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Gmat Vocabulary List

In: Business and Management

Submitted By HaKira
Words 31706
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GMAT Vocabulary List
(adv.) on or toward the rear of a ship
The passengers moved abaft of the ship so as to escape the fire in the front of the ship. abandon (v.; n) to leave behind; to give something up; freedom; enthusiasm; impetuosity After failing for several years, he abandoned his dream of starting a grocery business.
Lucy embarked on her new adventure with abandon. abase (v.) to degrade; humiliate; disgrace
The mother's public reprimand abased the girl.
The insecure father, after failing to achieve his own life-long goals, abased his children whenever they failed. abbreviate (v.) to shorten; compress; diminish
His vacation to Japan was abbreviated when he acquired an illness treatable only in the United States. abdicate (v.) to reject, renounce, or abandon
Due to his poor payment record, it may be necessary to abdicate our relationship with the client. aberrant (adj.) abnormal; straying from the normal or usual path
The aberrant flight pattern of the airplane alarmed the air traffic controllers. His aberrant behavior led his friends to worry the divorce had taken its toll. abeyance
(n.) a state of temporary suspension or inactivity
Since the power failure, the town has been in abeyance. abhor (v.) to hate
By the way her jaw tensed when he walked in, it is easy to see that she abhors him.

The dog abhorred cats, chasing and growling at them whenever he had the opportunity. abject (adj.) of the worst or lowest degree
The Haldemans lived in abject poverty, with barely a roof over their heads. abjure
(v.) to give up
The losing team may abjure to the team that is winning. abnegation (n.) a denial
The woman's abnegation of her loss was apparent when she began to laugh. abominate
(v.) to loathe; to hate
Randall abominated all the traffic he encountered on every morning commute. Please do not abominate the guilty person until you hear the complete explanation. abridge
(v.) to shorten; to limit
The editor abridged the story to make the book easier to digest. abrogate (v.) to cancel by authority
The judge would not abrogate the law. abrupt (adj.) happening or ending unexpectedly
The abrupt end to their marriage was a shock to everyone. abscond (v.) to go away hastily or secretly; to hide
The newly wed couple will abscond from the reception to leave on the honeymoon. absolve
(v.) to forgive; to acquit
The judge will absolve the person of all charges.
After feuding for many years, the brothers absolved each other for the many arguments they had. abstemious (adj.) sparing in use of food or drinks
If we become stranded in the snow storm, we will have to be abstemious

with our food supply.
In many abstemious cultures the people are so thin due to the belief that too much taken into the body leads to contamination of the soul. abstinence (n.) the act or process of voluntarily refraining from any action or practice; self-control; chastity
In preparation for the Olympic games, the athletes practiced abstinence from red meat and junk food, adhering instead to a menu of pasta and produce. abstruse
(adj.) hard to understand; deep; recondite
The topic was so abstruse the student was forced to stop reading.
The concept was too abstruse for the average student to grasp. abysmal (adj.) very deep
The abysmal waters contained little plant life. accede (v.) to comply with; to consent to
With defeat imminent, the rebel army acceded to hash out a peace treaty. acclaim (n.) loud approval; applause
Edward Albee's brilliantly written Broadway revival of A Delicate
Balance received wide acclaim. accolade (n.) approving or praising mention; a sign of approval or respect
Rich accolades were bestowed on the returning hero.
Accolades flowed into her dressing room following the opening-night triumph. accomplice
(n.) co-conspirator; partner; partner-in-crime
The bank robber's accomplice drove the get- away car. accretion (n.)growth by addition; a growing together by parts
With the accretion of the new members, the club doubled its original size.
The addition of the new departments accounts for the accretion of the company. accrue
(v.) a natural growth; a periodic increase
Over the course of her college career, she managed to accrue a great deal of knowledge.

The savings were able to accrue a sizable amount of interest each year.
During his many years of collecting stamps, he was able to accrue a large collection of valuable items. acerbic (adj.) tasting sour; harsh in language or temper
Too much Bay Leaf will make the eggplant acerbic.
The baby's mouth puckered when she was given the acerbic medicine.
The columnist's acerbic comments about the First Lady drew a strong denunciation from the President. acquiesce (v.) to agree without protest
The group acquiesced to the new regulations even though they were opposed to them.
After a hard-fought battle, the retailers finally acquiesced to the draft regulations. acrid
(adj.) sharp; bitter; foul smelling
Although the soup is a healthy food choice, it is so acrid not many people choose to eat it.
The fire at the plastics factory caused an acrid odor to be emitted throughout the surrounding neighborhood. acrimony (n.) sharpness or bitterness in language or manner.
The acrimony of her response was shocking. adage (n.) an old saying now accepted as being truthful
The adage "do unto others as you wish them to do unto you" is still widely practiced. adamant (adj.) not yielding, firm
After taking an adamant stand to sell the house, the man called the real estate agency.
The girl's parents were adamant about not allowing her to go on a dangerous backpacking trip. addled (adj.) rotten
The egg will become addled if it is left unrefrigerated. adept (adj.) skilled; practiced
The skilled craftsman was quite adept at creating beautiful vases and candleholders. adjure
(v.) solemnly ordered
The jurors were adjured by the judge to make a fair decision. adroit (adj.) expert or skillful
The repair was not difficult for the adroit craftsman.
The driver's adroit driving avoided a serious accident. adulation (n.) praise in excess
The adulation was in response to the heroic feat.
The adulation given to the movie star was sickening. adulterate (v.) to corrupt, debase, or make impure
The dumping of chemicals will adulterate the pureness of the lake. adversary (n.) an enemy; foe
The peace treaty united two countries that were historically great adversaries. adverse
(adj.) negative; hostile; antagonistic; inimical
Contrary to the ski resort's expectations, the warm weather generated adverse conditions for a profitable weekend. advocate (v.; n.) to plead in favor of; supporter; defender
Amnesty International advocates the cause for human rights.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a great advocate of civil rights. aesthetic (adj.) of beauty; pertaining to taste in art and beauty
She found that her aesthetic sense and that of the artist were at odds.
His review made one wonder what kind of aesthetic taste the critic had. affable (adj.) friendly; amiable; good-natured
Her affable puppy loved to play with children. affiliate (v.) to connect or associate with; to accept as a member
The hiking club affiliated with the bird-watching club. affinity (n.) a connection; similarity of structure
There is a strong emotional affinity between the two siblings.
It turns out that the elements bear a strong affinity to each other.

