the caller say, “Drop the ransom money behind the big oak tree”?
Suzi asked, “What is your favorite poem?”

Mechanics

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Rewrite the sentences in the space provided, adding quotation marks where necessary. If a sentence is correct, write correct.
The Necklace is a famous story by Guy de Maupassant.
“The Necklace” is a famous story by Guy de Maupassant.
1. Ouch! yelled Clarissa.
“Ouch!” yelled Clarissa.
2. Mom likes to listen to Michael Feinstein sing Isn’t It Romantic?
Mom likes to listen to Michael Feinstein sing “Isn’t It Romantic?”

3. In tennis a score of zero is called love.
In tennis a score of zero is called “love.”

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

273

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

4. Which of these poems by Edgar Allan Poe do you prefer—The Bells or The Raven?
Which of these poems by Edgar Allan Poe do you prefer—“The Bells” or “The Raven”?

5. I’m going to call my essay How to Proceed to Succeed.
I’m going to call my essay “How to Proceed to Succeed.”
6. Never, shouted Morgan, will I agree to such terms!
“Never,” shouted Morgan, “will I agree to such terms!”
7. Am I Blue? was a popular song in my great-grandmother’s youth.
“Am I Blue?” was a popular song in my great-grandmother’s youth.

8. Did Stephen Crane write a short story called The Open Boat?
Did Stephen Crane write a short story called “The Open Boat”?

9. For my report I read an article titled Unidentified Flying Objects—Fact or Fiction?
For my report I read an article titled “Unidentified Flying Objects—Fact or Fiction?”

Can you quote the first line of the patriotic peom “Concord Hymn”?

11. For homework Ms. Ruiz assigned Chapter 22, The Great Depression.
For homework Ms. Ruiz assigned Chapter 22, “The Great Depression.”

12. Do you know what a gofer is?
Do you know what a “gofer” is?
13. Do you know who wrote the nonsense poem Jabberwocky?
Do you know who wrote the nonsense poem “Jabberwocky”?

14. The Bear is probably William Faulkner’s most famous short story.
“The Bear” is probably William Faulkner’s most famous short story.

274 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

10. Can you quote the first line of the patriotic poem Concord Hymn?

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 88

Italics
Titles of books, long poems, plays, films, television series, works of art, and long musical compositions are printed in italic type. Names of newspapers, magazines, ships, trains, airplanes, and spacecraft are also printed in italics. It is common practice not to italicize the article preceding the title of a newspaper or a magazine. In handwriting, use underlining to indicate italics. the Washington Post (newspaper)

The Marriage of Figaro (musical work)

Italicize (underline) foreign words and expressions that are not used frequently in English.
In Italy, we spent a lot of time at the stazione ferroviaria, or train station.
Italicize (underline) words and letters used to represent themselves.
The word carols comes from the Greek word choraules.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline each word or phrase that should be italicized. Not every sentence has words that should be italicized.
Tamara will read The Return of the Native for her book report.
1. Selma Lagerlof’s best-known novel is The Story of Gosta Berling.
2. Lagerlof was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in literature.

Mechanics

3. There is an article in National Geographic about Lagerlof’s homeland.
4. The music club went to see a production of the opera Billy Budd.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. The opera is based on a story by Herman Melville, author of the novel Moby-Dick.
6. Semper paratus—“Always prepared”—is the motto of the U.S. Coast Guard.
7. Sarah’s dad made us a delicious dinner with bulgogi and kimchee.
8. My sister hung in her room a poster of Edward Hopper’s painting Nighthawks.
9. Ich dien is the motto of the Prince of Wales.
10. Lianna didn’t have any idea how often she said the word whatever.
11. Matt felt proud that he had earned all A’s and B’s.
12. We read the early edition of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.
13. One of the best places to get a galette is Rennes, France.
14. He was suffering from weltschmerz, a German word for “world-weariness.”
15. My mom’s favorite album of all time is the Police’s Ghost in the Machine.

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

275

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

16. However, her favorite song is Aretha Franklin’s “Respect.”
17. The drama club is presenting Thornton Wilder’s play Our Town next weekend.
18. Which movie did you like better: Home Alone or Home Alone II?
19. The word smee plays an important role in A.M. Burrage’s story of the same name.
20. Whenever it’s my turn to cook a meal for the family, I always make spaghetti.
21. It’s fun to look through old Life and Look magazines.
22. Mahpiua-luta was a famous chief of the Dakota people.
23. The Broadway musical My Fair Lady is based on Pygmalion, a play by George Bernard Shaw.
24. My grandparents sent me a postcard of Michelangelo’s statue David.
25. “The sequels to Gone with the Wind aren’t as good as the original movie,” she said.
26. The h on his computer keyboard didn’t work.
27. My favorite story in the book Twice-Told Tales is “The Gray Champion.”
28. We rode aboard the Delta Queen, a remodeled steamboat.
29. Roberto made a delicious Puerto Rican dish called monfongo con caldo.
30. Jennifer’s mom, a carpenter, appeared on the television series This Old House.
31. Whitman was in tune with the zeitgeist, or “spirit of the times,” of the 1850s.

33. Achilles, the great warrior, is a main character in the poem.
34. We traveled on the Highland Belle through northern Scotland.
35. I looked at the poster and realized I’d left out the c in dance!
36. You can make Ethiopian injera bread with wheat flour.
37. Our film club rented the movies Citizen Kane and Ben-Hur.
38. Rachel read the novel Pride and Prejudice in two days.
39. Dad christened his new boat Daybreak.
40. One of my favorite paintings is called Luncheon of the Boating Party.
41. My little sister is dancing to selections from The Nutcracker Suite.
42. Arthur says watching Sesame Street helped him learn to read.
43. Jerome’s grandmother suggested that he mind his p’s and q’s.
44. Jazz great Charlie Parker was nicknamed “Bird.”

276 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

32. Bach’s Mass in B Minor is a great choral work.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 89

The Apostrophe
Use an apostrophe and -s to form the possessive of a singular noun, even one that ends in
-s. Use an apostrophe alone to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in -s. Use an apostrophe and -s to form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in -s.
Doris’s car

boys’ bicycles

the children’s room

Put only the last word of a compound noun in the possessive form. the secretary of state’s home

her brother-in-law’s car

If two or more partners possess something jointly, use the possessive form for the last partner named. If two or more partners possess something individually, put each one’s name in the possessive form.
Laurel and Hardy’s comedies

Boeing’s and Lockheed’s airplanes

Use an apostrophe in place of letters omitted in contractions. Common contractions combine a subject and a verb or a verb and an adverb. he’s (he is, he has)

won’t (will not)

it’s (it is, it has)

Use an apostrophe in place of the omitted numerals of a particular year. the class of ’97

the ’96 election

) apostrophes used incorrectly.

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add an apostrophe where necessary. Delete (
Cara’s ski club is borrowing our’ room for their meeting.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Among Nobel Prize winners, Barbara McClintocks name stands out in many ways.
2. For example, this world-famous scientist doesnt own a telephone, so when she won the Nobel
Prize in medicine in 1983, the Nobel committee couldnt call her!
3. She’s not a teacher as so many other winner’s of the award have been.
4. Barbaras childhood was unusual.
5. Barbaras father, a doctor, insisted that his children not be given any homework.
6. He wanted them to have free time to enjoy the wood’s and outdoor activities.
7. Barbara chose to study at New Yorks Cornell University.
8. At Cornell Barbara made many friend’s and was elected president of the womens freshman class.
9. Although she worked hard on her’ studies, she was able to find time to play the banjo in a student jazz band.
10. At Cornell Barbara became interested in genetics and the study of heredity—the passing on of a
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

277

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

parents characteristics to his or her offspring.
11. Genetic’s as a science was still in it’s youth when Barbara began to study it.
12. The pioneer in genetics’ research was an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel.
13. Mendel experimented with plants in his monasterys garden.
14. Mendels discoveries’ about how the plants passed on certain characteristics to their offspring became the foundation of modern genetics.
15. However, it took scientists several decades to accept Mendel’s theories.
16. By the time Barbara McClintock was studying genetics at Cornell, scientists had confirmed the existence of genes, hereditys building blocks.
17. Genes, which transmit organisms messages to their offspring, are carried on chromosome’s, tiny rods present in the cells of all living things.
18. Youd be surprised to learn about the methods of pioneers in the study of genetics.
19. Mendel studied pea plants while other’s studied fruit flies.
20. Barbara McClintocks favorite organism was a type of corn called maize.
21. Maize is the multicolored corn youd use as a decoration in the fall.
22. The colors of the kernels indicate the genetic makeup of the corns chromosomes.

24. The future Nobel Prize winners first major breakthrough was the identification of a corn kernels individual chromosomes.
25. During her year’s at Cornell, Barbara met many other’s interested in genetics.
26. In later years they would benefit greatly from each others research.
27. Barbara and another young scientist, Harriet Creighton, discovered that a cells chromosomal message’s are exchanged during meiosis.
28. Meiosis is the process of a cells reproduction by division.
29. After several years at Cornell, Barbara accepted the National Research Councils offer of a fellowship to study and teach.
30. Over the next forty years, Barbara made many discoveries’ about the nature of chromosomes, genes, and heredity.

278 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

23. The early scientists research was difficult because of the small size of chromosome’s.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 90

The Hyphen
Use a hyphen after any prefix joined to a proper noun or proper adjective (see Lesson 2, pp. 49-50, and Lesson 8, pp. 61-62). Use a hyphen after the prefixes all-, ex-, and selfjoined to any noun or adjective. Use a hyphen after the prefix anti- joined to a word beginning with a vowel, and use a hyphen after the prefix vice-, except in vice president. trans-Africa all-state

anti-inflation

Use a hyphen in a compound adjective that precedes a noun. Do not use a hyphen if one of the words is an adverb ending in -ly. a twelve-year-old boy but The boy is twelve years old.

softly spoken words

Hyphenate any spelled-out cardinal or ordinal compound number up to ninety-nine or ninety-ninth. Hyphenate a fraction used as an adjective. twenty-two one-half tablespoon but one half of a tablespoon

Words are generally hyphenated at the ends of lines between syllables. In general, if a word contains two consonants occurring between two vowels, divide the word between the two consonants. If a suffix has been added to a complete word that ends in two consonants, divide the word after the two consonants. Use a dictionary when in doubt. moun-tain ask-ing

) unnecessary hyphens. Some sentences

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

The seasoned reporter removed a well-worn suitcase from the trunk of her car.
1. Ashok finished twenty first out of ninety seven runners.
2. When Torrie found out she had made the all conference team, she was ecstatic.
3. Babies are certainly tiny when they’re three-weeks-old.
4. Oscar Robertson is one of basketball’s all time greats.
5. Use one fourth teaspoon of cinnamon in this recipe.
6. The evening sky was an unbelievable shade of dark-blue.
7. Our ex babysitter’s photograph was in the paper because she won an award.
8. Of all the teachers in our school, Ms. Sanchez is probably the most-popular.
9. The horse had to run the race with a sixteen pound weight on his saddle.
10. The concerto was well performed.
11. Sean’s self confidence rose when he won second prize in the art show.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

279

Mechanics

ᮣ Exercise 1 Add hyphens where necessary. Delete ( may be correct.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. The teacher said she could tell our report was thoroughly-researched.
13. Excuse me, but are these tulips the late blooming variety?
14. The members of the anti poverty group were meeting in the auditorium.
15. The recipe called for three-quarters of a pound of butter or margarine.
16. This is definitely a mouth watering dish.
17. Steven eats only well done hamburgers.
18. Virginia’s blue green outfit did not look good with her bluish purple hat.
19. Congratulations to the fifty ninth graduating class of Roosevelt High.
20. That was a back breaking job.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Show where each word would be hyphenated at the end of a line by drawing a vertical line (|) at the spot. summer 12. doctor

3. highest

13. announce

4. banquet

14. salvage

5. spokesperson

15. thankful

6. stomping

16. possessive

7. million

17. football

8. thoughtless

18. otherwise

9. mistake

19. balloon

10. longest

20. friendship

ᮣ Writing Link Write a paragraph describing an outfit you might wear to a costume party. Use at least two compound adjectives and two prefixes in your description.

280 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

11. hollow

2. chicken

Mechanics

1. thinking

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 91

Abbreviations
Use all capital letters and no periods for abbreviations that are pronounced letter by letter or as words. Exceptions are U.S. and Washington, D.C., which do use periods.
NBC

PIN

AMA

NASA

NAACP

AIDS

NATO

In ordinary prose, spell out state names and words that refer to streets, such as Street,
Road, and Boulevard. On envelopes only, use the postal abbreviations for state names.
Also on envelopes only, you may abbreviate words that refer to streets, such as Street,
Road, and Boulevard.
AL Alabama
St. Street

MI Michigan
Rd. Road

IL Illinois
Blvd. Boulevard

Use the abbreviations A.M. (ante meridiem, “before noon”) and P.M. (post meridiem, “after noon”) for exact times. For dates, use B.C. (before Christ) and, sometimes, A.D. (anno
Domini, “in the year of the Lord,” after Christ.)
9:12 A.M.

11:20 P.M.

A.D.

1200

10,000 B.C.

Personal titles, such as Mrs. and Jr., are almost always abbreviated. Titles of government and military officials and of clergy members are often abbreviated when used before the full name. This kind of abbreviation always ends with a period.
Ken Griffey Jr.

Gen. Dwight Eisenhower

Sen. Bruce Johnson

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ENGLISH SYSTEM ft. foot

Mechanics

Units of measure are abbreviated when used with numerals in technical or scientific writing but are not abbreviated in ordinary sentences. The abbreviation is the same for both plural and singular units. Metric abbreviations do not take periods.
METRIC SYSTEM cm centimeter

ᮣ Exercise 1 Choose the word or abbreviation in the parentheses that correctly completes each sentence and write it on the blank.
Tomorrow I will run one [

kilometer

1. Marlene missed her goal shot by two [
2. [

Sen.

farther than I ran today. (km, kilometer) feet . (feet, ft.)

Ted Kennedy was the name on the office door. (Sen., Sen)

3. Saudi Arabia is one of the members of [

OPEC

. (OPEC, O.P.E.C.)

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

281

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

4. Martin Luther King [

Jr.

was born in January. (Junior, Jr.)

5. At 11:45 [

A.M.

6. [

is one of the major television networks. (A.B.C., ABC)

7. [

ABC
Gen.

the balloon touched down behind the school. (A.M., ante meridiem)

Robert E. Lee led the South during the Civil War. (Gen., GEN.)

8. Three [

yards

of the fabric cost $5.40. (yd., yards)

9. Around 8000 [

B.C.

the wooly mammoth died out. (B.C., before Christ)

10. When we toured the Space Center, a [
11. The steak weighed about two [
12. In [

A.D.

NASA

pounds

official was our guide. (N.A.S.A., NASA) on the butcher’s scale. (lb., pounds)

476 the Roman Empire finally came to an end. (A.D., anno Domini)

13. Step 4 of the lab instructions says, “Cut a segment 3 [
14. Did the bus arrive before or after 4:00 [
15. My friend Spencer lives in Long Branch, [

P.M.

17. The tire pressure measured thirty-five [

pound

. (NJ, New Jersey) of bacon. (lb., pound)

cubic centimeters

18. The story’s main character is a lovable giant who is nine [
19. The [

NATO

. (cc, cubic centimeters) feet tall. (ft., feet)

will see you tomorrow at noon. (Dr., doctor)

is the abbreviation for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (N.A.T.O., NATO)

ᮣ Exercise 2 Rewrite the following addresses as if they would appear on envelopes, using the acceptable abbreviations.
Maria Lopez

Maria Lopez

1557 Westchester Boulevard

1557 Westchester Blvd.

Detroit, Michigan 13799

Detroit, MI 13799

Rachel Goldberg

Rachel Goldberg

375 Andrews Street

375 Andrews St.

Huntsville, Alabama 10227

Huntsville, AL 10227

Michael Lee

Michael Lee

879 Meander Road

879 Meander Rd.

Chicago, Illinois 11337

Chicago, IL 11337

282 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

20. [

doctor

long.” (cm., cm)

? (post meridiem, P.M.)