(v.) to make more powerful
The king wanted to aggrandize himself and his kingdom. aghast (adj.) astonished; amazed; horrified; terrified; appalled
Stockholders were aghast at the company's revelation.
The landlord was aghast at his water bill. agrarian (adj.) of the land
Many agrarian people are poor. alacrity (n.) eager readiness or speed
The manager was so impressed by the worker's alacrity; he suggested a promotion. On the first day of her new job, the recent college graduate was able to leave early after completing all of her tasks with alacrity. alchemist (n.) a person who studies chemistry
The alchemist's laboratory was full of bottles and tubes of strange looking liquids. alchemy (n.) any mysterious change of substance or nature
The magician used alchemy to change the powder into a liquid allegory (n.) a symbolic description
The book contained many allegories on Russian history. alleviate (v.) to lessen or make easier
The airport's monorail alleviates vehicular traffic. allocate (v.) set aside; designate; assign
There have been front row seats allocated to the performer's family.
The farmer allocated three acres of his fields to corn. allude (v.) to refer indirectly to something
The story alludes to part of the author's life.
Without stating that the defendant was an ex-convict, the prosecutor alluded to the fact by mentioning his length of unemployment. allure (v.; n.) to attract; entice; attraction; temptation; glamour

The romantic young man allured the beautiful woman by preparing a wonderful dinner.
Singapore's allure is its bustling economy. allusion (n.) an indirect reference (often literary); a hint
The mention of the pet snake was an allusion to the man's sneaky ways.
In modern plays allusions are often made to ancient drama. aloof (adj.) distant in interest; reserved; cool
Even though the new coworker was aloof, we attempted to be friendly.
The calm defendant remained aloof when he was wrongly accused of fabricating his story. altercation (n.) controversy; dispute
A serious altercation caused the marriage to end in a bitter divorce. altruism (n.) unselfish devotion to the welfare of others
After the organization aided the catastrophe victims, it was given an award for altruism.
She displayed such altruism by giving up all of her belongings and joining a peace corps in Africa. altruistic (adj.) unselfish
The altruistic volunteer donated much time and energy in an effort to raise funds for the children's hospital. amalgam (n.) a mixture or combination (often of metals)
The art display was an amalgam of modern and traditional pieces.
That ring is made from an amalgam of minerals; if it were pure gold it would never hold its shape. amalgamate (v.) to mix, merge, combine
If the economy does not grow, the business may need to amalgamate with a rival company.
The three presidents decided to amalgamate their businesses to build one strong company. amass (v.) to collect together; accumulate
Over the years the sailor has amassed many replicas of boats.
The women amassed a huge collection of priceless diamonds and pearls.

(adj.) not clear; uncertain; vague
The ambiguous law did not make a clear distinction between the new and old land boundary. ambivalent (adj.) undecided
The ambivalent jury could not reach a unanimous verdict. ameliorate (v.) to improve or make better
A consistent routine of exercise has shown to ameliorate health.
We can ameliorate the flooding problem by changing the grading. amendment (n.) a positive change
The amendment in his ways showed there was still reason for hope. amiable (adj.) friendly
The newcomer picked the most amiable person to sit next to during the meeting. amiss
(adj.; adv.) wrong; awry; wrongly; in a defective manner
Seeing that his anorak was gone, he knew something was amiss .
Its new muffler aside, the car was behaving amiss. amity (n.) friendly relations
The amity between the two bordering nations put the populations at ease. amorphous (adj.) with no shape; unorganized; having no determinate form
The amorphous gel seeped through the cracks.
The amorphous group quickly got lost.
The scientist could not determine the sex of the amorphous organism. amortize (v.) to put money into a fund at fixed intervals
The couple was able to amortize their mortgage sooner than they thought. anachronism
(n.) something out of place in time (e.g., an airplane in 1492)
The editor recognized an anachronism in the manuscript where the character from the 1500s boarded an airplane.
He realized that the film about cavemen contained an anachronism when he saw a jet cut across the horizon during a hunting scene.

(n.) similarity; correlation; parallelism
The teacher used an analogy to describe the similarities between the two books. Comparing the newly discovered virus with one found long ago, the scientist made an analogy between the two organisms. anaphylaxis (n.) an allergic reaction
The boy's severe anaphylaxis to a series of medications made writing prescriptions a tricky proposition. anarchist (n.) one who believes that a formal government is unnecessary
The yell from the crowd came from the anarchist protesting the government. The anarchist attempted to overthrow the established democratic government of the new nation and reinstate chaos and disarray. anchorage (n.) something that can be relied on
Knowing the neighbors were right next door was an anchorage for the elderly woman. anecdote (n.) a short account of happenings
The speaker told an anecdote about how he lost his shoes when he was young. animosity
(n.) a feeling of hatred or ill will
Animosity grew between the two feuding families. anoint (v.) to crown; ordain;
A member of the monarchy was anointed by the king. anomaly (n.) an oddity, inconsistency; a deviation from the norm
An anomaly existed when the report listed one statistic, and the spokeswoman reported another.
In a parking lot full of Buicks, Chevys, and Plymouths, the Jaguar was an anomaly. anonymous
(adj.) nameless; unidentified
Not wishing to be identified by the police, he remained anonymous by returning the money he had stolen by sending it through the mail.

(n.) hostility; opposition
The antagonism was created by a misunderstanding.
The rebellious clan captured a hostage to display antagonism to the new peace treaty. antipathy (n.) a strong dislike or repugnance
Her antipathy for large crowds convinced her to decline the invitation to the city.
The vegetarian had an antipathy toward meat. apathy (n.) lack of emotion or interest
He showed apathy when his relative was injured.
The disheartened peasants expressed apathy toward the new law which promised new hope and prosperity for all. apocalyptic (adj.) pertaining to a discovery or new revelation
Science-fiction movies seem to relish apocalyptic visions. apocryphal (adj.) counterfeit; of doubtful authorship or authenticity
The man who said he was a doctor was truly apocryphal. appease (v.) to satisfy; to calm
A milk bottle usually appeases a crying baby. apposite (adj.) suitable; apt; relevant
Discussion of poverty was apposite to the curriculum, so the professor allowed it.
Without reenacting the entire scenario, the situation can be understood if apposite information is given. apprehensive (adj.) fearful; aware; conscious
The nervous child was apprehensive about beginning a new school year. approbatory (adj.) approving or sanctioning
The judge showed his acceptance in his approbatory remark. arable (adj.) suitable (as land) for plowing
When the land was deemed arable the farmer decided to plow.

(n.) one who is authorized to judge or decide
The decision of who would represent the people was made by the arbiter. arbitrary
(adj.) based on one's preference or judgment
Rick admitted his decision had been arbitrary, as he claimed no expertise on the matter. arcane (adj.) obscure; secret; mysterious
With an arcane expression, the young boy left the family wondering what sort of mischief he had committed.
The wizard's description of his magic was purposefully arcane so that others would be unable to copy it. archetype (n.) original pattern or model; prototype
This man was the archetype for scores of fictional characters.
The scientist was careful with the archetype of her invention so that once manufacturing began, it would be easy to reproduce it. ardent (adj.) with passionate or intense feelings
The fans' ardent love of the game kept them returning to watch the terrible team. arduous (adj.) laborious, difficult; strenuous
Completing the plans for the new building proved to be an arduous affair.
Building a house is arduous work, but the result is well worth the labor. arid (adj.) extremely dry, parched; barren, unimaginative
The terrain was so arid that not one species of plant could survive.
Their thirst became worse due to the arid condition of the desert. aromatic (adj.) having a smell which is sweet or spicy
The aromatic smell coming from the oven made the man's mouth water. arrogant (adj.) acting superior to others; conceited
After purchasing his new, expensive sports car, the arrogant doctor refused to allow anyone to ride with him to the country club. arrogate (v.) to claim or demand unduly

The teenager arrogated that he should be able to use his parent's car whenever he desired. articulate (v.; adj.) to utter clearly and distinctly; clear, distinct; expressed with clarity; skillful with words
It's even more important to articulate your words when you're on the phone. You didn't have to vote for him to agree that Adlai Stevenson was articulate. A salesperson must be articulate when speaking to a customer. artifice (n.) skill in a craft
The artifice of glass-making takes many years of practice. ascetic (n.; adj.) one who leads a simple life of self-denial; rigorously abstinent
The monastery is filled with ascetics who have devoted their lives to religion. The nuns lead an ascetic life devoted to the Lord. aseptic (adj.) germ free
It is necessary for an operating room to be aseptic. askance (adv.) a sideways glance of disapproval
The look askance proved the guard suspected some wrongdoing. asperity (n.) harshness
The man used asperity to frighten the girl out of going.
The asperity of the winter had most everybody yearning for spring. aspersion (n.) slanderous statement; a damaging or derogatory criticism
The aspersion damaged the credibility of the organization.
He blamed the loss of his job on an aspersion stated by his co-worker to his superior. aspirant (n.) a person who goes after high goals
The aspirant would not settle for assistant director--only the top job was good enough. assay (n.) to determine the quality of a substance.
Have the soil assayed.

(v.) to estimate the value of
She assessed the possible rewards to see if the project was worth her time and effort. assiduous (adj.) carefully attentive; industrious
It is necessary to be assiduous if a person wishes to make the most of his time at work.
He enjoys having assiduous employees because he can explain a procedure once and have it performed correctly every time. assuage (v.) to relieve; ease; make less severe
Medication should assuage the pain.
The medication helped assuage the pain of the wound. astringent (n.; adj.) a substance that contracts bodily tissues; causing contraction; tightening; stern, austere
After the operation an astringent was used on his skin so that the stretched area would return to normal.
The downturn in sales caused the CEO to impose astringent measures.
Her astringent remarks at the podium would not soon be forgotten. astute (adj.) cunning; sly; crafty
The astute lawyer's questioning convinced the jury of the defendant's guilt. atrophy
(v.; n.) to waste away, as from lack of use; to wither; failure to grow
A few months after he lost his ability to walk, his legs began to atrophy.
The atrophy of the muscles was due to the injury. attenuate (v.) to thin out; to weaken
Water is commonly used to attenuate strong chemicals.
The chemist attenuated the solution by adding water. atypical (adj.) something that is abnormal
The atypical behavior of the wild animal alarmed the hunters. audacious (adj.) fearless; bold
The audacious soldier went into battle without a shield.

(v.) to increase or add to; to make larger
They needed more soup so they augmented the recipe.
They were able to augment their savings over a period of time. august (adj.) to be imposing or magnificent
The palace was august in gold and crystal. auspicious (adj.) being of a good omen; successful
It was auspicious that the sun shone on the first day of the trip.
The campaign had an auspicious start, foreshadowing the future. austere (adj.) having a stern look; having strict self-discipline
The old woman always has an austere look about her.
The austere teacher assigned five pages of homework each day. authentic (adj.) real; genuine; trustworthy
An authentic diamond will cut glass. authoritarian (n.; adj.) acting as a dictator; demanding obedience
The authoritarian made all of the rules but did none of the work.
Fidel Castro is reluctant to give up his authoritarian rule. autocracy (n.) an absolute monarchy; government where one person holds power
The autocracy was headed by a demanding man.
She was extremely power-hungry and therefore wanted her government to be an autocracy. autocrat (n.) an absolute ruler
The autocrat in charge of the government was a man of power and prestige. The autocrat made every decision and divided the tasks among his subordinates. avarice
(n.) inordinate desire for gaining and possessing wealth
The man's avarice for money kept him at work through the evenings and weekends. The avarice of the president led to his downfall.

(v.) to affirm as true
The witness was able to aver the identity of the defendant. awry (adj; adv.) crooked(ly); uneven(ly); wrong; askew
Hearing the explosion in the laboratory, the scientist realized the experiment had gone awry. azure (adj.) the clear blue color of the sky
The azure sky made the picnic day perfect. baleful (adj.) harmful, malign, detrimental
After she was fired, she realized it was a baleful move to point the blame at her superior.
The strange liquid could be baleful if ingested. banal (adj.) trite; without freshness or originality
Attending parties became trite after a few weeks.
It was a banal suggestion to have the annual picnic in the park, since that was where it had been for the past five years. baneful (adj.) deadly or causing distress, death
Not wearing a seat belt could be baneful. baroque (adj.) extravagant; ornate; embellished
The baroque artwork was made up of intricate details which kept the museum-goers enthralled.
The baroque furnishings did not fit in the plain, modest home. bastion (n.) a fortified place or strong defense
The strength of the bastion saved the soldiers inside of it. batten (v.) to gain
The team could only batten by drafting the top player. bauble (n.) a showy yet useless thing
The woman had many baubles on her bookshelf. beget (v.) to bring into being
The king wished to beget a new heir.

(adj.) indebted to
The children were beholden to their parents for the car loan. behoove (v.) to be advantageous; to be necessary
It will behoove the students to buy their textbooks early. belittle (v.) to make small; to think lightly of
The unsympathetic friend belittled her friend's problems and spoke of her own as the most important. bellicose (adj.) quarrelsome; warlike
The bellicose guest would not be invited back again. bemuse (v.) to preoccupy in thought
The girl was bemused by her troubles. benefactor (n.) one who helps others; a donor
An anonymous benefactor donated $10,000 to the children's hospital. beneficent (adj.) conferring benefits; kindly; doing good
He is a beneficent person, always taking in stray animals and talking to people who need someone to listen.
A beneficent donation helped the organization meet its goal. benevolent (adj.) kind; generous
The professor proved a tough questioner, but a benevolent grader.
The benevolent gentleman volunteered his services. benign (adj.) mild; harmless
A lamb is a benign animal, especially when compared with a lion. berate (v.) scold; reprove; reproach; criticize
The child was berated by her parents for breaking the china. bereft (v.; adj.) to be deprived of; to be in a sad manner; hurt by someone's death The loss of his job will leave the man bereft of many luxuries.
The widower was bereft for many years after his wife's death.

(v.) to ask earnestly
The soldiers beseeched the civilians for help. besmirch (v.) to dirty or discolor
The soot from the chimney will besmirch clean curtains. bestial (adj.) having the qualities of a beast; brutal
The bestial employer made his employees work in an unheated room. betroth (v.) to promise or pledge in marriage
The man betrothed his daughter to the prince. biased (adj.) prejudiced; influenced; not neutral
The vegetarian had a biased opinion regarding what should be ordered for dinner. biennial (adj.; n.) happening every two years; a plant which blooms every two years The biennial journal's influence seemed only magnified by its infrequent publication. She has lived here for four years and has seen the biennials bloom twice. bilateral (adj.) pertaining to or affecting both sides or two sides; having two sides
A bilateral decision was made so that both partners reaped equal benefits from the same amount of work.
The brain is a bilateral organ, consisting of a left and right hemisphere. blasphemous (adj.) irreligious; away from acceptable standards; speaking ill of using profane language
The upper-class parents thought that it was blasphemous for their son to marry a waitress.
His blasphemous outburst was heard throughout the room. blatant (adj.) obvious; unmistakable; crude; vulgar
The blatant foul was reason for ejection.
The defendant was blatant in his testimony. blighted (adj.) causing frustration or destruction
The blighted tornado left only one building standing in its wake.