New Jersey

16. Mom sent me to the grocery store to buy one [

cm

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 92

Numbers and Numerals
Use numerals in charts and tables. In sentences, spell numbers that begin a sentence or that can be written in one or two words. Use numerals for those requiring more than two words. An acre equals 43,560 square feet.
Five hundred fifty-five students attended the exhibit.
Mitch was the twenty-second person in the long ticket line.
Use numerals to express decimals, percentages, and amounts of money involving both dollars and cents. Write out amounts of money that can be written in one or two words.
2.2 liters

70 percent

$17.95

seventy-five cents

Use numerals to express the year and day in a date and to express the precise time with the abbreviations A.M. and P.M. Spell out expressions of time that are approximate or that do not use A.M. or P.M.
November 11, 1918

8:15 A.M.

eight o’clock

Use numerals for numbered streets and avenues over ten and for all house, apartment, and room numbers.
202 East 44th Street

Apartment 34B

305 First Avenue

Use numerals to express page, line, act, and scene numbers.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

lines 4-20 of the poem

Act 2, Scene 3, or Act II, Scene iii

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write in the blank the expression shown in parentheses that correctly completes the sentence. The candidate collected [
1. On page [

one thousand

42

I found information about the Crusades. (42, forty-two)

27
2. On November [
Crusades. (27, twenty-seventh)

1095, Pope Urban II gave a speech that launched the

3. The Crusades occurred between 1096 and [
1270)
4. About [
5. [

thirty thousand
Four thousand

6. The store at 349 West [ forty-seventh) signatures. (1,000; one thousand)

1270

. (twelve hundred seventy,

crusaders fought in the First Crusade. (thirty thousand; 30,000) of these crusaders were knights. (4,000; Four thousand)
47th

Street has many books about history. (47th,

7. There I purchased a biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt for [ dollars and ninety-five cents, $16.95)

$16.95

. (sixteen

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

283

Mechanics

page 101

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. The store also has a large table of bargain books that are priced from [ cents to three dollars. (25, twenty-five)
9. The library sells used books for [
10. More than [

70

one dollar

each. ($1.00, one dollar)

percent of all library users check out videos. (seventy, 70)

11. The average number of books checked out by each user is [
(five point five, 5.5)
12. Jane lives on [
Tenth)

twenty-five

Tenth

5.5

per visit.

Avenue between Ninth Street and 11th Street. (10th,

26,600
13. At [ feet, Nanga Parbat is one of the highest peaks in the Himalayas.
(twenty-six thousand six hundred, 26,600)
14. The country of Sweden covers [ seventy thousand two hundred fifty)
15. Chapter 3 begins on page [

170,250

76

. (76, seventy-six)

16. The meeting will be held Tuesday at [
17. More than [

square miles. (170,250; one hundred

8:15

five hundred

P.M.

(eight fifteen, 8:15)

people attended the rally. (500, five hundred)

1
18. In Act 1, Scene [
, a farmer and his wife are discussing how they will make ends meet after a drought has destroyed their crops. (1, one)

20. The daughter, one of [

four

children, longs for a job in the city. (4, four)

21. The whale-watching boat leaves from this dock at [
22. The [

forty-ninth

Eighty-five

o’clock. (six, 6)

state to join the United States was Alaska. (49th, forty-ninth)

twelve
23. Arnette was one of [ effort in cleaning up the park. (twelve, 12)
24. [

six

students who were recognized for outstanding

percent of our students graduate from high school. (Eighty-five, 85)

$30,500
25. The judge fined the company [ a day until they stopped releasing chemicals into the lake. ($30,500; thirty thousand five hundred dollars)
26. The art museum is at 600 [

Second

Avenue. (Second, 2nd)

9,339,560
27. The university library owns more than [ hundred thirty-nine thousand five hundred sixty; 9,339,560)
28. On election day the polls will open at [
29. Jana knocked on the door of Apartment [
30. He was the [

twenty-fifth

7:00

A.M.

3

books. (nine million three
(7:00, seven)
. (3, three)

player chosen in the draft. (25th, twenty-fifth)

284 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

66 –72
19. In lines [ of the scene, the oldest daughter explains why she has decided to leave the farm. (66–72, sixty-six to seventy-two)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 12 Review
ᮣ Exercise Add all necessary punctuation marks. Underline words or phrases that should be in italics. Jane Austen,who wrote the novel Emma,is one of my favorite authors.
1. Among authors who have won the Nobel Prize for literature is Gabriela Mistral the Chilean poet who wrote the collection Sonnets of Death.
2. Her haunting early poems often reflect the sadness of her childhood and youth, which she spent as a schoolteacher in the Chilean countryside.
3. Her later poems are concerned with the joys of motherhood, social justice, and the plight of the poor campesinos, rural people of Latin America.
4. What prizewinning author is known for her portrayals of life in the Middle Ages?
5. Sigrid Undset,who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1928, is the author of Kristin
Lavransdatter,an epic story of life and love in medieval Norway.
6. The winner of the 1938 Nobel Prize in literature was American Pearl Buck, whose famous novel The Good Earth is based on her experiences living in China.

lived with in the 1920s and 1930s,has been translated into at least sixty-five different languages.
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. Another American winner of the Nobel Prize in literature is Toni Morrison;her rich,absorbing novels, such as The Bluest Eye,reveal both beauties and tragedies of African American life.
9. In the category of peace one,indeed, in which women have won a large number of Nobel
Prizes two American women have been honored.
10. Perhaps best known as the founder of Hull House, a famous community center in Chicago, Jane
Addams won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
11. The name of Emily Balch,unlike Jane Addams’s,is not familiar to most Americans.
12. Throughout her ninety-four years, Emily Balch was a tireless worker for the rights of women and for international peace.
13. Her efforts were rewarded in 1946 with the Nobel committee’s decision to award her the Nobel
Peace Prize.
Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

285

Mechanics

7. The Good Earth,which tells the story of Chinese peasants very much like the ones Pearl Buck

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Cumulative Review: Units 1–12
ᮣ Exercise 1 Label each adjective clause adj. clause and each adverb clause adv. clause. Write the kind of sentence in the blank using these abbreviations: dec. (declarative), imp. (imperative), int. (interrogative), or exc. (exclamatory).

int. dec. exc. and imp. dec. dec. imp. int. dec. exc. dec. Mechanics

imp. int. dec. dec. dec. int. imp. exc. int. dec. dec. imp. adj. clause
The player who scores the most points will win a prize.
1. Did you leave your skates in the garage? adv. clause
2. After Katie joined the soccer team, she gave us tickets to the first game.
3. Look how high that skier jumped!

adj. clause
4. Ivan’s family still lives in the house that his grandfather built. adv. clause
5. Because he did not practice, Jake did not make the team. adj. clause
6. Don’t break the antique glasses that Aunt Emily gave me. adj. clause
7. Where is the map that shows the best route to take? adv. clause
8. Brigitta joined us as soon as she could.
9. What an incredible story we heard! adj. clause
10. Our coach, who usually walks to practice, drove her car today. adj. clause
11. Bring me the letter that the mail carrier delivered. adj. clause
12. Who wants to claim the hat that was left on the chair? adv. clause
13. Although we both shopped for an hour, Claire visited twice as many stores as I did. adv. clause
14. I will wait until Suzy is finished painting the fence. adv. clause
15. Cora will play the melody while An Li plays the harmony. adv. clause
16. Why did the puppy hide when Sebastian appeared? adj. clause
17. Look for the person who is in charge of volunteers.
18. Those special effects were fantastic! adv. clause
19. Who ate the dessert before I served dinner? adj. clause
20. She chose a time when the park was deserted for our picnic. adj. clause
21. The car which Kurt purchased can travel thirty miles on a single gallon of gas. adj. clause
22. Help me hang the portrait that Linda painted.

286 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

dec.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Complete each sentence by writing the form of the verb listed in parentheses. Cross out each pronoun that does not agree with its antecedent and write the correct pronoun above it.
Angela and Tim [

their on its science fair project. (past tense of work)

worked

1. Karla [

to give their old clothes to charity. (present tense of want)

2. Steve and Lauren [

its car to Dallas. (past tense of drive)

3. The team [ tense of wait)

for next year; she starts practice again next week. (future

4. Ms. Sanchez [

all the food in his own kitchen. (past tense of prepare)

5. The thunderstorm [

her mark on the small town. (past tense of leave)

6. The astronauts [ board) 7. I [

the space shuttle in five minutes. (present tense of

to the store for milk and will home soon. (present perfect tense of go)

8. These books can be checked out, so [ shelves. (present tense of give)
9. This department store [

it to Sabrina to place on the

both men’s and women’s fragrances, though

his selection is rather limited. (present tense of sell)

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

11. Michael [
(past tense of sail)

their canvas in bold strokes of red and blue. (past tense of

the boat into the lake, then she photographed the swans.

12. The mirror might break if we [
13. Wildflowers [ tense of be)

him. (present tense of drop) prettiest when growing in its natural habitat. (present

14. Before leaving for practice, Jennifer [ grab) 15. Several tourists [

her ball and glove. (past tense of

to visit the museum, and he hope to see the new

monument as well. (present progressive tense of hope)
16. Aunt Sylvia [
(future tense of meet)

us at the fabric store when they finishes talking to Darla.

Unit 12, Punctuation, Abbreviations, and Numbers

287

Mechanics

10. The artist [ paint) Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

17. Uncle Antonio [

us bowling last Tuesday. (past tense of take)

18. The mysterious castle [

his secrets locked inside. (past tense of keep)

19. Claude [ climb) 20. We [ walk) the hill quickly, but Lawrence took its time. (past tense of

six miles when we reach their destination. (future perfect tense of

21. George [ tense of invite)
22. Kyle [
(present tense of make)

Susan before remembering they was out of town. (past perfect

jewelry out of everyday objects and gives it to his friends.

ᮣ Exercise 3 Draw three lines under each letter that should be capitalized. Add the correct end mark to each sentence. Delete ( ) each unnecessary comma, semicolon, or colon. george is traveling to Connecticut, for thanksgiving.
1. When is the independence day celebration going to start
2. The following, plays were written by William shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet, Twelfth Night, and othello

4. look at those: incredible acrobats
5. Leave your books on the table next to the letters, and the box of stamps
6. My american history class will take a field trip to ford’s theater next week
7. Why, do you look so confused, kristen
8. That television show was fantastic
9. kimberly, jerome, and juanita will sing selections from: Grease
10. My friend and i want to learn; how to play lacrosse
11. mr. bennet, who collects antique clocks, can tell you how much grandfather’s present is worth
12. Do you know, how to get to Chelton street
13. Open the kitchen window, victor
14. wave to Susie, from the train
15. Two of the contestants arrived early; however, jack arrived late because his car had a flat tire
16. Tabitha’s grocery list included, bread, milk, eggs, and apples

288 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mechanics

3. Two chemistry students will be selected; to participate in the demonstration

Vocabulary and Spelling

Vocabulary and Spelling

289

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 13: Vocabulary and Spelling
Lesson 93

Building Vocabulary: Learning from Context
Clues to the meaning of an unfamiliar word can be found in its context, the other words and sentences surrounding it. As a reader, you can analyze a passage both for specific clues and for general context.
CLUE WORDS that in other words or also known as which means

like for example such as for instance including also likewise similarly resembling identical

but on the other hand on the contrary unlike however

because since therefore as a result consequently INTERPRETING CLUE WORDS
Type of Context Clue
Definition: The meaning of the unfamiliar word is stated in the sentence.
Meteorology, or the science of weather forecasting, has become Todd’s favorite subject.
Example: The meaning of the unfamiliar word is explained through one familiar case.
Fran loves to study mammals such as kangaroos.

Contrast: The unfamiliar word is the opposite of a familiar word or phrase.
Constructive criticism can be helpful; however, criticism without foundation can be harmful. Cause and effect: The unfamiliar word describes a cause in a sentence in which the effect is understood.
Garret had to fly stand-by; therefore, he was not sure he would get a seat on the five o’clock flight.

Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Comparison: The unfamiliar word is similar to a familiar word or phrase.
Dissension closely resembles disagreement.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the specific clue word or words. Using the context of the italicized word, define the word.
Unlike Michiko, who always wore colorful and fashionable clothing, Myra dressed in a nondescript manner. lacking distinctive or interesting qualities
1. The story is an allegory like the tale of the tortoise and the hare. a symbolic representation

Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

291

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

2. Though both of the senators were opposed to the bill, one seemed willing to reconsider but the other was adamant. unshakable or unmovable, especially in opposition
3. Although he delayed his research for a week, Miguel finally started to work seriously when he realized his group might get an “incomplete” for the project as a result of his dilatory practices. tending or intended to cause delay
4. The itinerant farmers were concerned their children would not have the advantage of a good education because they changed schools with each move. traveling from place to place
5. The fashion museum was filled with styles that were the vogue during different eras.
For example, mini-skirts and knee-high boots from the sixties were on display. something in fashion at a particular period of time
6. Jackie usually talks only when she has something important to say. Armand, on the other hand, is often rather garrulous. pointlessly or annoyingly talkative
7. David had been fascinated with insects since he was a child. Consequently, no one was surprised when he chose entomology as his major in college. the science that deals with insects
8. Since the project involves much detail, we need a very meticulous person to manage it. extremely or excessively careful in handling details
9. The facade of the building is very ornate, unlike the interior which is almost austere. the front of a building

Vocabulary and
Spelling

the universe. very serious or highly abstract
11. Sam really is a flamboyant dresser; likewise, Judy enjoys wearing bright colors and unusual styles. given to showy display
12. Harriet is zealous in her efforts to preserve the environment. However, she finds few people who share her enthusiasm. strongly, even fanatically, interested in or devoted to
13. My diagnosis as hypertensive, which means my blood pressure is higher than it should be, was all I needed to control my diet. having abnormally high blood pressure
14. I expected my classmates to have a plethora of ideas for community service projects.
Therefore, I was surprised when only a few offered suggestions. an excess

292 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. Jeannie felt challenged by profound ideas such as the meaning of existence and the origin of

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 94

Building Vocabulary: Word Roots
The main part of a word is its root. When this is a complete word, it is called a base word. A root is often combined with a prefix (a part attached to the beginning), a suffix (a part attached to the end), or another root. Prefixes and suffixes often change the direction of a word’s meaning. The chart below lists some word roots and their meanings.
Roots
arch ben ced dic, dict fac, fact gen hydr man port sci string, strict trac viv

Meanings rule, govern good go say, speak make class, start water hand carry know bind draw, pull live, alive

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the root of each word. Using a dictionary when needed, define each word. If there is more than one definition, use one that emphasizes the meaning of the root. generic characteristic of a whole group

2. matriarchy government by women
3. hierarchy a classification of people according to a specific standard
Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. monarch the single or sole ruler of state

4. benefit help
5. benefactor a person who gives help
6. benevolence an inclination to do good
7. procedure a particular course of action, a way to proceed
8. precede to be, come, or go before in time, place, order, rank, or importance
9. antecedent going or coming before in time, order, or logic
10. dictate to say or read something out loud to be written by another
11. predictable able to be foreseen; able to say in advance
Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

293

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

12. syndicate to sell for publication in many newspapers

13. valedictory a farewell speech, usually given at graduation
14. manufacture to make something by hand or by machinery
15. fact that which is done or made
16. genesis the way in which something comes to be; the beginning
17. generation all the people born and living at the same time
18. homogeneous composed of similar or identical elements or parts; uniform
19. hydraulic operated by the movement and force of liquid
20. anhydrous without water
21. rehydration the restoration of water or other liquid to
22. manacles handcuffs; fetters or shackles for the hands
23. manicure the care of the hands, especially a trimming or polishing of the fingernails