(adj.) happy; cheery; merry; a cheerful disposition
The wedding was a blithe celebration.
The blithe child was a pleasant surprise. bode (v.) to foretell something
The storm bode that we would not reach our destination. bombast (n.) pompous speech; pretentious words
After he delivered his bombast at the podium, he arrogantly left the meeting. The presenter ended his bombast with a prediction of his future success. bombastic (adj.) pompous; wordy; turgid
The bombastic woman talks a lot about herself. boor (n.) a rude person
The boor was not invited to the party, but he came anyway. breadth (n.) the distance from one side to another
The table cloth was too small to cover the breadth of the table. brevity (n.) briefness; shortness
On Top 40 AM radio, brevity was the coin of the realm. brindled (adj.) mixed with a darker color
In order to get matching paint we made a brindled mixture. broach (v.) to introduce into conversation
Broaching the touchy subject was difficult. brusque (adj.) abrupt in manner or speech
His brusque answer was neither acceptable nor polite. bucolic (adj.) having to do with shepherds or the country
The bucolic setting inspired the artist. bumptious (adj.) arrogant

He was bumptious in manner as he approached the podium to accept his anticipated award. bungler (n.) a clumsy person
The one who broke the crystal vase was a true bungler. burgeon (v.) to grow or develop quickly
The tumor appeared to burgeon more quickly than normal.
After the first punch was thrown, the dispute burgeoned into a brawl. burlesque (v.; n.) to imitate in a non-serious manner; a comical imitation
His stump speeches were so hackneyed, he seemed to be burlesquing of his role as a congressman.
George Burns was considered one of the great practitioners of burlesque. burly
(adj.) strong; bulky; stocky
The lumberjack was a burly man. burnish (v.) to polish by rubbing
The vase needed to be burnished to restore its beauty. cabal (n.) a group of persons joined by a secret
The very idea that there could be a cabal cast suspicion on the whole operation. cache
(n.) stockpile; store; heap; hiding place for goods
The town kept a cache of salt on hand to melt winter's snow off the roads. Extra food is kept in the cache under the pantry.
The cache for his jewelry was hidden under the bed. cacophonous (adj.) sounding jarring
The cacophonous sound from the bending metal sent shivers up our spines. cacophony
(n.) a harsh, inharmonious collection of sounds; dissonance
The beautiful harmony of the symphony was well enjoyed after the cacophony coming from the stage as the orchestra warmed up.
The amateur band created more cacophony than beautiful sound.

(v.) to coax with insincere talk
To cajole the disgruntled employee, the manager coaxed him with lies and sweet talk.
The salesman will cajole the couple into buying the stereo. calamity (n.) disaster
The fire in the apartment building was a great calamity. caliber (n.) quality
The caliber of talent at the show was excellent. callow (adj.) being young or immature
With the callow remark the young man demonstrated his age.
Although the girl could be considered an adult, the action was very callow. calumny
(n.) slander
I felt it necessary to speak against the calumny of the man's good reputation. canard
(n.) a false statement or rumor
The canard was reported in a scandalous tabloid. candid (adj.) honest; truthful; sincere
People trust her because she's so candid. cant (n.) insincere or hypocritical statements of high ideals; the jargon of a particular group or occupations
The theater majors had difficulty understanding the cant of the computer scientists. The remarks by the doctor were cant and meant only for his associates. caprice (n.) a sudden, unpredictable or whimsical change
The caprice with which the couple approached the change of plans was evidence to their young age.
The king ruled by caprice as much as law. capricious (adj.) changeable; fickle

The capricious bride-to-be has a different church in mind for her wedding every few days. captious (adj.) disposed to find fault
A captious attitude often causes difficulties in a relationship. carte blanche
(n.) unlimited authority
The designer was given carte blanche to create a new line for the fall. cascade (n; v.) waterfall; pour; rush; fall
The hikers stopped along the path to take in the beauty of the rushing cascade. The water cascaded down the rocks into the pool.
He took a photograph of the lovely cascade.
The drapes formed a cascade down the window. castigate (v.) to punish through public criticism
The mayor castigated the police chief for the rash of robberies. cataclysm (n.) an extreme natural force
The earthquake has been the first cataclysm in five years. catalyst (n.) anything which creates a situation in which change can occur
The low pressure system was the catalyst for the nor'easter. catharsis (n.) a purging or relieving of the body or soul
He experienced a total catharsis after the priest absolved his sins.
Admitting his guilt served as a catharsis for the man. caustic (adj.) eating away at; sarcastic words
The caustic chemicals are dangerous.
The girl harmed her mother with her caustic remarks.
His caustic sense of humor doesn't go over so well when people don't know what they're in for. cavil (v.) to bicker
The children are constantly caviling. censor (v.) to examine and delete objectionable material

The children were allowed to watch the adult movie only after it had been censored. censure (n.; v.) a disapproval; an expression of disapproval; to criticize or disapprove of
His remarks drew the censure of his employers.
A censure of the new show upset the directors.
Her parents censured her idea of dropping out of school. ceremonious (adj.) very formal or proper
The black-tie dinner was highly ceremonious. cessation (n.)ceasing; a stopping
The cessation of a bad habit is often difficult to sustain. chafe (v.) to annoy, to irritate; to wear away or make sore by rubbing
His constant teasing chafed her.
He doesn't wear pure wool sweaters because they usually chafe his skin. chaffing (n.) banter; teasing
The king was used to his jesters good-natured chaffing. chagrin (n.) a feeling of embarrassment due to failure or disappointment
To the chagrin of the inventor, the machine did not work.
She turned red-faced with chagrin when she learned that her son had been caught shoplifting. charisma (n.) appeal; magnetism; presence
She has such charisma that everyone likes her the first time they meet her. charlatan
(n.) a person who pretends to have knowledge; an impostor; fake
The charlatan deceived the townspeople.
It was finally discovered that the charlatan sitting on the throne was not the real king. chary (adj.) cautious; being sparing in giving
Be chary when driving at night.
The chary man had few friends.

(adj.) virtuous; free of obscenity
Because the woman believed in being chaste, she would not let her date into the house. chastise (v.) to punish; discipline; admonish
The dean chastised the first-year student for cheating on the exam. cherish (v.) to feel love for
The bride vowed to cherish the groom for life. chicanery (n.) trickery or deception
The swindler was trained in chicanery.
A news broadcast is no place for chicanery. chimera (n.) an impossible fancy
Perhaps he saw a flying saucer, but perhaps it was only a chimera. choleric (adj.) cranky; cantankerous; easily moved to feeling displeasure
The choleric man was continually upset by his neighbors.
Rolly becomes choleric when his views are challenged. chortle (v.) to make a gleeful, chuckling sound
The chortles emanating from the audience indicated it wouldn't be as tough a crowd as the stand-up comic had expected. churlishness (n.) crude or surly behavior; behavior of a peasant
The fraternity's churlishness ran afoul of the dean's office.
The churlishness of the teenager caused his employer to lose faith in him. circumlocution
(n.) a roundabout or indirect way of speaking; not to the point
The man's speech contained so much circumlocution that I was unsure of the point he was trying to make.
The child made a long speech using circumlocution to avoid stating that it was she who had knocked over the lamp. circumlocutory (adj.) being too long, as in a description or expression; a roundabout, indirect, or ungainly way of expressing something

It was a circumlocutory documentary that could have been cut to half its running time to say twice as much. circumspect (adj.) considering all circumstances
A circumspect decision must be made when so many people are involved. citadel (n.) a fortress set up high to defend a city
A citadel sat on the hill to protect the city below. clandestine (adj.) secret
The clandestine plan must be kept between the two of us! clemency (n.) mercy toward an offender; mildness
The governor granted the prisoner clemency.
The weather's clemency made for a perfect picnic. cloture (n.) a parliamentary procedure to end debate and begin to vote
Cloture was declared as the parliamentarians readied to register their votes. cloying
(adj.) too sugary; too sentimental or flattering
After years of marriage the husband still gave cloying gifts to his wife.
Complimenting her on her weight loss, clothing and hairstyle was a cloying way to begin asking for a raise. coagulate (v.) to become a semisolid, soft mass; to clot
The liquid will coagulate and close the tube if left standing. coalesce (v.) to grow together
The bride and groom coalesced their funds to increase their collateral.
At the end of the conference the five groups coalesced in one room. coda (n.) in music, a concluding passage
By the end of the coda, I was ready to burst with excitement over the thrilling performance.
The audience knew that the concerto was about to end when they heard the orchestra begin playing the coda. coddle (v.) to treat with tenderness
A baby needs to be coddled.

(v.) to organize laws or rules into a systematic collection
The laws were codified by those whom they affected.
The intern codified all the city's laws into a computerized filing system. coffer (n.) a chest where money or valuables are kept
The coffer that contained the jewels was stolen. cogent (adj.) to the point; clear; convincing in its clarity and presentation
The lawyer makes compelling and cogent presentations, which evidently help him win 96 percent of his cases.
He made a short, cogent speech which his audience easily understood. cogitate (v.) to think hard; ponder; meditate
It is necessary to cogitate on decisions which affect life goals.
The room was quiet while every student cogitated during the calculus exam. cognate
(adj.; n.) having the same family; a person related through ancestry
English and German are cognate languages.
The woman was a cognate to the royal family. cognitive (adj.) possessing the power to think or meditate; meditative; capable of perception Cognitive thought makes humans adaptable to a quickly changing environment. Once the toddler was able to solve puzzles, it was obvious that her cognitive abilities were developing. cognizant (adj.) aware of; perceptive
She became alarmed when she was cognizant of the man following her.
It was critical to establish whether the defendant was cognizant of his rights. coherent
(adj.) sticking together; connected; logical; consistent
The course was a success due to its coherent information.
If he couldn't make a coherent speech, how could he run for office? cohesion (n.) the act of holding together
The cohesion of the group increased as friendships were formed.
The cohesion of different molecules forms different substances.

(n.) a group; band
The cohort of teens gathered at the athletic field. collaborate (v.) to work together; cooperate
The two builders collaborated to get the house finished. colloquial (adj.) having to do with conversation; informal speech
The colloquial reference indicated the free spirit of the group.
When you listen to the difference between spoken colloquial conversation and written work, you realize how good an ear a novelist must have to write authentic dialogue. collusion (n.) secret agreement for an illegal purpose
The authority discovered a collusion between the director and treasurer. comeliness (n.) beauty; attractiveness in appearance or behavior
The comeliness of the woman attracted everyone's attention. commiserate (v.) to show sympathy for
The hurricane victims commiserated about the loss of their homes. commodious (adj.) spacious and convenient; roomy
The new home was so commodious that many new pieces of furniture needed to be purchased. communal (adj.) shared or common ownership
The communal nature of the project made everyone pitch in to help. compatible (adj.) in agreement with; harmonious
When repairing an automobile, it is necessary to use parts compatible with that make and model. complacent (adj.) content; self-satisfied; smug
The CEO worries regularly that his firm's winning ways will make it complacent. The candidate was so complacent with his poll numbers that he virtually stopped campaigning. complaisance (n.) the quality of being agreeable or eager to please

The complaisance of the new assistant made it easy for the managers to give him a lot of work without worrying that he may complain. compliant (adj.) complying; obeying; yielding
Compliant actions should be reinforced.
The slave was compliant with every order to avoid being whipped. comport (v.) fitting in
It was easy to comport to the new group of employees. comprehensive (adj.) all-inclusive; complete; thorough
It's the only health facility around to offer comprehensive care. compromise (v.) to settle by mutual adjustment
Labor leaders and the automakers compromised by agreeing to a starting wage of $16 an hour in exchange for concessions on health-care premiums. concede
(v.) to acknowledge; admit; to surrender; to abandon one's position
After much wrangling, the conceded that the minister had a point.
Satisfied with the recount, the mayor conceded graciously. conceit (n.) an exaggerated personal opinion
The man's belief that he was the best player on the team was pure conceit. conciliation
(n.) an attempt to make friendly or placate
The attempt at conciliation conciliatory (adj.) to reconcile
The diplomat sought to take a conciliatory approach to keep the talks going. concise
(adj.) in few words; brief; condensed
The concise instructions were printed on two pages rather than the customary five. conclave (n.) any private meeting or closed assembly
The conclave was to meet in the executive suite.

(v.) to come down from one's position or dignity
The arrogant, rich man was usually condescending towards his servants. condone (v.) to overlook; to forgive
The loving and forgiving mother condoned her son's life of crime
I will condone your actions of negligence. confluence (n.) a thing which is joined together
Great cities often lie at the confluence of great rivers. confound (v.) to lump together, causing confusion; to damn
The problem confounded our ability to solve it.
Confound you, you scoundrel! conglomeration (n.) a collection or mixture of various things
The conglomeration is made up of four different interest groups.
The soup was a conglomeration of meats and vegetables. conjoin (v.) to combine
The classes will conjoin to do the play. conjure (v.) to call upon or appeal to; to cause to be, appear, come
The smell of the dinner conjured images of childhood.
The magician conjured a rabbit out of a hat. connivance (n.) secret cooperation in wrongdoing
With the guard's connivance, the convict was able to make his escape. connoisseur (n.) expert; authority (usually refers to a wine or food expert)
They allowed her to choose the wine for dinner since she was the connoisseur. connotative
(adj.) containing associated meanings in addition to the primary one
Along with the primary meaning of the word, there were two connotative meanings. The connotative meaning of their music was spelled out in the video. consecrate (v.) to declare sacred; to dedicate

We will consecrate the pact during the ceremony.
The park was consecrated to the memory of the missing soldier. consequential (adj.) following as an effect; important
His long illness and consequential absence set him behind in his homework. The decision to move the company will be consequential to its success. consort (n.; v.) a companion, spouse; to associate
An elderly woman was seeking a consort.
They waited until dark to consort under the moonlight. conspicuous (adj.) easy to see; noticeable
The diligent and hardworking editor thought the obvious mistake was conspicuous. consternation
(n.) amazement or terror that causes confusion
The look of consternation on the child's face caused her father to panic. constrain (v.) to force, compel; to restrain
It may be necessary to constrain the wild animal if it approaches the town. The student was constrained to remain in her seat until the teacher gave her permission to leave. consummation (n.) the completion; finish
Following the consummation of final exams, most of the students graduated. contemporary
(adj.) living or happening at the same time; modern
Contemporary furniture will clash with your traditional sectional. contempt (n.) scorn; disrespect
The greedy, selfish banker was often discussed with great contempt. contentious (adj.) quarrelsome
The contentious student was asked to leave the classroom.
They hate his contentious behavior because every suggestion they give ends in a fight.