24. portage a carrying of boats and supplies overland from one lake or river to another, as during a canoe trip
25. portfolio a flat, portable case for carrying loose sheets of paper, manuscripts, or drawings
26. transport to carry from one place to another, especially over long distances
27. conscious knowing or feeling

Vocabulary and
Spelling

29. prescient apparently aware of things before they happen or come into being
30. constrict to make smaller or narrower, especially at one place, by binding, squeezing, or shrinking

31. restrict to keep within certain limits
32. astringent that which contracts body tissue and checks secretions
33. tractor a vehicle with heavy tires or a chain of continuous metal tracks used to pull heavy loads over rough ground
34. distract to draw away in another direction
35. survive to live longer than; to live through
36. vivid full of life

294 GGrammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

28. conscientious governed by, or made or done according to, what one knows is right

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 95

Building Vocabulary: Prefixes and Suffixes
Prefixes are syllables attached before a root to alter or enhance its meaning. For example, the prefix un- gives the opposite meaning to any word to which it is attached.
PREFIX
circumdedishyper-

MEANING around, about from, down not excessive

PREFIX il-, im-, in-, and irmispresub-

MEANING not do badly, hate before beneath, less than

Suffixes can be added to root words to create new words with new meanings. Suffixes also have grammatical functions and can change, for example, an adjective like deaf into a noun like deafness with the addition of a suffix like -ness. Note that the spelling of the root can change when a suffix is added.
SUFFIXES
-able, -ible
-ant, -ent
-en
-hood
-ist
-ly
-ous
-sion, -tion

MEANING capable of, able to be one who does an action to become condition, state one who in the manner or way of full of the state of being something

PART OF SPEECH FORMED adjective concrete noun verb abstract noun concrete noun adverb adjective abstract noun

illegal

not legal

1. devaluate take value from
2. misrepresent

represent badly

3. circumnavigate navigate around
4. disrespectful

not respectful

5. hyperactive overly active
6. subtotal

less than total

10. irregular not regular
11. exportable
12. student

Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the prefix in items 1 through 10 and the suffix in items 11 through 20.
Using the meanings of the prefixes and suffixes listed above, write the meaning of the word.
Check your answers in a dictionary.

able to be exported

one who studies

13. likelihood condition of being likely
14. servant one who serves
15. normally

in a normal way

7. illogical not logical

16. confusion state of being confused

8. improper not proper

17. famous full of fame

9. prehistoric before history

18. humorist

one who makes humor

Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

295

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

19. toughen

to become tough

20. flexible able to be flexed
ᮣ Exercise 2 Underline at least one prefix or suffix in each word. Write the meaning of the word.
Check your answers in a dictionary. improper not proper
1. disagreeable

not able to agree

2. descendant

one who descends

3. subcommittee

a lesser committee the state of being a mother

4. motherhood

5. artist one who makes art not balanced

6. imbalanced

7. circumscribe to mark off or draw a line around
8. decongestant something that removes congestion
9. hypercritical overly critical
10. sensitively in a sensitive manner
11. disadvantage
12. cancerous

not an advantage

full of cancer

13. absorption the fact or state of being absorbed

15. adoption state of being adopted

Vocabulary and
Spelling

16. unpopular not popular
17. stiffen to make or become stiff
18. misbehave to behave badly
19. tension state of being tense
20. incompressible not able to be compressed

296 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

14. preoperative before an operation

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 96

Basic Spelling Rules I
SPELLING IE AND EI
The i comes before the e, except when both letters follow c or when both letters are pronounced together as an a sound. However, many exceptions to this rule exist. achieve (i before e)

receive (ei after c)

sleigh (a sound)

seize (exception)

SPELLING -CEDE, -CEED, AND -SEDE
The sed sound at the end of a word is usually spelled -cede. Supersede, succeed, proceed, and exceed are exceptions. accede concede

intercede

precede

SPELLING UNSTRESSED VOWELS
An unstressed vowel is a vowel sound that is not emphasized when the word is pronounced. For example, in or-i-gin the second syllable, i, is unstressed. To determine how an unstressed syllable is spelled, think of a related word in which the syllable containing that vowel sound is stressed. For origin think of original.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write each word, adding ie or ei where necessary. Items 1 through 15 follow the rules; items 16 through 20 are exceptions to the rules. ch—f chief

2. s—ge siege
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

11. dec—t deceit
12. rec—pt receipt

3. br—f brief

13. perc—ive perceive

4. pr—st priest

14. misconc—ve misconceive

5. repr—ve reprieve

15. imperc—vable imperceivable

6. r—gn reign

16. d—ty deity

7. sl—gh sleigh

17. h—r heir

8. b—ge beige

18. effic—nt efficient

9. v—n vein

19. kal—doscope kaleidoscope

10. h—nous heinous

Vocabulary and
Spelling

1. f—nd fiend

20. h—fer heifer

Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

297

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Fill in the missing letter or letters in each word. e trag[

dy

1. succe[

ed

2. interce[
3. pre[

11. re[
12. se[

ce

4. proc[

de

ee

5. super[
6. med[

i

ceed

14. con[

d

se

cede

13. ex[

de

cede

15. ac[

de

cede cede cine

16. com[

a

tose

e

dy

7. fall[

a

cy

17. com[

8. col[

o

ny

18. magn[

e

tize

9. sed[

a

tive

19. comb[

i

nation

10. dram[

a

20. crit[

tist

i

cism

SUFFIXES AND THE SILENT E
When adding a suffix that begins with a consonant to a word that ends in silent e, keep the e. When adding a suffix that begins with a vowel or y to a word that ends in silent e, drop the e. When adding a suffix that begins with a or o to a word that ends in ce or ge, keep the e so the word will retain the soft c or g sound. When adding a suffix that begins with a vowel to a word that ends in ee or oe, keep the e. excitable (drop e, add suffix) seeing (e + suffix)

Vocabulary and
Spelling

When adding a suffix to a word that ends in a consonant + y, change the y to i. Do not change the y to i when the suffix begins with i. When adding a suffix to a word that ends in a vowel + y, keep the y. tried (y changed to i + suffix)

copying (y + suffix)

joyous (y + suffix)

ᮣ Exercise 3 Use the spelling rules in this lesson to spell the words indicated. reuse + -able reusable
1. dose + -age dosage

6. notice + -able noticeable

2. degrade + -able degradable

7. courage + -ous courageous

3. guide + -ance guidance

8. foresee + -able foreseeable

4. replace + -able replaceable

9. tiptoe + -ing tiptoeing

5. salvage + -able salvageable

298 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

10. accompany + -ed accompanied

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

placement (e + suffix) changeable (e + suffix)

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 97

Basic Spelling Rules II
DOUBLING THE FINAL CONSONANT
Double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel to a word that ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. tipping submitting

resetting
ADDING -LY AND -NESS

When adding -ly to a word that ends in a single l, keep the l. If a word ends in a double l, drop one l. If a word ends in a consonant +le, drop the le. When adding -ness to a word that ends in n, keep the n. really hilly

horribly

meanness

FORMING COMPOUND WORDS
When joining a word that ends in a consonant to a word that begins with a consonant, keep both consonants. daybreak sunset

ᮣ Exercise 1 Use the spelling rules in this lesson to spell the words indicated. drop + -ing dropping

2. numerical + -ly numerically

14. shrill + -ly shrilly

3. slip + -age slippage
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

13. underbid + -ing underbidding

15. card + board cardboard

4. modern + -ness modernness

16. lean + -ness leanness

5. clan + -ish clannish

17. prefer + -ing preferring

6. rebel + -ion rebellion

18. ear + ring earring

7. book + keeper bookkeeper

19. humble + -ly humbly

8. offset + -ing offsetting

20. critical + -ly critically

9. full + -ly fully

21. knot + -ed knotted

10. camp + site campsite

22. chill + -ly chilly

11. dismal + -ly dismally

23. able + -ly ably

12. agreeable + -ly agreeably

Vocabulary and
Spelling

1. sled + -ing sledding

24. night + time nighttime

Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

299

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

25. stern + -ness sternness

28. lamp + post lamppost

26. broken + -ness brokenness

29. admirable + -ly admirably

27. especial + -ly especially

30. near + -by nearby

GENERAL RULES FOR FORMING PLURALS
Most nouns form their plurals by adding -s or -es. However, nouns that end in -ch, -s, -sh,
-x, or -z form their plurals by adding -es. If the noun ends in a consonant +y, change y to i and add -es. If the noun ends in -lf, change the f to a v and add -es. If the noun ends in -fe, change the f to a v and add -s. books lunches

follies

shelves

lives

SPECIAL RULES FOR PLURALS
To form the plural of proper names and one-word compound nouns, follow the general rules for plurals. To form the plural of hyphenated compound nouns or compound nouns of more than one word, make the most important word plural.
D’Albertos

Joneses

blueberries

mothers-in-law

Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms. series deer

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write the plural of each word. mess messes

14. thrush thrushes

3. donkey donkeys

15. sheep sheep

4. self selves

16. festival festivals

5. desk desks

17. basketball basketballs

6. city cities

18. wife wives

7. proof proofs

19. business businesses

8. cuff cuffs

20. teammate teammates

9. fox foxes

21. calf calves

10. Gomez Gomezes

22. bunch bunches

11. waltz waltzes

23. Chin Chins

12. lieutenant governor lieutenant governors

24. knife knives

300 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

13. all-star all-stars

2. patio patios
Vocabulary and
Spelling

1. church churches

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Review: Building Vocabulary
Nowadays the term “Creole cuisine,” a relatively recent American food interest, conjures up images of blackened fish and overbearing spices. Natives of southern Louisiana, who have enjoyed Creole delights at their dinner tables for generations, know their culinary tradition is rich and complex. It is a popular misconception to consider the terms
“Creole” and “Cajun” interchangeable. While there are similarities, the two styles are distinctly different. The inhabitants of New Orleans created Creole cuisine over many years with the influence of many cultures. The French, Spanish, Africans, Native
Americans, Cajuns, Chinese, and Germans all contributed to the genuine Creole cuisine enjoyed in homes in southern Louisiana. The Cajuns, who emigrated from Nova Scotia in the eighteenth century and settled in the more remote areas of the Louisiana countryside, improvised with ingredients readily available in the swamps and bayous. While Cajun cooking features the fresh food that the wetlands bountifully provide, Creole cuisine developed over the centuries, changing to accommodate the needs and tastes of each new group that came to Louisiana to settle.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Fill in the blank with the letter of the word or phrase that best defines each italicized word in the above passage. c a

a

d

b

c. concepts
d. formulas

1. nowadays
a. soon
b. at the present time

c. rarely
d. occasionally

2. conjures up
a. calls to mind
b. performs magic

c. confuses
d. brings together

3. natives
a. people born in the area
b. senior citizens

c. inborn
d. visitors

4. culinary
a. holiday
b. char-broiled

c. community
d. of cooking

5. tradition
a. beliefs
b. customs

c. vocabulary
d. subjects

Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

b

images
a. eras
b. dreams

301

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

c

b

c

b

c

a

a

c

Vocabulary and
Spelling

a

b

b

c

6. misconception
a. mistaken idea
b. understanding

c. belief
d. pregnancy

7. interchangeable
a. the same size
b. from the same source

c. having the same meaning
d. movable

8. distinctly
a. vaguely
b. definitely

c. ordinarily
d. separate

9. inhabitants
a. visitors
b. people who have moved to the city

c. people who live in a place
d. original settlers of a place

10. cuisine
a. kitchen appliances
b. style of cooking

c. decor
d. stored food

11. influence
a. authority
b. bias

c. effect
d. motivate

12. genuine
a. real
b. sincere

c. counterfeit
d. recent

13. emigrated
a. moved from
b. cared about

c. descended from
d. changed names

14. remote
a. pointless
b. public

c. outlying
d. private

15. improvised
a. made do
b. fake

c. made better
d. wrong

16. features
a. qualities
b. highlights

c. portrays
d. fastens

17. bountifully
a. charitably
b. abundantly

c. meagerly
d. reluctantly

18. developed
a. became stronger
b. became more available

c. evolved
d. faded away

302 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

a

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Review: Basic Spelling Rules
ᮣ Exercise 1 Underline the word that is spelled correctly.
1. In medieval warfare, castles were put under (siege, seige) for many months.
2. Truly, I can not (percieve, perceive) any difference.
3. Queen Victoria was the (reigning, riegning) monarch of England for sixty-four years from 1837 to 1901.
4. South Carolina was the first state to (sesede, secede, seceed) from the nation in 1860.
5. The highway patrol mounted a campaign urging motorists not to (exsede, excede, exceed) the speed limits.
6. Jacob couldn’t remember the (combination, combenation) to his lock.
7. The wrappings on this package are all (biodegradeable, biodegradable).
8. Anne’s scar is hardly (noticeable, noticable) now.
9. (Providing, Provideing) child care in the workplace has significantly reduced the absenteeism among parents of young children.
10. This order is wrong. I know I (specifyed, specified) the color as blue.
11. We can’t decamp yet. The tent is still (driing, drying) in the sun.

13. Miguel hasn’t yet decided what courses he will take to meet the language (requirement, requirment) for college admission.
14. Wong enjoys (struming, strumming) his guitar while thinking about other things.
15. The racquetball (rocketed, rocketted) off both walls before Ian could hit it again.
16. I am already (regreting, regretting) my decision.
17. The detectives were (investigateing, investigating) the mysterious disappearance of the mayor.
18. The school is (scheduling, scheduleing) parent-teacher conferences for Tuesday.
19. The (preferred, prefered) dress code for ushers is white shirts and black slacks.
20. I wouldn’t mind (repeatting, repeating) if I thought you had listened the first time.
21. To reduce the fat content of your diet, look for (leaness, leanness) in the cuts of meat you buy.
22. Ryan was really excited to have Geoffry as a (teammate, teamate).
Unit 13, Vocabulary and Spelling

303

Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

12. Even though I was (annoyed, annoid), I remained calm and collected.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

23. Stacey didn’t enjoy the movie even though it was (critically, criticaly) acclaimed.
24. A sixty-degree temperature in August seems (chily, chilly).
25. Mrs. Reed (humbly, humblely) accepted the award.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Write the plural form of each noun. bike bikes

1. bench benches
2. video

videos

11. Gonzalez Gonzalezes
12. Rand Rands

3. turkey turkeys

13. kickoff kickoffs

4. bookshelf bookshelves

14. brush brushes

5. sister-in-law
6. activity

sisters-in-law

activities

15. leaf

leaves

16. library

7. belief beliefs

17. monkey

8. staff staffs

18. life

libraries

9. duplex

duplexes

lives

19. bus buses
20. holiday

holidays

Vocabulary and
Spelling

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

10. topaz topazes

monkeys

304 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Composition

Composition

305

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Unit 14: Composition
Lesson 98

The Writing Process: Prewriting
Before you begin writing anything, there are several factors that you must determine about what you are going to write. The topic is the subject about which you will write.
You can determine the topic by freewriting, writing anything that comes to mind; collecting, gathering information from various sources; making lists about one key word or idea; and asking general questions. After a topic is chosen, determine the purpose, which is the reason for writing. One piece can have more than one purpose. The purpose is a narrowed form of the topic. Finally, you must determine the audience, or who is intended to read the piece. The overall nature of the piece will be different if it is intended for your best friend as opposed to the President. Knowing your audience will tell you how much they know about the topic, what writing style is needed, and what level of vocabulary is necessary. All of these factors will color your writing differently.
Basically, you will determine what you want to say (topic), how you want to say it
(purpose), and to whom you want to say it (audience).

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Spend 10 minutes prewriting, using any of the techniques listed above.