(v.) to attempt to disprove or invalidate
I will attempt to contest the criminal charges against me. contiguous (adj.) touching; or adjoining and close, but not touching
There are many contiguous buildings in the city because there is no excess land to allow space between them. contravene (v.) to act contrary to; to oppose or contradict
The story of the accused contravened the story of the witness.
The United Nations held that the Eastern European nation had contravened the treaty. contrite (adj.) regretful; sorrowful; having repentance
Regretting his decision not to attend college, the contrite man did not lead a very happy life.
A contrite heart has fixed its wrongs. contumacious (adj.) resisting authority
The man was put in jail for contumacious actions. contusion (n.) a bruise; an injury where the skin is not broken
The man was fortunate to receive only contusions from the crash. conundrum (n.) a puzzle or riddle
I spent two hours trying to figure out the conundrum.
The legend says that to enter the secret passageway, one must answer the ancient conundrum. conventional (adj.) traditional; common; routine
The bride wanted a conventional wedding ceremony, complete with white dresses, many flowers, and a grand reception party.
Conventional telephones are giving way to videophones. converge (v.) to move toward one point (opposite: diverge)
It was obvious that an accident was going to occur as the onlookers watched the two cars converge.
The two roads converge at the corner.

(n.) a fondness for festiveness or joviality
His conviviality makes him a welcome guest at any social gathering. convoke (v.) a call to assemble
The teacher convoked her students in the auditorium to help prepare them for the play. copious (adj.) abundant; in great quantities
Her copious notes touched on every subject presented in the lecture. corpulence (n.) obesity
The corpulence of the man kept him from fitting into the seat. correlate (v.) to bring into mutual relation
The service man was asked to correlate the two computer demonstration pamphlets. corroborate
(v.) to confirm the validity
The witness must corroborate the prisoner's story if she is to be set free. coterie
(n.) a clique; a group who meet frequently, usually socially
A special aspect of campus life is joining a coterie.
Every day after school she joins her coterie on the playground and they go out for a soda. covenant (n.) a binding and solemn agreement
With the exchange of vows, the covenant was complete. covetous (adj.) greedy; very desirous
Lonnie, covetous of education, went to almost every lecture at the university. Covetous of her neighbor's pool, she did everything she could to make things unpleasant.. cower (v.) to huddle and tremble
The lost dog cowered near the tree.
The tellers cowered in the corner as the bandit ransacked the bank.

(adj.) modest; bashful; pretending shyness to attract
Her coy manners attracted the man.
He's not really that shy, he's just being coy. crass (adj.) stupid or dull; insensitive; materialistic
To make light of someone's weakness is crass.
They made their money the old-fashioned way, but still they were accused of being crass.
My respect for the man was lowered when he made the crass remark. craven (n.; adj.) coward; abject person; cowardly
While many fought for their rights, the craven sat shaking, off in a corner somewhere. Craven men will not stand up for what they believe in. culpable (adj.) deserving blame; guilty
The convicted criminal still denies that he is culpable for the robbery. curb (n.) a restraint or framework
A curb was put up along the street to help drainage. curmudgeon (n.) an ill-tempered person
The curmudgeon asked the children not to play near the house. cursory (adj.) hasty; slight
The detective's cursory examination of the crime scene caused him to overlook the lesser clues. cynic (n.) one who believes that others are motivated entirely by selfishness.
The cynic felt that the hero saved the man to become famous. dais (n.) a raised platform at one end of a room
The dais was lowered to make the speaker look taller. dally (v.) to loiter; to waste time
Please do not dally or we will miss our appointment. dank (adj.) damp and chilly
The cellar became very dank during the winter time.

(adj.) fearless; not discouraged
The dauntless ranger scaled the mountain to complete the rescue. dearth (n.) scarcity; shortage
A series of coincidental resignations left the firm with a dearth of talent.
The dearth of the coverage forced him to look for a new insurance agent. debacle (n.) disaster; collapse; a rout
The Securities and Exchange Commission and the stock exchanges implemented numerous safeguards to head off another debacle on Wall
(v.) to make lower in quality
The French are concerned that "Franglais," a blending of English and
French, will debase their language. debauchery (n.) indulgence in one's appetites
The preacher decried debauchery and urged charity. debilitate (v.) to enfeeble; to wear out
The phlebitis debilitated him to the point where he was unable even to walk. The illness will debilitate the muscles in his legs. debonair (adj.) having an affable manner; carefree; genial
Opening the door for another is a debonair action. decadence (n.) a decline in morals or art
Some believe the decadence of Nero's rule led to the fall of the empire. deciduous (adj.) shedding; temporary
When the leaves began to fall from the tree we learned that it was deciduous. decisiveness
(n.) an act of being firm or determined
Decisiveness is one of the key qualities of a successful executive. decorous (adj.) showing decorum; propriety, good taste
This movie provides decorous refuge from the violence and mayhem that

permeates the latest crop of Hollywood films.
The decorous suit was made of fine material. decry (v.) to denounce or condemn openly
The pastor decried all forms of discrimination against any minority group. defamation
(n.) to harm a name or reputation; to slander
The carpenter felt that the notoriousness of his former partner brought defamation to his construction business. deference (n.) a yielding of opinion; courteous respect for
To avoid a confrontation, the man showed deference to his friend.
The deference shown to the elderly woman's opinion was heartwarming. deferential (adj.) yielding to the opinion of another
After debating students living in the Sixth Ward for months, the mayor's deferential statements indicated that he had come to some understanding with them. defunct (adj.) no longer living or existing
The man lost a large sum of money when the company went defunct. deign (v.) condescend; stoop
He said he wouldn't deign to dignify her statement with a response.
Fired from his job as a programmer analyst, Joe vowed he would never deign to mop floors-even if he were down to his last penny. deleterious (adj.) harmful; hurtful; noxious
Deleterious fumes escaped from the overturned truck. deliberate (v.; adj.) to consider carefully; weigh in the mind; intentional
The jury deliberated for three days before reaching a verdict.
The brother's deliberate attempt to get his sibling blamed for his mistake was obvious to all. delineate (v.) to outline; to describe
She delineated her plan so that everyone would have a basic understanding of it.

(v.) to dissolve
The snow deliquesced when the temperature rose. delusion (n.) a false belief or opinion
The historian suffered from the delusion that he was Napoleon. demise (n.) ceasing to exist as in death
The demise of Gimbels followed years of decline. demur (v.; n.) to object; objection; misgiving
She hated animals, so when the subject of buying a cat came up, she demurred. She said yes, but he detected a demur in her voice.
She was nominated to sit on the committee, but she demurred.
The council president called for a vote, and hearing no demur, asked for a count by the clerk. denigrate (v.) to defame, to blacken or sully; to belittle
After finding out her evil secret, he announced it to the council and denigrated her in public.
Her attempt to denigrate the man's name was not successful. denounce (v.) to speak out against; condemn
A student rally was called to denounce the use of drugs on campus. depict (v.) to portray; describe
The mural depicts the life of a typical urban dweller. deplete (v.) to reduce; to empty, exhaust
Having to pay the entire bill will deplete the family's savings. deposition (n.) a removal from office or power; a testimony
Failing to act lawfully could result in his deposition.
She met with her lawyer this morning to review her deposition. depravity (n.) moral corruption; badness
Drugs and money caused depravity throughout the once decorous community. The depravity of the old man was bound to land him in jail one day.

(v.) to express disapproval of; to protest against
The environmentalists deprecated the paper companies for cutting down ancient forests.
The organization will deprecate the opening of the sewage plant. depredation (n.) a plundering or laying waste
The pharaoh's once rich tomb was empty after centuries of depredation from grave robbers. deride (v.) to laugh at with contempt; to mock
No matter what he said, he was derided.
It is impolite to deride someone even if you dislike him. derision (n.) the act of mocking; ridicule, mockery
A day of derision from the boss left the employee feeling depressed.
Constant derision from classmates made him quit school. derisive (adj.) showing disrespect or scorn for
The derisive comment was aimed at the man's life long enemy. derogatory (adj.) belittling; uncomplimentary
He was upset because his annual review was full of derogatory comments. descant
(v.) lengthy talking or writing
The man will descant on the subject if you give him too much speaking time. desecrate
(v.) to profane; violate the sanctity of
The teenagers' attempt to desecrate the church disturbed the community. desist (v.) to stop or cease
The judge ordered the man to desist from calling his ex-wife in the middle of the night. desolate (adj.) to be left alone or made lonely
Driving down the desolate road had Kelvin worried that he wouldn't reach a gas station in time.

(v.) to take everything; plunder
The Huns despoiled village after village. despotism (n.) tyranny; absolute power or influence
The ruler's despotism went uncontested for 30 years. destitute (adj.) poor; poverty-stricken
One Bangladeshi bank makes loans to destitute citizens so that they may overcome their poverty.
Many of the city's sections are destitute. desultory (adj.) moving in a random, directionless manner
The thefts were occurring in a desultory manner making them difficult to track. detached
(adj.) separated; not interested; standing alone
Detached from modern conveniences, the islanders live a simple, unhurried life. deter (v.) to prevent; to discourage; hinder
He deterred the rabbits by putting down garlic around the garden. determinate (adj.) distinct limits
The new laws were very determinate as far as what was allowed and what was not allowed. devoid (adj.) lacking; empty
The interplanetary probe indicated that the planet was devoid of any atmosphere. dexterous
(adj.) skillful, quick mentally or physically
The dexterous gymnast was the epitome of grace on the balance beam. diatribe (n.) a bitter or abusive speech
During the divorce hearings she delivered a diatribe full of the emotion pushing her away from her husband.
The diatribe was directed towards a disrespectful supervisor. dichotomy (n.) a division into two parts or kinds

The dichotomy within the party threatens to split it.
The dichotomy between church and state renders school prayer unconstitutional. dictum
(n.) a formal statement of either fact or opinion
Computer programmers have a dictum: garbage in, garbage out. didactic (adj.) instructive; dogmatic; preachy
Our teacher's didactic technique boosted our scores.
The didactic activist was not one to be swayed. diffidence (n.) a hesitation in asserting oneself
A shy person may have great diffidence when forced with a problem. diffident (adj.) timid; lacking self-confidence
The director is looking for a self-assured actor, not a diffident one.
Her diffident sister couldn't work up the courage to ask for the sale. diffuse (adj.) spread out; verbose (wordy); not focused
The toys were discovered in a diffuse manner after the birthday party.
His monologue was so diffuse that all his points were lost. digress (v.) stray from the subject; wander from topic
It is important to not digress from the plan of action. dilettante (n.) an admirer of the fine arts; a dabbler
Though she played the piano occasionally, she was more of a dilettante. diligence (n.) hard work
Anything can be accomplished with diligence and commitment. diminutive (adj.; n.) smaller than average; a small person; a word, expressing smallness, formed when a suffix is added
They lived in a diminutive house.
The diminutive woman could not see over the counter. din (n.) a noise which is loud and continuous
The din of the jackhammers reverberated throughout the concrete canyon. dint
(n.) strength
The dint of the bridge could hold trucks weighing many tons. dirge (n.) a hymn for a funeral; a song or poem expressing lament
The mourners sang a traditional Irish dirge . disapprobation (n.) disapproval
Her disapprobation of her daughter's fiancZ' divided the family. disarray (n.) (state of) disorder
The thief left the house in disarray. disavow (v.) to deny; to refuse to acknowledge
The actor has disavowed the rumor. discerning (adj.) distinguishing one thing from another; having good judgment
He has a discerning eye for knowing the original from the copy.
Being discerning about a customer's character is a key qualification for a loan officer. discomfit (v.) to frustrate the expectations of
The close game discomfited the number one player. discord (n.) disagreement; lack of harmony
There was discord amidst the jury, and therefore a decision could not be made. discourse
(v.) to converse; to communicate in an orderly fashion
The scientists discoursed on a conference call for just five minutes but were able to solve three major problems.
The interviewee discoursed so fluently, she was hired on the spot. discreet (adj.) showing good judgment in conduct; prudent
We confided our secret in Mary because we knew she'd be discreet. discrete (adj.) separate; individually distinct; composed of distinct parts
There were four discrete aspects to the architecture of the home.
The citizens committee maintained that road widening and drainage were hardly discrete issues.

(v.) distinguish; demonstrate bias
Being a chef, he discriminated carefully among ingredients.
Reeling from the fact that senior managers had been caught on tape making offensive remarks, the CEO said he would not tolerate any of his firm's employees discriminating against anyone for any reason. disdain (n.; v.) intense dislike; look down upon; scorn
She showed great disdain toward anyone who did not agree with her.
She disdains the very ground you walk upon. disentangle (v.) to free from confusion
We need to disentangle ourselves from the dizzying variety of choices. disheartened (adj.) discouraged; depressed
After failing the exam, the student became disheartened and wondered if he would ever graduate. disingenuous (adj.) not frank or candid; deceivingly simple (opposite: ingenious)
The director used a disingenuous remark to make his point to the student. He always gives a quick, disingenuous response; you never get a straight answer. disinterested
(adj.) neutral; unbiased (alternate meaning; uninterested)
A disinterested person was needed to serve as arbitrator of the argument. He never takes sides; he's always disinterested. disparage (v.) to belittle; undervalue; to discredit
After she fired him she realized that she had disparaged the value of his assistance. The lawyer will attempt to disparage the testimony of the witness. disparate (adj.) unequal; dissimilar; different
They came from disparate backgrounds, one a real estate magnate, the other a custodian.
The disparate numbers of players made the game a sure blowout. disparity (n.) difference in form, character, or degree
There is a great disparity between a light snack and a great feast.