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

307

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Choose five specific topics that can be found in your prewriting from the previous exercise. ᮣ Exercise 3 Identify the purpose and topic of each topic sentence given below.
Has the food in the cafeteria ever tasted worse? topic: cafeteria food; purpose: to persuade the reader that the cafeteria food is bad
1. Currently, legislators are debating whether or not to increase the legal driving age. topic: driving age; purpose: to inform reader of current legislation
2. Annette is clearly the best candidate for mayor. topic: Annette’s mayoral campaign; purpose: to persuade reader to vote for Annette
3. The violins began the piece the orchestra played. topic: the orchestra’s piece; purpose: to narrate the

4. This town has a ten o’clock curfew. topic: the curfew; purpose: to inform the reader of the curfew

5. Did you hear the one about the three-legged dog? topic: a joke; purpose: to amuse the reader
6. The earth is in grave danger from our constant pollution. topic: pollution; purpose: to inform and persuade the reader about environmental concerns

Composition

7. The locker, standing as tall as I, is painted red. topic: locker; purpose: to describe the locker to the reader
8. If you have not tried fly-fishing, you are really missing out on some great fun. topic: fly fishing; purpose: to persuade the reader that fly-fishing is fun
9. The television show began with a fade-in before the credits. topic: a television show; purpose: to

308 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

orchestra’s playing of the piece

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

describe the format of the show
10. Many endangered species could become extinct within our lifetime. topic: extinction; purpose: to inform and possibly persuade the reader concerning endangered species and their possible extinction
ᮣ Exercise 4 Write a sentence that conveys both the topic and the purpose listed below. topic: books; purpose: to inform the reader of new titles available Twenty new books are now displayed in the window of the bookstore.
1. topic: job; purpose: to persuade an employer to hire I possess the strong leadership qualities needed to be successful at this job.
2. topic: fast food; purpose: to inform the reader of the different styles of fast food
Although often thought of as a business of burgers, fast food restaurants offer many styles of dining.

3. topic: movie; purpose: to amuse a friend with a funny scene from a film The scene in which the piano rolls down the steps made my sides hurt from laughing.
4. topic: family; purpose: to describe your family to a stranger There is nothing more special than a family, and mine is no exception to that rule.
5. topic: entertainment; purpose: to persuade a friend to join you with that entertainment
You do not know how much fun a rock concert can be unless you’ve been to one.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

6. topic: the solution to a mystery; purpose: to describe the events of the case By piecing together the separate clues, the answer becomes obvious.
7. topic: money; purpose: to inform a manufacturer that you want a cash refund The product I purchased was faulty, and I would like my money back.
8. topic: sporting event; purpose: to narrate a commentary of the event The quarterback takes the snap and is flushed out of the pocket.
9. topic: military action; purpose: to inform a soldier of the next mission Your mission will take you into the Middle East.

Composition

10. topic: clothes; purpose: to persuade someone to buy you an article of clothing as a present
That pair of jeans would look very nice on me.

Unit 14, Composition

309

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 5 Write a brief paragraph about the controversy for each audience listed.
Controversy: Whether or not to put a soda pop vending machine in the cafeteria.
1. audience: the student body

2. audience: the office

Composition

4. audience: the custodial staff

310 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

3. audience: parents

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 99

The Writing Process: Drafting
After prewriting, you can begin drafting, or writing the piece in paragraph form. From the topic and the purpose you can develop a theme, the point the piece is trying to make.
This theme should be stated in a thesis statement in the first paragraph. A paragraph consists of a topic sentence, which states a main idea related to the theme, and related sentences that support the main idea with details. Depending on the audience, theme, and purpose, you may choose to adopt a different style or voice, which gives the writing its “feel.”

ᮣ Exercise 1 State a theme that is consistent with the topic and the purpose given. Use a complete sentence. topic: glaciers; purpose: inform Glaciers are slow-moving blocks of ice travelling over our planet.
1. topic: castles; purpose: describe Castles are often characterized by a majestic atmosphere.
2. topic: basketball; purpose: narrate The home team won its championship game.
3. topic: airplanes; purpose: inform Jet engines have a very complex design.
4. topic: smoking; purpose: inform Some have suggested that inhaling second-hand smoke can be worse than smoking.
5. topic: cars; purpose: persuade The Porsche is the best-designed sports car.
6. topic: languages; purpose: describe The French language is characterized by syllables run together

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

with soft sounds.
7. topic: the Vietnam War; purpose: narrate The Vietnam conflict began with no formal declaration of war.
8. topic: painting; purpose: describe My friend’s paintings flow across the canvas.
9. topic: politics; purpose: persuade There are many reasons to vote for Akira Chan in November.
10. topic: AIDS; purpose: inform AIDS occurs as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus.
11. topic: fashion; purpose: describe The flowing silk contributes to the fluid nature of the dress.
12. topic: singing; purpose: amuse That spoof on the latest pop song contains several hilarious lyrics.

Composition

13. topic: computers; purpose: describe The large memory on my hard drive allows me to perform a variety of tasks.
14. topic: weddings; purpose: narrate The bride and groom gave their vows to each other.

Unit 14, Composition

311

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

15. topic: giraffes; purpose: amuse Seeing a giraffe bend down for a drink of water can really make you laugh. 16. topic: apartments; purpose: describe Several flights of stairs led to my uncle’s apartment.
17. topic: school; purpose: amuse My most embarrassing moment at school was when I tripped in the play.
18. topic: celebrities; purpose: persuade The Academy Awards is the most important event in Hollywood.
19. topic: situation comedies; purpose: narrate The show began with a lot of slapstick.
20. topic: math; purpose: inform Most story problems can be solved using a series of simple steps.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Write a complete thesis statement from the theme given below. theme: the danger of being an astronaut Although being an astronaut can be exciting, much danger is involved.
1. theme: the significance of the invention of the telephone The invention of the telephone pioneered the ever-expanding business of telecommunications.
2. theme: the beauty of wintertime The light snow on the ground is just one of many beauties of the winter months.
3. theme: the exhilaration of horseback riding Riding a horse can make your heart pound with excitement. 4. theme: the impact of photography on journalism Photography provided the public with real images of world events.

6. theme: the unique quality of rap music Rap music offers a variety of styles, presentations, and artists.
7. theme: the plight of Native Americans Many Native Americans died during the early years of America.
8. theme: the high-quality acting in a play The performers’ style was tremendous.
9. theme: the hardships of the American frontier Many people braved specific dangers to settle in this country. 10. theme: the variety of events in track and field The sport of track and field offers many different

Composition

events.
11. theme: the joys of woodworking Woodworking can be relaxing and fun.
12. theme: the events leading the world into World War II No one single event started World War II.
13. theme: the humor found in reading certain comic strips The comics in the paper always make me laugh. 312 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. theme: the excitement of skiing Nothing can beat the feeling of racing down a ski slope!

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

14. theme: the vastness of the oceans A majority of our planet is covered by the oceans.
15. theme: the accomplishments of the Aztecs The Aztecs developed some practices and techniques that pre-dated Western civilization.
16. theme: the health benefits of dancing Dancing can offer a good, healthy aerobic workout.
17. theme: the importance of rain forests for new medicines Many medicines can be derived from rain forest plants.
18. theme: the suspected causes of cancer There is much speculation as to the cause of cancer.
19. theme: the chain of command below the President. A direct chain of command leads from the
President.
20. theme: the many different species of birds Birds have a tremendous variety of species.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Write four related sentences that provide details to support the topic sentence below.
1. Martin Luther King Jr. accomplished much for the American civil rights movement.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Japanese culture seems exotic and mysterious to some.

3. A variety of career opportunities await me after I finish school.

Composition

4. Different families celebrate holidays differently.

Unit 14, Composition

313

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

5. Finding the right hairstyle requires a little thought.

ᮣ Exercise 4 Draft a brief one-paragraph piece concerning the following theme. Be sure to incorporate a proper voice and style.
1. theme: thanking a friend for a gift The style and voice should be informal and friendly.

2. theme: urging a politician to vote a certain way on an issue The style and voice should be formal.

3. theme: requesting a day off from your employer The style and voice should be formal and

4. theme: demanding a formal apology for a public insult The style and voice should be somewhat formal and firm.

Composition

5. theme: informing your family about your vacation The style and voice should be informal and relaxed. 314 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

businesslike.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 100

The Writing Process: Revising
Revise, or improve, your writing after completing a draft. Revising a paper allows you to improve the quality of the sentences and paragraphs. As you revise, check for three things. First, check for meaning. Make sure the piece is stating the intended theme. Then, check for unity. Make sure the organization is logical and the necessary details support the topics. Finally, check for coherence. Make sure the writing flows and the communication is clear.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Reorganize each paragraph for meaning, unity, and coherence.
1. Earvin “Magic” Johnson played professional basketball for the Los Angeles Lakers. He went to
Michigan State to play college basketball. Earvin Johnson was born in 1959. Recently, he contracted HIV and retired from playing professional basketball. He was nicknamed “Magic” because of a spectacular basketball game he played in high school. Earvin Johnson was born in
1959. He was nicknamed “Magic” because of a spectacular basketball game he played in high school. He went to Michigan State to play college basketball. Earvin “Magic” Johnson played professional basketball for the Los

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Angeles Lakers. Recently, he contracted HIV and retired from playing professional basketball.

2. The Battle of the Bulge included an unsuccessful attempt by the Germans to make the Allies retreat. It was one of the next major military steps after D-Day in July 1944. The Battle of the
Bulge, also called the Battle of the Ardennes, raged from December 16, 1944 to January 16, 1945.
It got its name from Winston Churchill, who said that the Germans drove a “bulge,” or wedge, into the Allied lines.
The Battle of the Bulge, also called the Battle of the Ardennes, raged from December 16, 1944, to January 16,
1945. It got its name from Winston Churchill, who said that the Germans drove a “bulge,” or wedge, into the
Allied lines. The Battle of the Bulge included an unsuccessful attempt by the Germans to make the Allies retreat. It was one of the next major military steps after D-Day in July 1944.

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

315

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

3. Clearly, pronghorns are built for blazing speed. They are similar to deer and antelope.
Pronghorns, the fastest of all American mammals, can easily outrun their enemies. Their huge windpipes, lungs, and hearts accommodate sudden bursts of energy. Pronghorns, the fastest of all
American mammals, can easily outrun their enemies. They are similar to deer and antelope. Their huge windpipes, lungs, and hearts accommodate sudden bursts of energy. Clearly, pronghorns are built for blazing speed. ᮣ Exercise 2 Revise and rewrite the paragraph below.
1. The idea of a computer has been around for a very long time. Microprocessors make modern computers very fast. Much faster than early computers like ENIAC. I have a computer at home.
In 1944, Howard Aiken of Harvard built an early digital computer. It was Mark I. In 1642, Blaise
Pascal of France built a calculating machine. It used rotating toothed wheels. In 1946, J. Presper
Eckert Jr. and John W. Mauchly built ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). It was 1,000 times faster than Mark I. In 1930, Vannevar Bush made a “differential analyzer,” a machine to perform calculus. Transistors made computers faster and smaller. So did integrated circuits. The idea of the computer dates back to France in 1642, when Blaise Pascal built the first

years later, in 1930, Vannevar Bush built what he called a “differential analyzer” to perform calculus. The first digital computer, called Mark I, was invented by Howard Aiken in 1944. But it was not long before J. Presper
Eckert Jr. and John W. Mauchly built a machine that ran over one thousand times faster than Mark I. This computer was known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). Inventions such as transistors,

Composition

integrated circuits, and microprocessors have made computers much smaller and faster.

316 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

calculating machine. This machine used rotating toothed wheels to perform calculations. Almost three hundred

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 101

The Writing Process: Editing

MEANING

EXAMPLE

^ (caret)

insert

h sould ^

(dele)

delete

thje

#
^

insert space

# hockeypuck ^

close up space

over use

capitalize

texas

make lowercase

Mine

check spelling

recieve

switch order

you me or

new paragraph

...how I felt. Just then....

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

sp

( )

MARK

( )

After revising your work, you can edit and clarify your ideas in writing. While you edit, look for the following items: correct word usage, subject-verb agreement, correct verb tenses, clear pronoun references, run-on sentences, and sentence fragments. When editing, cross out words and write new words in margins and spaces. Proofreading entails checking for spelling, punctuation, and capitalization errors. Use the following proofreading marks:

sp

ᮣ Exercise 1 Edit the sentence for clarity and correct grammar. is player
The best football guy, he be it.
6. Looking at the Lone Ranger movie are fun.

2. Gary asked Ken why he should do that.

7. Dogs and cats makes great pets.

3. Boy did we work for Over five hours!

8. The coach not know why I left practice.

4. My brother run to the store yesterday.

9. Two friends of mine Kenji and Jose.

5. I bought some bread came home quickly.

10. That instructor reallyknows the Subject.

Unit 14, Composition

317

Composition

is
1. She are the starling of the team.
^

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Edit the paragraph for clarity and correct grammar.
Yesterday, I had to give my first aural report ever since. I don’t know how I did it I was so nervous. I was so nervous that the back of my knee caps was sweating. But I did it I’ll never know. I guess I could of did as good without worrying as much as I had. Went great. This is the kinda report where you speak.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Proofread each sentence for spelling, punctuation, and capitalization errors. sp I was nervus when I moved from ontario, canada.
1. he returned from scalling the mountains;.
2. Ana saw a pod of dolfins swiming off the florida coast.
3. Jack considered mr. Han, his Algebra teacher,among his personal heros.
4. My bike roored over the hill.
5. Struggling,the majician freed hisself.
6. Because this Bandage keeps falling off this cut will never heel.
7. I bought the new albumn at zany’s, that new record store.

9. space travvel is dream a of the future.
10. Jane and leanne wattered the poinsetas.
ᮣ Exercise 3 Proofread the paragraph for spelling, punctuation, and capitalization errors.
The Special Effects in motion pitures ofen addto the realisium of a film. Some times movies

Composition

are mad simplely to showoff; some effects special. This part ofthe movie-making prosess has often contribeuted to enormus budgets for certainfilms. With new technology, in Computer Animation, movie makers can bring The Impossible to Life!.A process knownas “morphing” can visually change one image toanother. who knows the limit of this technolgy?

318 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

8. They visited the great Smoky Mountains.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 102

The Writing Process: Presenting
After completing a piece of writing, you may want to present, or share your work with others. The idea of presentation can come as early as the prewriting stage. Knowing the audience often defines the market for your work. Many times, the nature of the material also defines the market. Several different outlets exist for writing composed by ninth graders. Some markets include school forums, which include school newspapers and classroom presentations; community forums, which include community groups and local community papers; contests, which are often offered by magazines; and open-market forums, which include professional magazines and periodicals. Carefully examine your writing and determine the audience. Then search for a market that serves that audience.
You may find the Market Guide for Young Writers, available at libraries, very useful.
Some outlets, like classroom presentations, exchange groups, and community productions, offer a chance for an oral presentation. In this case, prepare visual aids to add to your presentation.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Suggest a market for the writing described below. an essay on model-making a hobby magazine or newsletter or a school assignment
1. a short romance story

a romance fiction magazine

2. an original song composition a local band or a radio station
3. a review of a movie or play the school newspaper or community newspaper
4. an anecdotal essay about your childhood a literary journal or an exchange forum

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

5. an opinion piece concerning the school’s curriculum

the school newspaper or the community

newspaper
6. a brief biography of your favorite actor or actress any school forum or a community group
7. a humorous year in review of your freshman class the school yearbook
8. a poem about nature a poetry magazine, literary journal, or school publication
9. a report on a recent scientific development school newspaper or science magazine
10. an analysis of one of Shakespeare’s plays a literary journal or school publication

a speech about the ozone layer
1. a research paper on economics

Composition

ᮣ Exercise 2 Suggest two visual aids to increase the effectiveness of the writing piece listed. photos of the ozone hole and models of the chemicals involved a graph of economic trends and a chart explaining economic terms

2. a short play costumes for the actors and props for the set design

Unit 14, Composition

319

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

3. a music composition costumes for musicians and dancers
4. a review of a film or television show photo stills from the film or television show and a chart of ratings 5. an informative speech about history posters of historical sites and artifacts or antiques from that time

6. a poem about nature photos and hand sketches of the nature described
7. an anecdotal speech about your vacation slides and souvenirs from your vacation
8. an explanation of the sports teams in your school

photos of the teams and programs from the

sporting events
9. a speech to the student body about your running for student council a list of your activities and a propaganda picture
10. a plea to the community to donate to a wildlife fund pictures of the wildlife in need and photos of the community
ᮣ Exercise 3 Prewrite on any topic desired. Write a short piece with a specific audience in mind. Then, explain how and to whom you might present this piece.

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Students should follow established prewriting steps and drafting procedures.

320 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 103

Outlining
Outlining is a method used to organize the information in a piece of writing. Because prewriting can often be a jumble of words and phrases, it makes sense to organize that information before starting the drafting process. One method of constructing an outline is to put all your prewriting information on index cards. These cards can then be arranged by main topics and the details supporting that topic. To write your outline, indicate your main topics with Roman numerals. Put supporting details, or subtopics, beneath each topic with capital letters. These subtopics can have subdivisions as regular numbers.
However, if you subdivide a topic or subtopic, at least two subdivisions must be named.
For example, an outline of an audition for the school play might look like this:
I. Trying Out for the School Play
A. First time trying out
1. I was nervous and excited
2. I did not think that I would remember my lines
3. I had to audition for Ms. Hendrix, the drama teacher

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

B. The role I wanted
1. Hero of a romantic comedy
2. Character is handsome and charming
3. I had pictured myself in a role like this
II. Performing In the School Play

ᮣ Exercise 1 Evaluate the outline below.
I. Jets
A. Effects on warfare
1. Non-stop bombing flights
B. Helicopters used in Korean and Vietnam Wars
II. Balloons
A. Used to observe troop movements
B. Blimps
1. Hindenburg was one
2. Filled with hot air or gas
III. Airplanes
First, Blimps should have a separate main topic heading because it is not a subtopic of
Balloons. Helicopters should also have its own heading because it is different from Jets.
Section I.A. should not be subdivided into only one section. Finally, the order of the outline should be

Composition

changed to follow a logical sequence.

Unit 14, Composition

321

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Organize the following topics and details into an outline of the biography of
Howard Hughes.
Became a millionaire; Born 1905 in Houston, TX; Business Life; Companies controlled;
Controller of Trans World Airlines; Died in 1976; Dropped out of society in the 1950s; Early Life;
Father died in 1924; Hughes Aircraft Company; Inherited Hughes Tool Company upon father’s death; Later Life; Never seen in public; Refused to be photographed; RKO Pictures Corporation
I. Early Life
A. Born 1905 in Houston, TX
B. Father died in 1924
II. Business Life
A. Became a millionaire
B. Companies controlled
1. Inherited Hughes Tool Company upon father’s death
2. Hughes Aircraft Company
3. RKO Pictures Corporation
4. Controller of Trans World Airlines
III. Later Life
A. Dropped out of society in the 1950s
1. Never seen in public
2. Refused to be photographed

ᮣ Exercise 3 Prewrite on any topic desired. Then, construct an organized outline about that topic. Composition

Outlines should follow correct format and logic.

322 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

B. Died in 1976

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 104

Writing Effective Sentences
When you tell a story out loud, you can raise or lower your voice to emphasize a passage.
You can also control how fast you read, slowing down if you want to be solemn and speeding up if you want to show quick action. When you write, sentences do the work of your voice.
The hardest working sentence in a paragraph is the topic sentence. A topic sentence states the main idea of a paragraph. Write a clear, strong topic sentence. Use supporting details to develop the main idea. Supporting details prove, clarify, or give more information about the main idea. Emphasis and pace are determined by where you place the supporting details in the sentence and by the number of details you choose to include. Long sentences have a slower pace than short sentences. Change the pattern of a topic sentence to add emphasis to a word or group of words.
You can draw attention to the subject by moving it to the end of the sentence. For example, “Over the horizon rose a ship’s mast.” This sentence would also be correct with the subject stated first: “A ship’s mast rose over the horizon.” Notice that whether the subject comes first or last, its verb remains the same.
The action verb is in the active voice when the subject of a sentence performs the action.
When the action is performed on the subject, the action verb is in the passive voice. Use the passive voice when you do not want to emphasize the subject or when you do not know who is performing the action.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Combine the four sentences into an effective topic sentence, or write a topic sentence accompanied by one or more supporting details.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Many youngsters go without food.
This happens every day.
We should help them.
They are very needy.

Because many youngsters go without food each day, we should help feed needy children.

1. a.
b.
c.
d.

We will perform the play on Friday.
We need more rehearsals.
It will be a huge hit if we rehearse.
People will talk about it for weeks afterwards.

Composition

The play we are to perform on Friday will be a huge hit if we have more rehearsals. People will talk about it for weeks afterwards.

Unit 14, Composition

323

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

2. a.
b.
c.
d.

Elephants are enormous.
They are also very gentle.
They will pluck a peanut right from your hand.
The elephants at the zoo fascinate me.

Elephants are enormous, yet they will gently pluck a peanut from your hand. Those at the zoo fascinate me. 3. a.
b.
c.
d.

My favorite skater took the ice.
She had an excellent routine.
The jumps were amazing.
I was excited.

My heart beat with excitement as my favorite skater took the ice with an excellent routine filled with amazing jumps. 4. a.
b.
c.
d.

You are very negative.
That behavior is unpleasant.
You may lose friends over this.
Stop being negative.

You may lose some friends if you do not stop being so unpleasant and negative.

5. a.
b.
c.
d.

Ernie sells hot dogs.
He is weird, yet lovable.
Everyone in town knows and likes him.
He is part of what makes our town interesting.

6. a.
b.
c.
d.

The night was hot.
The night was wet.
Our air conditioner broke.
We were miserable that night.

Composition

We were miserable during that hot, wet night when our air conditioner broke.

7. a.
b.
c.
d.

The balls fly.
The players stumble.
The pace of volleyball is very fast.
Volleyball is very exciting.

The fast pace of a volleyball game, with balls flying and players stumbling, is tremendously exciting.

324 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Everyone agrees that weird and lovable Ernie the hot dog man is part of what makes our town interesting.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

8. a.
b.
c.
d.

Jules Verne lived in the nineteenth century.
He wrote 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.
The book has sold well to this day.
It predicted the use of submarines.

Written in the nineteenth century by Jules Verne, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea has sold well to this day. It predicted the use of submarines.
9. a.
b.
c.
d.

I went to the football game.
The home team won.
The score was close.
The game went into overtime.

I went to the football game to see the home team win by a close score in overtime.

10. a.
b.
c.
d.

Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest meat-eating dinosaur.
It stood eighteen feet tall.
It lived during the Cretaceous period.
Only a small number of Tyrannosaurus fossils have been found.

Living during the Cretaceous period and standing eighteen feet tall, Tyrannosaurus rex was the largest meat-eating dinosaur. Only a small number of Tyrannosaurus fossils have been found.
ᮣ Exercise 2 Explain whether the verb voice used in the sentence is the best choice. If the verb voice needs to be changed, rewrite the sentence.
The pie was eaten by Chen. Chen ate the pie.
1. The dance contest was won by Sabrina. Sabrina won the dance contest.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. The money was stolen from the register. Okay. We don’t know who stole the money.
3. The rival teams were evenly matched. Okay. Emphasis is on the teams.
4. The actors were given scripts by the director. The director gave scripts to the actors.
5. The actors auditioned for the director. Okay. Sentence uses active voice.
6. This ticket must be presented at the door. Okay. Emphasis is on the ticket.
7. The dog was covered with mud. Okay. Emphasis is on the dog.

8. The dog frolicked in the mud. Okay. Sentence uses active voice.

Composition

9. That portrait was painted by Koto. Koto painted that portrait.
10. The design was approved by Ana. Ana approved the design.

Unit 14, Composition

325

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Rewrite the paragraph below with effective sentences.
I am amazed at the sight of the enormous roller coaster. The group waiting to board the roller coaster is joined by me. I watch the bright red cars grind to a halt. The riders seem exhausted but happy. The riders spring out of their seats. The riders head for the next ride. I sit in one of the cars when my turn comes. I buckle myself in. I take a deep breath. The roller coaster starts to move. It moves at a deceptively slow pace. It moves with more force up a steep incline. It reaches the top of the steel hill. At this time I can see the entire park. The park is spread out before me like a colorful quilt. The roller coaster suddenly begins to move downward. Whoosh!
I feel like I’m plummeting to the ground! But I am not plummeting to the ground. I am safely inside a car. The car is following a track. The track is carefully placed. The ground is never reached by me. Instead, I am led up another steel hill. This hill is taller. But this time I am prepared. Here I go!
Amazed at the sight of the enormous roller coaster, I join the group waiting to board it. I watch the bright red cars grind to a halt. Exhausted but happy riders spring out of their seats and head for the next ride. When my turn comes, I sit in one of the cars, buckle myself in, and take a deep breath. The roller coaster starts to move at a deceptively slow pace. Then it moves with more force up a steep incline. As it reaches the top of the steel hill, I can see the entire park spread before me like a colorful quilt. Suddenly the roller coaster begins moving downward. Whoosh! I feel like I’m plummeting to the ground! But I am safely inside a car following a carefully placed track. I never reach the ground. Instead, I am led up another steel hill. This one is taller, but this time I

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

am prepared. Here I go!

326 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 105

Building Paragraphs
The supporting details in a paragraph can be arranged in different ways. Chronological order places events in the order that they happened. Spatial order is the way objects appear. Compare/contrast order shows similarities and differences.
For example, this note from a friend makes use of compare/contrast order in the first paragraph, spatial order in the second, and chronological order in the third.
You must try the East Side Grill! It is bigger and better than the restaurant we went to last week. The servers and hosts at the East Side Grill are much friendlier. Also, the bill at the East Side Grill was a lot less expensive!
When you walk into the East Side Grill, you might think the place is run-down and old. But the dark hallway opens into a bright, modern dining room with windows on the ceilings. There is a jukebox against one wall and a grand piano against another.
The food at the East Side Grill is great! First, we had huge salads filled with crisp vegetables. Then we had thick, hot soups. Next, we had main courses of roast beef and potatoes. We finished our meals with slices of homemade pie for dessert.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Number the following sentences in chronological order.
6

Then I cut two slices from a tomato.

7

I place the tomato slices atop the cheese and ham.

1

I always make my favorite sandwich a certain way.

8

To complete my creation, I put the mustard-covered slice of bread atop the loaded slice of

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

bread.
2

First, I place two slices of whole wheat bread on a plate.

5

Next, I put one slice of Swiss cheese on top of the ham.

9

Finally, I enjoy!

3

I put mayonnaise on one slice of bread and mustard on the other.

4

Then I lay three pieces of ham on the mayonnaise-covered slice.

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

327

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Revise the following paragraph in chronological order, then rewrite the paragraph.
First we hiked up a steep grade, but the trail was clear and easy to follow. We had to climb over nearly a dozen felled trees to get to the halfway point. Our six-mile hike to the river thoroughly exhausted us. We began our hike from Pine Grove Park early in the morning. At the two-mile mark, we spotted a family of deer. We found the stream that marked the end of the fifth mile and followed it to the river. We got lost, wandered in a circle, and ended up doing the fourth mile twice! Finally, we fell asleep under a giant tree.
We began our hike from Pine Grove Park early in the morning. First we hiked up a steep grade, but the trail was clear and easy to follow. At the two-mile mark, we spotted a family of deer. Then we had to climb over nearly a dozen felled trees to get to the halfway point. After that, we got lost, wandered in a circle, and ended up doing the fourth mile twice! We found the stream that marked the end of the fifth mile and followed it to

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

the river. Finally, we fell asleep under a giant tree. Our six-mile hike had thoroughly exhausted us.

328 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Write the following paragraph in spatial order.
At the stop sign, a boy and a girl jumped rope. Across the street from the Garzas’ house, a mail carrier made a delivery. At the Wittenauers’ house across the street from ours, sprinklers noisily sprayed water onto the grass. From my front step, I looked from one end of the street to the other. The mail carrier moved to the next house, where Mrs. Meyer and her two sons were playing basketball. In the driveway of the first house on the right, Mr. Garza washed his car. Our street was buzzing with activity on Saturday morning. At the end of our street, my friend Jerry was trying to teach his puppy to sit.
Our street was buzzing with activity on Saturday morning. From my front step, I looked from one end of the street to the other. At the stop sign, a boy and girl jumped rope. In the driveway of the first house on the right,
Mr. Garza washed his car. Across the street from the Garzas’ house, a mail carrier made a delivery. The mail carrier moved to the next house, where Mrs. Meyer and her two sons were playing basketball. At the
Wittenauers’ house across the street from ours, sprinklers noisily sprayed water onto the grass. At the end of

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

our street, my friend Jerry was trying to teach his puppy to sit.

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

329

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Use compare/contrast order to write a paragraph about one of the following topics: your best friend what has made this school year interesting

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

the way your bedroom looks

330 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 106

Paragraph Ordering
Revising a first draft includes checking the unity and coherence of paragraphs. You need to make sure that each paragraph is unified; that is, it opens with a topic sentence (a sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph) and the supporting details are related to that topic sentence. To make sure the comparisons are clear, or coherent, you must check chronological, spatial, and compare/contrast details. (See Lesson 105.) Finally, you need to make sure that ideas are properly linked by transitions.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Revise the following paragraphs for unity and coherence.
I had been watching and admiring the ragged puppy from my porch for about an hour. My dog
Emma was a stray when I found her. Her “home” was the cold concrete under a car in front of my house. She was thinner and dirtier, but what made me fall in love with her were her ears, of all things. I could just tell that beneath all that grime was the pet I’d always wanted.
I had to figure out a way to get her. She would venture out from under the car only when she was sure no humans were near. As soon as I approached her, she would scurry back under the car.
She would creep up to the sidewalk and give me a look that seemed to say that she wanted to be friends. One ear pointed straight up, and the other flopped down. When I looked under the car, she whimpered. I could tell that she needed me as much.
I had an idea, and I was glad that my mother wasn’t home so I could put my plan into action. I
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

went into our house and got my mother’s leftover beef stew. I brought out a big bowl and placed it beside the car so the dog would have to come out to eat.
Slowly, she inched toward the bowl. I could hear her sniffing, so I knew that she was smelling a better meal. She stuck her head out from under the car and looked up at me with those big brown eyes. I didn’t grab her when she began eating. I stroked her head slowly, to let her know I was her pal. When she was finished, I picked her up and carried her home. She couldn’t have weighed more than ten or fifteen pounds. I’ve had her ever since. I had to bathe her three times to get the

Composition

engine oil off her.

Unit 14, Composition

331

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Rewrite the paragraphs, based on your revisions.
Students’ revision notes for Exercise 1 will differ. Here is an example of a revised draft:
My dog Emma was a stray when I found her. Her “ home” was the cold concrete under a car in front of my house. I had been watching and admiring the ragged puppy from my porch for about an hour. She was thinner and dirtier than any dog I had ever seen, but what made me fall in love with her were her ears, of all things. One ear pointed straight up, and the other flopped down. I could just tell that beneath all that grime was the pet I’d always wanted. However, she would venture out from under the car only when she was sure no humans were near. She would creep up to the sidewalk and give me a look that seemed to say that she wanted to be friends, but as soon as I approached her, she would scurry back under the car. When I would look under the car, she would whimper, and I could tell that she needed me as much as I needed her. I had to figure out a way to get her.
Then I had an idea, and I was glad my mother wasn’t home so I could put my plan into action. I went into our house and got my mother’s leftover beef stew. I brought out a big bowl and placed it beside the car so the dog would have to come out to eat. The pup began sniffing, so I knew that she was smelling a better meal than she had ever had. Slowly, she inched toward the bowl. Finally, she stuck her head out from under the car and looked up at me with big, brown eyes.
I didn’t grab her when she began eating. Instead, I stroked her head slowly, to let her know I was her pal. When she was finished, I picked her up and carried her home; she couldn’t have weighed more than ten or fifteen

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

pounds. Then I had to bathe her three times to get the engine oil off her. I’ve had her ever since.

332 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 107

Personal Letters
A personal letter is often a letter to a friend or relative. In a personal letter, you describe recent events in your life and ask the recipient questions about his or her life. A personal letter can also be an invitation or a thank-you note.
These letters are usually written in indented form. Each paragraph is indented, as well as each line in the heading and the signature (see Handbook page 20).

ᮣ Exercise 1 Read the following personal letter. Answer each question.
951 Pleasantville Drive
Sunnydale, Illinois 60000
May 15, 1996
Dear Chris,
You won’t believe what a great month I’ve had! I couldn’t wait to write you. First of all, I finally made the swim team. All that extra practice has paid off. My first meet is
Monday. I’m a little nervous, but I’ll be all right once I get in the water.
The time I’ve spent mowing lawns and cleaning garages is paying off, too. I’m using the money I’ve earned to buy the mountain bike I told you about in my last letter.
The next time you come for a visit, you can try it out.
Did you buy the bike you had your eye on? Write soon and tell me all about it. Tell me what else you’ve been doing, too. I miss you.
Your friend,

Taylor
Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

1. Who is Chris? a friend of Taylor’s
2. Why is Taylor writing to Chris?

He or she has news to convey to Chris.

3. How is this a good example of a personal letter? It is written from one friend to another in an informal tone. It includes news of what the writer is doing and asks for news in return. It is written in the form of a personal letter.

4. What might Chris include in a response to Taylor’s letter? Chris will most likely respond to Taylor’s question about whether he or she bought the bike Taylor mentions. Chris will also describe what he or she has

Composition

been doing since the last time he or she wrote to Taylor and may have questions for Taylor.

Unit 14, Composition

333

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 2 Write a personal letter to a friend.
Students’ letters should be informal in tone and written in indented form. The letters should include information

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

about recent events in the students’ lives and should ask questions about events in the recipients’ lives.

334 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Different situations call for different kinds of personal letters. You would probably use a different tone and style in writing to an adult relative than you would in writing to your best friend. Your letter to your relative would probably be more formal, while you might make use of secret code words and slang in your letter to your friend.
You would also write differently to an author you admire than you would to a friend who has just performed in a play. While you would certainly be gracious in both letters, your letter to the author might express stronger feelings about how art affects life.

ᮣ Exercise 3 Write a letter thanking an adult relative for a gift or discussing a recent visit. On the last three lines of the answer space, explain why you chose the style you used.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Letter should be semi-formal. The writer wants the letter to sound natural and not forced. Avoid slang.

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

335

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 4 Write a letter to an author or performer you admire. On the last three lines of the answer space, explain why you chose the style you used.
Letter should be semi-formal. The writer should explain how the performer’s work has affected the writer’s life,

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

school, career choices, etc.

336 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 108

Business Letters: Letters of Request or Complaint
A letter of request is a letter that asks for information or service. When writing a letter of request, you should be clear and courteous. Explain what information you need and why you need it. Include any information the receiver may need to answer your request.
Business letters are usually written in block form or semiblock form. In block form, everything is lined up with the left margin. In semiblock form, the heading, complimentary close, and signature are placed on the right-hand side of the page (see
Handbook, pages 19-20).

ᮣ Exercise 1 Read the following letter. Is this a good example of a letter of request? Why or why not?
This is not a particularly good example of a letter of request. It is rather brief and not very courteous.
Also, Paul should have written sooner and given Ms. Ling time to respond.

Dear Ms. Ling:
I am a freshman at Polk High School. I am currently working on a science-fair project concerning methods of weather forecasting. Since I am planning to be in New York next week, I was wondering if I could tour your meteorological facility and ask you some questions. I hope so.
Sincerely,

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Paul Thornton
ᮣ Exercise 2 Think of a situation in which you would need to ask someone for information.
Perhaps there is a certain camp you are interested in attending or a service program you would like to join. Write some ideas for your letter on the lines below. Then write your letter on a separate piece of paper and send it to the person who can answer your questions. Be sure to use proper business-letter format.
Students should write ideas for a letter of request, including the person and place the letter will be addressed to and some questions the students would like to ask. Letters of request should follow the guidelines provided in this

Composition

lesson.

Unit 14, Composition

337

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

A letter of complaint is a letter informing someone of a problem or concern and sometimes a request for action. It should be clear, concise, and rational. Never let your anger get the best of you. Begin your letter by stating the problem and telling how it happened. Then use supporting details as evidence of your problem. End your letter by explaining what you want done. Be reasonable, and avoid insults and threats.

ᮣ Exercise 1 Describe any problems that exist in the letter of complaint below. Suggest how to correct any errors.
Dear Customer relations manager,
You’re umbrellas stink! I just bought one and it fell apart as soon as I walked out the door. First of all it leaked then it ripped when the wind blew. Dont you know umbrelas are supposed to protect us from things like that. I got soaked when I walked home and its all you’re stupid fault! I don’t want another of you’re lousy umbrellas, all I want is my money back now. If you dont give me a full refund I promise, you will be sorry!
Angrily,

Bill Higgins

First of all, the letter is insulting. Be courteous and rational. Also, several grammatical and spelling errors exist in the letter. The letter does not contain proper business letter courtesy or format. Do not threaten the recipient of the

ᮣ Exercise 2 Revise and rewrite the letter of complaint above.
Dear Customer Relations Manager:
I recently bought one of your umbrellas and, much to my surprise, it fell apart the first time I used it. First of all, it began leaking almost as soon as I stepped out in the rain. Then it ripped due to the wind.

Composition

Enclosed is a copy of my sales receipt. I would appreciate either a new umbrella or a full refund. I hope to hear from you soon.
Sincerely,
Bill Higgins

338 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

letter. Also, make a formal and realistic request.

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

Lesson 109

Business Letters: Résumés and Cover Letters
A résumé is a summary of your work experience, school experience, talents, and interests. It is used in applying for a job or for admittance into a school or academic program. You want your résumé to be clear, concise, and expressive. In describing your accomplishments, use action verbs (won the award, taught the children). Because a résumé is a summary, it is not necessary to use complete sentences. However, you do want to use a consistent format, as in the following example:
Frank Garcia
2210 Victory Parkway
Cincinnati, Ohio 45210
(513) 555–5555
Admission into the Future Teachers of America Young
Scholars Program
Education:
Central High School, September 1994–present.
4.0 grade-point average
Eastern Junior High School, September 1989–June 1992.
4.0 grade-point average.
Work Experience: Camp counselor, Camp Lookout, Cincinnati, Ohio, June–August 1994.
Responsibilities: Tutored third graders in math and English.
References:
John McGraw, teacher, Central High School
(513) 555–5555
Marla Quincy, manager, Camp Lookout
(513) 555–5555

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Objective:

ᮣ Exercise 1 Answer the following questions about Frank Garcia’s résumé.
1. How might the headings (Objective, Education, etc.) of his résumé be ordered if Frank were applying for a job? Why? Work experience would come first, because recent work experience would be important to potential employers.

2. In what order should entries for education and experience be listed? in chronological order, with

Composition

most recent experience first

Unit 14, Composition

339

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

3. The headings Frank used are not the only ones you can use on a résumé. Name at least two other appropriate headings. Activities, Awards, Interests

4. Whom should you use for references? Why should you get their permission first?
Use authority figures who know you and your abilities well as references. Get their permission first, so they are prepared to talk with potential employers.

ᮣ Exercise 2 You are applying for one of the following:
• a summer job as a camp counselor
• a job teaching a musical instrument to children
• a job coaching a children’s sports team
• an academic honors society

Composition

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Freewrite for ten minutes about the information you want in your résumé.

340 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

ᮣ Exercise 3 Write your résumé. Pay close attention to structure.

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Should follow structure of sample

Composition

Unit 14, Composition

341

Name ___________________________________________________ Class _________ Date ____________________

A cover letter is a brief letter of introduction that usually accompanies a résumé. A cover letter states what you are applying for and where you can be contacted, and it refers the reader to your résumé for additional information. It may also briefly state why you feel you are well-suited for the position.
The following is an example of a well-formatted, concise cover letter. Note that the letter follows business letter style rules and that it is directed to a specific person.
Frank Garcia
2210 Victory Parkway
Cincinnati, Ohio 45210
Future Teachers of America
Young Scholars Program c/o Barbara Jeffers
106 Vine Street
Cincinnati, Ohio 45216
Dear Ms. Jeffers:
As a hard-working honors student at Central High School, I am interested in becoming a member of the Young Scholars Program. My dedication to education makes me a worthy candidate for membership in your organization.
Enclosed is a copy of my résumé. I hope you will find that I am a well-qualified student. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions. I hope to hear from you soon.
Sincerely,

Frank Garcia
Frank Garcia

Composition

Letter should follow structure of sample.

342 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

ᮣ Exercise 1 Write a cover letter based on the position you applied for in the résumé activity.

Index

Index

343

Index

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

A

A, an (usage), 10, 219
A, an, the (articles), 4, 10, 61
Abbreviations, correct use of, 17, 281
Absolute phrases, 7
Abstract nouns, defined, 2, 50
Accept, except, 11, 219
Action verbs, defined, 3, 55
Active voice, explained, 4, 155, 323 in writing, 155, 323
Adapt, adopt, 11
Adjective clauses, 7, 42, 107, 255 essential, 107 nonessential, 42, 107, 255
Adjective phrases as infinitive phrases, 7, 95 as participial phrases, 7, 91 as prepositional phrases, 6, 89
Adjectives, defined, 4–5, 61 articles as, 4, 10, 61 comparative forms of, 9–10, 199,
201
avoiding errors in, 10, 203 coordinate, 15, 44, 253 demonstrative, 227 hyphen in compound, 16, 279 kinds of, 4–5, 61 object complement, 5, 6, 86 predicate, 6, 85 proper, 5, 14, 61, 239
Adopt, adapt, 11
Adverb clauses, 7, 111, 259 elliptical, 111
Adverb phrases infinitive phrases, 7, 95 prepositional phrases, 6, 89
Adverbs, defined, 5, 63 comparative forms of, 9–10, 67,
199, 201 conjunctive, 5 negative words as, 10, 63 standard usage of rules for, 9–10,
63
Advice, advise, 11
Affect, effect, 11, 219
Agreement
pronoun-antecedent, 9, 30 –34,
187, 189, 191, 193 subject-verb, 8, 26–29, 161, 163,
165, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175
Ain’t, avoiding, 11, 219
All ready, already, 11, 220
All right, not alright, 11, 220
All the farther, all the faster, avoiding, 220

All together, altogether, 11, 220
Allusion, illusion, 11
A lot, not alot, 10, 219
Already, all ready, 11, 220
Altogether, all together, 11, 220
Among, between, 11, 221
Amount, number, 221
Antecedents, defined, 3, 9, 187 agreement of pronouns with, 9,
30–31, 187, 189, 191 clear pronoun reference, 32–33,
193
Anyways, anywheres, avoiding, 11
Apostrophes, rules for using, 16, 277 in contractions, 16, 277 in possessive nouns and pronouns, 16, 277 in special plurals, 16, 277
Appositive phrases, 6, 43, 94
Appositives, defined, 6, 43, 94, 183
Articles, 4, 10, 61
As, like, 12–13, 225
Audience, 18, 307
Auxiliary verbs, defined, 3, 59 list, 59
A while, awhile, 10, 219

B

Bad, badly, 11, 205, 221
Being as, being that, avoiding, 11,
221
Beside, besides, 11, 221
Between, among, 11, 221
Block form for letters, 19, 337
Borrow, lend, loan, 11, 222
Bring, take, 11, 222
Business letters, 19–20, 337–339,
342
block and semiblock forms, 19,
337
cover letters, 20, 342 letters of complaint, 20, 338 letters of request, 20, 337 opinion letters, 20 résumés, 20, 339
But
preposition, 5, 69 coordinating conjunction, 71

C

Can, may, 11, 222
Can’t hardly, can’t scarcely, avoiding, 11, 222
Capitalization, rules for, 13–14, 235,
237, 239

in direct quotations, 13, 235 in family names and titles of persons, 13, 237 of first words of sentences, 13,
235
of proper adjectives, 5, 14, 239 of proper nouns, 2, 13–14, 237 of sections of country, 14, 237
Case of pronouns, 2, 8–9, 181, 183
Chronological order, 18, 327
Clauses, defined, 7, 101
See also Adjective clauses,
Adverb clauses, Dependent clauses, Independent clauses,
Main clauses, Noun clauses,
Subordinate clauses
Clue words, 17, 291
Collective nouns, defined, 2, 47 agreement of verb with, 2, 27, 169
Colons, rules, 14, 16, 247
Commas, rules, 15–16, 42–44, 251,
253, 255, 257, 259, 261, 263 with addresses, 15, 261 and adverb clauses, 259 and antithetical phrases, 259 with appositives, 43, 94 and compound sentences, 15, 251 between coordinate adjectives,
15, 44, 253 in direct address, 15, 263 in direct quotations, 15, 16, 271 and introductory phrases, 257 with nonessential elements,
42–43, 255 with numbers, 15, 261, 283 for parenthetical elements, 15, 43 in references, 15 after salutations and closings in letters, 15, 263 in series, 15, 44, 253 in tag questions, 263 with titles, 261
Common nouns, defined, 2, 49
Comparative form, modifiers, 9–10,
67, 199, 201
Compare/contrast order, 18, 327
Comparison
of adjectives, 9–10, 199, 201 of adverbs, 9–10, 67, 199, 201 double and incomplete, 10, 203 irregular, 10, 201
Complements, 5–6, 83–86 direct objects, 6, 83 indirect objects, 6, 84 object, 5, 6, 86

Index

345

D

Dangling modifiers, avoiding, 10,
38–39, 209
Dates, punctuating, 15, 261, 283
Declarative sentences, defined, 8,
119
Degrees of form (comparison), 9–10,
67, 199, 201
Demonstrative pronouns, 2, 53
Dependent (subordinate) clauses, 7,
101
See also Adjective clauses,
Adverb clauses, Noun clauses
Diagraming
sentences with clauses, 133 simple sentences, 129 simple sentences with phrases,
131
Different from, different than, 12,
223
Direct address, 15, 263
Direct objects, defined, 6, 83
Doesn’t, don’t, 12, 223
Double comparisons, avoiding, 10,
203
Double negatives, avoiding, 10, 207,
222
Drafting, 18, 311 style, voice, 311

theme, 311 thesis statement, 311 topic sentence and related sentences, 311

E

Each, agreement with, 8, 29, 171
Editing, 18, 317 proofreading, 317
Effect, affect, 11, 219
Either, agreement with, 8, 28, 171
Elliptical clauses, 111
Emigrate, immigrate, 12, 223
Emphatic verbs, defined, 4, 152
Except, accept, 11, 219
Exclamation points, 121, 245 and quotation marks, 16, 273
Exclamatory sentences, defined, 8,
121

F

Farther, further, 12, 223
Fewer, less, 12, 223
Fragments, sentence, defined,
22–23, 123

G

Gerund phrases, 7, 93, 209
Gerunds, defined, 7, 93
Good, well, 12, 205, 224

H

Had of, avoiding, 12, 224
Hanged, hung, 12, 224
Hardly, in double negatives, 11, 222
Helping (auxiliary) verbs, 3, 59
Hyphens, rules, 16, 279

I

Illusion, allusion, 11
Immigrate, emigrate, 12, 223
Imperative mood, verbs, 4
Imperative sentences, defined, 8, 119
In, into, in to, 12, 224
Incomplete comparisons, avoiding,
10, 203
Indefinite pronouns, defined, 2, 53,
175
agreement with verb, 8, 29, 175 list, 53, 175
Independent (main) clauses, 7, 101
Indicative mood, verbs, 4
Indirect objects, defined, 6, 84
Indirect quotations, 235, 271
Infinitive phrases, 7, 95 comma after, 42
Infinitives, defined, 7, 95

346 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

as adjectives, 7, 95 as adverbs, 7, 95 as nouns, 7, 95
Inquiry, letters of, 20, 337
Inside addresses in letters, 19
Intensive pronouns, 2, 51
Interjections, 5, 72
Interrogative pronouns, 2, 53 list, 53
Interrogative sentences, defined, 8,
121
Into, in, 12, 224
Intransitive verbs, defined, 3, 55
Inverted order in sentences, 8,
26–27, 167
Irregardless, avoiding, 12, 224
Irregular verbs, 3–4, 143
Italics, 16, 275
Its, it’s, 41, 277

L

Lay, lie, 12, 225
Learn, teach, 12, 225
Leave, let, 12, 225
Lend, borrow, loan, 11, 222
Less, fewer, 12, 223
Letter writing, 19–20, 333, 337–339,
342
business, 19–20, 337–339, 342 block and semiblock forms,
19, 337 cover letters, 20, 342 letters of request, 20, 337–338 résumés, 20, 339 personal, 19–20, 333
See also Business letters;
Personal letters
Lie, lay, 12, 225
Like, as, 12–13, 225
Linking verbs, 3, 57
Loan, borrow, lend, 11, 222
Loose, lose, 13, 225

M

Main (independent) clauses, 7, 101
May, can, 11, 222
Modifiers
adjective clauses, 7, 42, 107, 255 adjectives, 4–5, 9–10, 61 adverb clauses, 7, 111, 259 adverbs, 5, 9–10, 63 comparisons, degrees, 9–10, 67,
199, 201 comparisons, double and incomplete, 10, 203 comparisons, irregular, 10, 201

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

subject, 6, 85
Complete predicates, defined, 6, 77
Complete subjects, defined, 6, 77
Complex sentences, defined, 7, 105
Compound elements numbers, hyphens in, 17, 279 predicates, 6, 80 prepositions, 5, 69 sentences, 7, 103 subjects, 5, 79, 103, 171
Compound-complex sentences, 7,
105
Concrete nouns, defined, 2, 50
Conjunctions, defined, 5, 71 conjunctive adverbs, 5 coordinating, 5, 71 correlative, 5, 71 list, 71 subordinating, 5, 71, 101
Continual, continuous, 12
Conversations, punctuating, 15–16,
271
Coordinate adjectives, 15, 44, 253
Coordinating conjunctions, 5, 71
Correlative conjunctions, 5, 71
Could of, might of, must of, should of, would of, avoiding, 12, 222

misplaced or dangling, 10, 38–39,
209
Moods of verbs, 4

N

Negative words as adverbs, 10, 63
Negatives, double, avoiding, 10, 207
Neither, with compound subjects, 5,
79
Nominative case, pronouns, 2, 8–9,
181, 183, 185
Nor, with compound subjects, 5, 79
Noun clauses, 7, 115
Nouns, defined, 2, 47, 49–50 abstract, 2, 50 as appositives, 6, 94 collective, 2, 47 common and proper, 2, 49 concrete, 2, 50 as direct objects, 83 as gerunds, 7, 93 as indirect objects, 84 as infinitives, 7, 95 as objects of prepositions, 6, 69 plurals, 2, 47 possessive, 2, 277 proper, 2, 13–14, 49, 237 singular, 2, 47 as subjects, simple and compound, 75, 79
Number, amount, 221
Numbers and Numerals, 16, 17, 283 and hyphens, 16, 17, 279

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

O

Object complements, 5–6, 86
Objective case, pronouns, 2, 9, 181,
183, 185
Objects of prepositions, defined, 6,
69, 89
Of, misused for have, 12, 222, 224
Only, placement of, 10, 38, 209
Outlines, writing, 19, 321

P

Paragraphs, building, 18, 327 chronological order, 18, 327 compare/contrast order, 18, 327 spatial order, 18, 327
Paragraphs, ordering, 18, 331 coherence, 18, 331 unity, 18, 331
Parentheses, 15, 269 punctuation with, 15, 269
Participial phrases, defined, 7, 91 comma after, 42, 91
Participles, defined, 7, 91
Passed, past, 13, 226

Passive voice, 4, 155, 323
Past, passed, 13, 226
Periods, rules, 14, 245
Personal letters, 19 –20, 333
Personal pronouns, defined, 2, 51,
181
cases, 2, 8–9, 181, 183 first person, 2, 51 intensive, 2, 51 list, 2, 51, 181 nominative, 2, 8–9, 181, 183, 185 objective, 2, 9, 181, 183, 185 possessive, 2, 9, 41, 51, 61, 181 reflexive, 2, 9, 51 second person, 2, 51 third person, 2, 51
Phrases, defined, 6–7, 89, 91,
93–95, 97
See also Appositive phrases,
Gerund phrases, Infinitive phrases, Participial phrases,
Prepositional phrases, Verbal phrases Plural nouns, 2, 47
Plurals, spelling of, 18, 300
Positive form, modifiers, 9–10, 67,
199, 201
Possessive apostrophes, 16, 40 –41,
277
Possessive case, pronouns, 2, 9, 51,
61, 181
Possessive nouns, 2, 16, 61, 277
Precede, proceed, 13, 226
Predicate adjective, 6, 85
Predicate nominative, defined, 6, 85
Predicates
complete, 6, 77 compound, 6, 80 simple, 6, 75
Prefixes, 17, 295 and hyphens, 16, 279
Prepositional phrases, defined, 6,
69, 89 as adjectives, 6, 89 as adverbs, 6, 89 object of the preposition, 6, 89
Prepositions, defined, 5, 69 compound, 5, 69 list, 5, 69
Presentation, of writing, 18, 319
Prewriting, 18, 307 choosing a topic, 18, 307 determining the audience, 18,
307
determining the purpose, 18, 307
Principal parts of verbs, 3–4, 141,
143
Proceed, precede, 13, 226

Progressive verbs, defined, 4, 151
Pronouns, defined, 2, 51, 181 after than and as, 183 agreement with, 9, 30 –34, 187,
189, 191 antecedents of, 3, 9, 30–33, 187,
189, 191, 193 as appositives, 6, 94, 183 cases of, 2, 8–9, 181, 183 demonstrative, 2, 53 gender of, 30, 187 indefinite, 2, 53, 175 intensive, 2, 51 interrogative, 2, 53 number of, 30–31, 187 personal, 2, 51, 181 possessive, 2, 9, 51, 181 reflexive, 2, 9, 51 relative, 2, 53 who, whom, 2, 13, 185
Proofreading, 317
Proper adjectives, 5, 14, 61, 239
Proper nouns, 2, 13–14, 49, 237
Punctuation rules. See specific types. Q

Question marks, 14, 121, 245 and quotation marks, 16, 273
Quotation marks, 15–16, 271, 273 with colons or semicolons, 16,
273
in direct quotations, 15–16, 271 in indirect quotations, 235, 271 within a quotation, 15, 271 with titles of short works, 15, 273 with unusual expressions, 15, 273
Quotations, capitalizing, 15, 235

R

Raise, rise, 13, 226
Reason is because, avoiding, 13, 226
Reflexive pronouns, 2, 9, 51
Regardless, not irregardless, 12, 224
Regular verbs, 3–4, 141
Relative pronouns, 2, 53
Respectfully, respectively, 13, 227
Résumés, 20, 339
Revising, 18, 315 coherence, 18, 315 meaning, 315 unity, 18, 315
Rise, raise, 13, 226
Roots of words, 17, 293
Run-on sentences, defined, 24–25,
125

Index

347

and compound subjects, 8,
28–29, 171 and indefinite pronouns, 8, 29,
175
and intervening expressions, 8,
29, 173 and intervening prepositional phrases, 8, 26, 163 in inverted sentences, 8, 26–27,
167
and linking verbs, 26, 165, 167,
169
and predicate nominatives, 26,
165
and special subjects, 8, 169 with titles, 8
Subjects
agreement of verb with, 8, 26–29,
161, 163, 165, 167, 169, 171,
173, 175 complete, 6, 77 compound, 5, 79, 103, 171 gerunds and infinitives as, 7, 93,
97
noun clauses as, 7, 115 simple, 5, 75
Subjunctive mood, verbs, 4
Subordinate (dependent) clauses, 7,
101, 259
Subordinating conjunctions, 5, 71,
101
Suffixes, 17, 18, 295, 297, 298
Superlative form, 9–10, 67, 199, 201

T

Take, bring, 11, 222
Teach, learn, 12, 225
Tenses, defined, 3, 145 future, 3, 145 future perfect, 3, 147 incorrect, 36–37 past, 3, 145 past perfect, 3, 147 present, 3, 145 present perfect, 3, 147 shifts in, avoiding, 35, 153
Than, then, 13, 227
That there, this here, avoiding, 13,
227
Theme, writing, 18, 311
Then, than, 13, 227
Thesis statement, writing, 18, 311
This here, that there, avoiding, 13,
227
This kind, these kinds, 225
Topic sentences, 311, 323, 331
Transitive verbs, defined, 3, 55

348 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 9

U

Understood subject, 119

V

Verb phrases, defined, 3, 6, 59
Verbal phrases, 7, 93, 97
Verbals, defined, 7, 93, 95, 97
See also Gerunds, Infinitives,
Participles
Verbs, defined, 3, 55 action verbs, 3, 55 intransitive, 3, 55 transitive, 3, 55 agreement with subjects, rules, 8
26–29, 161, 163, 165, 167,
169, 171, 173, 175 auxiliary (helping), 3, 59 emphatic, 4, 152 intransitive, 3, 55 irregular, regular, 3–4, 141, 143 linking, 3, 57 list, 3–4, 59, 141, 143 moods of, 4 principal parts of irregular, 3–4,
143
principal parts of regular, 141 progressive, 4, 151 tenses of, 3, 35–37, 145, 147,
149, 151–152 compatibility, 153 shifts in, avoiding, 35
See also Tenses transitive, 3, 55 voice of, active and passive, 4,
155, 323
Vocabulary building, 17–18, 291,
293, 295 from context, 17, 291 prefixes and suffixes, 17–18, 295 word roots, base words, 17, 293
Voice of verbs, defined, 4, 155, 323 active, 4, 155, 323 effective use of, 155, 323 passive, 4, 155, 323

W

Well, good, 12, 205, 224
Where at, avoiding, 227
Who, whom, 13, 185
Writing process. See specific steps.
Writing letters, 19–20, 333, 335,
337–339, 342
Writing paragraphs, 18 , 327

Y

You, as understood subject, 119

Copyright © by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

S

Said, says, 13, 227
Scarcely, in double negatives, 11,
222
Semiblock form of letters, 19, 337
Semicolons, 14–15, 16, 249, 273 to correct run-on sentences,
24–25, 125
Sentence fragments, 22–23, 123
Sentence patterns, explained, 5–6,
8, 81, 167
Sentence structure complex, 7, 105 compound, 7, 103 compound-complex, 7, 105 simple, 7, 103
Sentences, effective, 323 active voice, 155, 323 interruption, 323 parallelism, 323 unusual patterns, 323 varied length, 18, 323 varied structure, 18, 323
Sentences, kinds of declarative, 8, 119 exclamatory, 8, 121 imperative, 8, 119 interrogative, 8, 121
Sentences, run-on, 24–25, 125
Series, commas in, 15, 44, 253 colon before, 247
Set, sit, 13, 227
Simple predicates, defined, 6, 75
Simple sentences, defined, 7, 103
Simple subjects, defined, 5, 75
Singular nouns, 2, 47
Sit, set, 13, 227
Spatial order, 18, 327
Spelling
adding -ly and -ness, 18, 299 doubling the final consonant, 18,
299
forming compound words, 16,
18, 279, 299 of -cede, -ceed, and -sede, 17,
297
of ie and ei, 17, 297 of plural nouns, 18, 300 of suffixes, 17, 18, 298 of unstressed vowels, 297
Subject complements, 6, 85
Subject-verb agreement, 8, 26–29,
161, 163, 165, 167, 169, 171, 173,
175
in adjective clauses, 8 and collective nouns, 27, 169…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Grammar

...Page 1 of 2 www.englishgrammar.org – Grammar lessons, rules, and news for everyday use. Active and Passive Voice Exercise II Find the verbs in the following sentences and state whether they are in the active voice or the passive voice. 1. The tiger killed the deer. 2. The boy is learning his lessons. 3. This house was built by my grandfather. 4. Alice has been waiting for a long time. 5. Mother was making a cake. 6. The postman was bitten by the dog. 7. The thief was caught. 8. The accused were sent to jail. 9. The loud noise frightened the baby. 10. The dog chased the cat. 11. The letter was posted yesterday. 12. The oldman takes snuff. 13. The cat drank all the milk. 14. That boy of yours has broken my window again. 15. These shoes of mine pinch me terribly. Answers 1. verb ? killed (simple past); voice ? active 2. verb ? is learning (present continuous); voice ? active Page 2 of 2 www.englishgrammar.org – Grammar lessons, rules, and news for everyday use. 3. verb ? was built (simple past); voice ? passive 4. verb ? has been waiting (present perfect continuous); voice ? active 5. verb ? was making (past continuous); voice ? active 6. verb ? was bitten (simple past); voice ? passive 7. verb ? was caught (simple past); voice ? passive 8. verb ? were sent (simple past); voice ? passive 9. verb ? frightened (simple past); voice ? active 10. verb -chased (simple past); voice ? active 11. verb ? was posted (simple past); voice ? passive 12. verb ? takes (simple......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Grammar

...theo m t ti n trình thư ng l (nhưng không di n ñ t ý ñ nh c a cá nhân ngư i nói). You will be hearing from my solicitor. I will be seeing you one of these days, I expect. · D ñoán cho tương lai: Don't phone now, they will be having dinner. · Di n ñ t l i ñ ngh nhã nh n mu n bi t v k ho ch c a ngư i khác Will you be staying in here this evening? (ông có d ñ nh l i ñây t i nay ch ) 3.3.4 Future Perfect (th i tương lai hoàn thành): Trư ng ð i H c Kinh T ðà N ng Sưu t m và thi t k b i Ph m Vi t Vũ - 19 – Dùng ñ ch m t hành ñ ng s ph i ñư c hoàn t t vào m t th i ñi m nh t ñ nh trong tương lai. Nó thư ng ñư c dùng v i tr ng t ch th i gian dư i d ng: by the end of....., by the time + sentence We will have accomplished the English grammar course by the end of next week. By the time human being migrates to the moon, most of the people alive today will have died. 4. S hòa h p gi a ch ng và ñ ng t Trong m t câu ti ng Anh, ch ng và ñ ng t ph i phù h p v i nhau v ngôi và s (s ít hay s nhi u) The worker works very well. s ít s ít The workers work very well. s nhi u s nhi u 4.1 Các trư ng h p ch ng ñ ng tách kh i ñ ng t Trong câu ti ng Anh, có nhi u trư ng h p r t khó xác ñ nh ñư c ñâu là ch ng c a câu do ch ng và ñ ng t không ñi li n v i nhau. The boys in the room are playing chess. Thông thư ng trong các trư ng h p ñó, m t ng gi i t (m t gi i t m ñ u và các danh t theo sau – in the room) thư ng n m gi a ch ng và ñ ng t . Các ng gi i t này không nh hư ng ñ n vi c chia...

Words: 54422 - Pages: 218

Premium Essay

Grammar

...GLOSSARY OF COMMON GRAMMATICAL AND WRITING TERMS Grammar terminology is useful when we describe and correct problems with writing. Though we’ve tried to de-emphasize terminology and teach through examples throughout this book, sometimes you need a definition. We’ve tried to emphasize areas that are both commonly used and commonly misunderstood, such as the use of modal auxiliaries like can, could, shall, should, etc. Punctuation marks are not included in this list; they have a separate section in this Appendix. “People who are experts in grammar don’t always write well, and many people who write well no longer think consciously about grammar … but when something goes wrong in a sentence, a knowledge of grammar helps in recognizing the problem and provides a language for discussing it.” — H. Ramsey Fowler – 265 – The Tongue and Quill a/an Active Voice Adjective Use a before consonant sounds and an before vowel sounds Shows the subject as the actor. (pages 73-74). Describes or limits a noun or pronoun. It answers “Which one? What kind? or How many?” Modifies or limits a verb, adjective or another adverb and answers “When? Where? Why? How much? How far? To what degree?” Conjunctive or Connective Adverb—transition words that often appears to connect clauses. Adverbs Antecedent Appositive Article Bibliography Noun, phrase or clause to which a pronoun refers or replaces. (pages 99100) Word, phrase or clause preceding or renaming a noun. Small set......

Words: 13750 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Grammar

...раскрывается суть нового грамматического явления, дается правило, в котором объясняются принципы выполнения соответствующих грамматических операций. Весь новый грамматический материал приводится в рубрике "Grammar Discoveries". Наряду с объяснением назначения, основных случаев употребления и формообразования нового грамматического явления, как правило, проводятся параллели с аналогичными по смыслу и назначению грамматическими явлениями родного языка. Затем следует серия коммуникативно окрашенных упражнений тренировочного характера, в процессе выполнения которых автоматизируется употребление новой грамматики. Следом идут речевые упражнения, предполагающие использование данного грамматического явления для решения поставленных перед учащимися коммуникативных задач. Особенностью предъявления грамматического материала в 7 классе является и то, что наряду с дедуктивным подходом к ознакомлению с грамматической стороной речи (от правила к практике) широко используется и индуктивный путь. В этом случае учащимся обеспечивается возможность наблюдать за употреблением грамматического явления в речи, а затем им дается обобщение по данному явлению в виде правила. Так, например, происходит овладение видовременной формой глаголов Passive Voice. Информация подобного рода также дается в рубрике "Grammar Discoveries" Обобщение (в виде правила) и многочисленные тренировочные упражнения обеспечивают осознание и дальнейшую автоматизацию соответствующего грамматического действия. В учебнике и......

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Grammar

...we would go to the park (...but it is bad, so we can't go) • If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone �100. (...but I'm not, so I won't) Examples of use: 1. To make a statement about something that is not real at present, but is possible: I would visit her if I had time. (= I haven't got time but I might have some time) 2. To make a statement about a situation that is not real now and never could be real: If I were you, I'd give up smoking (but I could never be you) Examples: a. If I was a plant, I would love the rain. b. If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring. c. If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her. d. You wouldn't need to read this if you understood English grammar. e. Would he go to the concert if I gave him a ticket? f. They wouldn't invite her if they didn't like her g. We would be able to buy a larger house if we had more money NOTE: It is correct, and very common, to say "If I were" instead of "If I was". 1. Present continuous conditional - form. This form is composed of two elements: the present conditional of the verb 'to be' (would be) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ing). |Subject |would be |base+ing | |He |would be |going | |They |would be |living | |Affirmative | |We |would be......

Words: 40654 - Pages: 163

Premium Essay

Grammar

...by Karl Weber, M.A. English Grammar: Sentence Structure Study Guide Video Aided Instruction, Inc. Roslyn Heights, New York 1 #VAI-S1019 v1.0 This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc. For more information, call 1-800 -238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com. This study guide should be used along with the following program published by Video Aided Instruction. The instructor works through the exercises found in this guide – and much, much more – during the course of the actual program. Introduction Video Aided Instruction’s English Grammar Series makes the tricky rules of English grammar easier to learn than ever before – whether you’re new to English or you’ve been speaking it for years! Like most languages, English strings words together into sentences in order to communicate ideas. But many people find it difficult to construct English sentences correctly. This program will teach you the basic principles that govern how English sentences are constructed, and how to put these principles to use when you create your own sentences! Before you begin studying, let us make a few recommendations. First, have a notebook and pen ready so you’re prepared to take notes. You’ll probably want to use the many on-screen graphics to take notes for yourself – when you’re done, you’ll have a notebook on English grammar that you can refer back to again and again. Secondly, don’t forget to take......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Grammar

...TeQuira Thomas - 986097 1. Type the sentences that answer the following questions: a. What sentence is the topic sentence of the paragraph? A trip to the ocean can be a relaxing escape from the everyday pressures of life. b. What sentence is unrelated to the topic and can be eliminated? You should always be careful to avoid overexposure to the sun at the beach. 2. List four things to look for when you’re proofreading. 1) spelling 2) grammar 3) punctuation 4) capitalization 3. Complete the following two steps: a. Define the term cliché. It is a stereotype or electrotype b. Write one sentence that contains a cliché. It is a cliché that when you have lemons, you have to make lemonade. 4. Name and explain two types of prewriting. 1) Brainstorming – making a list of ideas and thoughts about a selected topic before writing. 2) Freewriting - filling up a piece of paper with any idea that comes to mind without stopping to think or lifting the pen. 5. Choose one of the topics listed below and write a five-sentence paragraph using chronological order to arrange the details of the paragraph. To make a perfect grilled cheese sandwich you will need a pan, butter knife, butter, two slice of cheese, and two slice bread. First, butter both slices of bread. Next, lay two slices of cheese on one slice of bread, then the other slice. Heat a sauté pan over med heat. Finally, fry the sandwich until golden brown, cut in......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Grammar

...Grammar Recently I took a Grammar Mastery Test. This was a multiple choice test and asked the test taker to choose the sentence that used correct grammar. These sentences had three to four choices with different forms of grammar such as, who/whom, a/an, and I/me. Now I thought this test would be a breeze, unfortunately I was wrong. I thought I would do pretty well and knew what I needed to know about how and when to use certain words with certain phrases. I did not. While taking this test I realized I did not know as much as I thought and needed to study my grammar. I learned while taking this test that I use the wrong form of grammar when I write and when I speak. I am probably going to make a few mistakes writing this paper. Hopefully I won’t, or at least not too many. I knew that when you are referring to a sentence that has a subject and a verb agreement you use the singular verb with a singular subject, i.e.; the subject is the word list . The list is on the table. Although there can be many things on the list itself, list is singular and is the subject of the sentence, therefore it will use the singular adverb is instead of the plural are. I learned that when using neither/nor you have to pay attention to the noun or pronoun that the word neither/nor is the closest to. The neither/nor thing always gets me confused, but now that I have learned this rule I can pay more attention to the nouns or pronouns and choose the correct sentence. I also knew that with......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Grammar

...Grammar Quiz 6 (Fejl. pages 83-85) Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. There is one mistake per sentence. Explain your corrections. 1. I was very surprised by that he passed his exams despite his poor marks. 2. He told her about that he was planning a trip to Greenland. 3. In spite of the fact that the climate is changing and the temperature rising, this past winter was colder than ever. 4. They slipped out of the classroom without that the teacher noticed their absence. 5. They talked about to buying a house in the country. 6. She succeeded in convincing him of her plan, despite the fact of that he was against it at first. 7. Last year you assured me of that you were a loyal employee. Have you completely forgotten your loyalty? 8. I would like to draw your attention to the fact that he takes drugs and drinks excessively. 9. Please see to it that everyone receives their missing wages. 10. The principal was really worried about that the students spent too much money on clothes and alcohol. Correct or incorrect? If the sentence is incorrect, please correct it. 1. I look forward to hearing from you soon. 2. He is used to doing his homework while chatting on Facebook. 3. He is suspected of to using Google translate on his last assignment. 4. I used to be very good at knitting, but I have completely forgotten how. 5. The teacher insisted on giving the class an extra assignment before exams. 6. They......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Spanish Grammar

... BASIC SPANISH: A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK Basic Spanish: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume. This workbook presents 20 individual grammar points in realistic contexts, providing a grammatical approach that will allow students not already familiar with these terms to become accustomed to their use. Each unit is included on a graded basis beginning with the simpler aspects of Spanish grammar and proceeding to the more complex points. Grammar points are followed by examples and exercises selected to reinforce mastery of the topic. Basic Spanish provides an ideal introduction to the language, with insights into the Spanish-speaking peoples and their related cultures. For use in the classroom, or for the independent learner, this workbook enables readers to express themselves in a wide variety of situations. Features include: • authentic reading texts to encourage an understanding of Spain and Spanish-speaking countries • reference to Latin American usage where appropriate • full exercise answer key • glossary of grammatical terms Basic Spanish is the ideal reference and practice book for beginners and also for students with some knowledge of the language. Carmen Arnaiz and Irene Wilkie are both Senior Lecturers in Spanish and Linguistics at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Titles of related interest published by Routledge: Modern Spanish Grammar: A Practical Guide Juan......

Words: 38366 - Pages: 154

Free Essay

Grammar

...NEW EDITION HIGH SCHOOL English Grammar & Composition BY WREN & MARTIN (With New Appendices) REVISED BY N.D.V. PRASADA RAO S. CHAND Page i New Edition HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION By P.C. WREN, MA. (OXON) and H. MARTIN, M.A. (OXON), O.B.E. Revised By N.D.V. PRASADA RAO, M.A., D.T.E., Ph.D. Dear Students, Beware of fake/pirated editions. Many of our best selling titles have been unlawfully printed by unscrupulous persons. Your sincere effort in this direction may stop piracy and save intellectuals' rights. For the genuine book check the 3-D hologram which gives a rainbow effect. S. CHAND AN ISO 9001: 2000 COMPANY S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD. RAM NAGAR, NEW DELHI -110 055 Page iii PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION Wren and Martin's monumental work High School English Grammar and Composition now appears in two editions. One is a de luxe edition, illustrated in full-colour, and the other is an ordinary edition without illustrations. The material in the book has been further updated where called for. It has been felt necessary in particular to revise some material in the chapters dealing with adjectives, active and passive voice, articles and prepositions. Appendix I, which deals with American English, has been expanded. Appendix II has been replaced with a newer set of tests covering the important areas of grammar. It was in the year 1972 that the shrewd visionary Mr. Shyam Lai Gupta obtained the permission of Manecji Cooper Education Trust for the revision of this book...

Words: 211294 - Pages: 846

Free Essay

Grammar

...Collins W ith CD English for Exams Grammar for IELTS Fiona Aish & Jo Tomlinson \ ■L& 11 * . ; P O W E R E D BY C O B U I L D ■ t; j ju B P H Contents Unit 1 O 2 Topic Grammar focus Holidays and travel Free time Exam Page number Grammar practice Sub-skill Simple tenses Present sim ple, past sim ple and present perfect Speaking Part 1 W riting Task 2 6 Continuous tenses Past continuous, present continuous, present perfect W riting Task 1 Reading 10 continuous 3 Fame Past N arrative tenses: past perfect and used to/would Reading Listening Section 2 14 Education Future 1 Witt and going to Listening Section 1 Speaking Part 3 18 The Internet Future 2 Present continuous fo r future and future perfect Listening Section 2 Reading 22 The family Word order and punctuation Subject + verb + object and punctuation W riting Task 2 Speaking Part 2 26 7 The environment Subject/verb agreem ent S ingular + p lu ra l nouns/verbs and determ iners Reading W riting Task 1 30 8 Food Countable/ uncountable nouns Countable and uncountable nouns Speaking Part 2 Listening Section 1 34 9 Employment and finance A rticles Using a, the or no article W riting Task 1 Reading 38 10 Youth Linking words and signposting Giving...

Words: 30105 - Pages: 121

Premium Essay

Grammar

...Grammar S+V.1-s/es S+V.1-s/es Present Simple 1.กิจวัตร(Habits and repeated action) -always , usually , often , sometimes , never , every……. , hardly 2.ความจริง(Facts and general truths) 3.ตารางเวลา,แผนการที่วางไว้ S+is/am/are+V.ing S+is/am/are+V.ing Present Continuous 1.เกิดขึ้นขณะที่พูด(Happening at the moment of speaking) 2.เกิดในช่วงนี้ ไม่ต้องขณะที่พูดก็ได้(Happening around the moment of speaking) EX. She is working for an advertising for company. 3.เกิดในอนาคตแน่ๆ วางแผนแล้ว(Describe temporary) EX. My friend is coming tonight. Present ‘Perfect’ ÿResult(เกิดและจบแล้ว) S+has/have+V.3 S+has/have+V.3 1.เหตุการณ์เกิดในอดีตและเพิ่งสิ้นสุด -just , yet , already , finally , recently Ex.She have just finished reading book. 2.เกิดในอดีตแต่ไม่ระบุเวลาแน่ชัด -ever , never , once , twice , …… Ex.Have you ever been to Paris? 3.ดำเนินอดีตปจบ. และจะดำเนินไปอนาคต Past Present -since(จุดเริ่มเวลา/past simple) ,for+ระยะเวลา,so far,up to now Ex.She has studied Japanese for 5 years. Present ‘Perfect Continuous’ Duration S+has/have been+V.ing S+has/have been+V.ing ทำจากอดีต -> ปจบ.(ยังไม่เสร็จ)และจะต่อเนื่องไปอนาคต ทำแบบไม่หยุดพัก Ex.Jim has been waiting for Tom for 2 hours. Obligation from ourelves=must Obligation from other/organization/rules =have to Mustn’t->prohibition Have to->not necessary to do | Present+be | Past+have+V.3 | certain | Must be | Must have...

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Grammar

...26. my 27. my 28. I 29. they 30. me 31. I 32. they 33. the 34. their 35. it 36. they 37.they 38. they 39. They 新编英语语法教程 第10讲 练习参考答案 Ex, 10A 1. Don’t speak loudly. The children are sleeping. 2. Don’t disturb me. I’m thinking. 3. The chidlren were jumping to keep warm. 4. The woman got mad. She was hitting her head against the wall. 5. Old Tom knows Russian, but he can’t speak it well. 6. I hope she likes these reses. 7. Halleck resembles his father very much in disposition and appearance. 8. This material feels soft. 9. I believe we will certainly achieve success. 10. Last night we dined at a Thai restaurant. These almost all the dishes taste hot. 11. In grammar, English differs greatly from Spanish/ 12. This bus can hold 40 people. 13. This rule applies to all the tourists. 14. They were talking about pollution of the environment. 15. Spring is here. The treetops are turning green. 16. The economic situation there has changed from bad to worse. 17. I’m getting old. I can’t walk such a long distance. 18. This trunk weighs 50 kilos. 19. Surely you are imagining things. 20. I am not feeling (I don’t feel) very tired. Ex. 10B 2. called off 3. carry out 4. catch up with 5. came round / to 6. cutting down 7. looked into 8. held up 9. turn up 10. Keep off 11. Knocked him out 12. let you off 13. leave out 14.mix up 15. bring up 16. blew it up 17....

Words: 28183 - Pages: 113

Premium Essay

Grammar

...Lesson Plan: Grammar: Reported speech The level of the students: Upper Intermediate The age: Adult students Aims: to present the function of talking about the past using three types of reported speech: statements, questions and commands/requests/suggestions. To clarify the use of reported questions introduced with the verbs ask, inquire, wonder or the expression want to know. To highlight the difference between up-to-date reporting and out-of-date reporting. To consolidate students` knowledge on the use of certain words and time expressions related to reported speech, for example now-then, immediately, today-that day, yesterday – the day before, the previous day. To provide controlled and semi-controlled practice through drilling of the function and the structure. Function: Expressing the past tense with the help of reported statements and reported questions. Time: 90 minutes Assumptions: Students know the use of tenses in direct Speech. They know Present Simple and Present Continuous, Past Simple and Past Continuous, Present Perfect and Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future tenses. Anticipated problems and solutions: Students may confuse the use of tenses in direct speech and reported speech. Make sure that you demonstrate the difference using concept questions, good examples and diagrams. Students may have misunderstanding of the functions of the verb tell, say, ask. Make sure that you provide students with good situations to show the difference......

Words: 1525 - Pages: 7