(adj.) lack of feeling; impartial
She was a very emotional person and could not work with such a dispassionate employer. disperse (v.) to scatter; separate
The pilots dispersed the food drops over a wide area of devastation.
Tear gas was used to disperse the crowd. disputatious (adj.) argumentative; inclined to disputes
His disputatious streak eventually wore down his fellow parliament members. The child was so disputatious he needed to be removed from the room. dissemble (v.) to pretend; to feign; to conceal by pretense
The man dissembled his assets shamelessly to avoid paying alimony.
Agent 007 has a marvelous ability to dissemble his real intentions. disseminate (v.) to circulate; scatter
He was hired to disseminate newspapers to everyone in the town.
The preacher traveled across the country to disseminate his message. dissent (v.) to disagree; differ in opinion
They agreed that something had to be done, but dissented on how to do it. dissonance
(n.) musical discord; a mingling of inharmonious sounds; nonmusical; disagreement; lack of harmony
Much twentieth-century music is not liked by classical music lovers because of the dissonance it holds and the harmonies it lacks.
The dissonance of his composition makes for some rough listening. dissonant (adj.) not in harmony; in disagreement
Despite several intense rehearsals, the voices of the choir members continued to be dissonant.
The dissonant nature of the man's temperament made the woman fearful to approach him with the new idea. distant (adj.) having separations or being reserved
Rolonda's friends have become more distant in recent years.

(n.) inflation or extension
The bulge in the carpet was caused by the distention of the wood underneath. dither
(v.; n.) to act indecisively; a confused condition
She dithered every time she had to make a decision.
Having to take two tests in one day left the student in a dither. diverge (v.) separate, split
The path diverges at the old barn, one fork leading to the house, and the other leading to the pond.
The wide, long river diverged into two distinct separate rivers, never again to join. diverse (adj.) different; varied
The course offerings were so diverse I had a tough time choosing. divestiture (n.) being stripped
When it was found the team cheated, there was a divestiture of their crown. docile
(adj.) manageable; obedient; gentle
We needed to choose a docile pet because we hadn't the patience for a lot of training. document (n.; v.) official paper containing information; to support; substantiate; verify They needed a written document to prove that the transaction occurred.
Facing an audit, she had to document all her client contacts. doggerel (n.) verse characterized by forced rhyme and meter
Contrary to its appearance, doggerel can contain some weighty messages. dogma
(n.) a collection of beliefs
The dogma of the village was based on superstition. dogmatic (adj.) stubborn; biased; opinionated
Their dogmatic declaration clarified their position.

The dogmatic statement had not yet been proven by science.
The student's dogmatic presentation annoyed his classmates as well as his instructor. dormant (adj.) as if asleep
The animals lay dormant until the spring thaw. doting (adj.) excessively fond of
With great joy, the doting father held the toddler. doughty (adj.) brave and strong
The doughty fireman saved the woman's life. dowdy (adj.) shabby in appearance
The dowdy girl had no buttons on her coat and the threads were falling apart. dubious
(adj.) doubtful; uncertain; skeptical; suspicious
Many people are dubious about the possibility of intelligent life on other planets. The new information was dubious enough to re-open the case. duplicity (n.) deception
She forgave his duplicity but divorced him anyway. duress (n.) imprisonment; the use of threats
His duress was supposed to last 10-15 years.
The policewoman put the man under duress in order to get a confession.
The Labor Department inspector needed to establish whether the plant workers had been held under duress. earthy (adj.) unrefined
The earthy-looking table was bare. ebullience (n.) an overflowing of high spirits; effervescence
She emanated ebullience as she skipped and sang down the hallway after learning of her promotion. eccentric (adj.) odd; peculiar; strange
People like to talk with the eccentric artist since he has such different

views on everyday subjects.
Wearing polka dot pants and a necklace made of recycled bottle tops is considered eccentric. ecclesiastic (adj.) pertaining or relating to a church
Ecclesiastic obligations include attending mass. eclectic (adj.) picking from various possibilities; made up of material from various sources You have eclectic taste.
The eclectic collection of furniture did not match. economical (adj.) not wasteful; thrifty
With her economical sense she was able to save the company thousands of dollars. edifice (n.) a large building
The edifice rose 20 stories and spanned two blocks. edify (v.) to build or establish; to instruct and improve the mind
According to their schedule, the construction company will edify the foundation of the building in one week.
The teachers worked to edify their students through lessons and discussion. educe
(v.) to draw out; to infer from information
Because she is so dour, I was forced to educe a response.
I educe from the report that the experiment was a success. efface (v.) to erase; to make inconspicuous
Hiding in the woods, the soldier was effaced by his camouflage uniform. effeminate (adj.) having qualities attributed to a woman; delicate
A high-pitched laugh made the man seem effeminate. effervescence (n.) liveliness; spirit; enthusiasm; bubbliness
Her effervescence was contagious; she made everyone around her happy. The effervescence of champagne is what makes it different from wine.

(n.) the image or likeness of a person
Demonstrators carried effigies of the dictator they wanted overthrown. effluvium (n.) an outflow of vapor of invisible particles; a noxious odor
The effluvium from the exhaust had a bad smell.
It was difficult to determine from where the effluvium issued. effrontery (n.) arrogance
The effrontery of the young man was offensive. effusive (adj.) pouring out or forth; overflowing
The effusive currents rush through the broken dam. egocentric (adj.) self-centered, viewing everything in relation to oneself
The egocentric professor could not accept the students' opinions as valid. egress
(n.) a way out; exit
The doorway provided an egress from the chamber. elaboration (n.) act of clarifying; adding details
The mayor called for an elaboration on the ordinance's first draft. elegy (n.) a poem of lament and praise for the dead
Upon conclusion of the elegy, the casket was closed. ellipsis (n.) omission of words that would make the meaning clear
The accidental ellipsis confused all those who heard the speech. eloquence (n.) the ability to speak well
The speaker's eloquence was attributed to his articulate manner of speaking. elucidate
(v.) to make clear; to explain
In the paper's conclusion, its purpose was elucidated in one sentence. elusive (adj.) hard to catch

Even the experienced, old fisherman admitted that the trout in the river were quite elusive. emanate (v.) to emit
Happiness emanates from the loving home. embarkation (v.) to engage or invest in
The embarkation into self-employment was a new start for the woman. embellish (v.) to improve by adding details
Adding beads to a garment will embellish it. eminence (n.) a lofty place; superiority
After toiling in the shadows for years, at last she achieved eminence.
The eminence of the institution can be seen in the impact of its research. emollient (adj.) softening or soothing to the skin; having power to soften or relax living tissues
When hands become dry, it may be necessary to soothe them with an emollient lotion. emulate (v.) to try to equal or excel
The neophyte teacher was hoping to emulate her mentor. enamored (adj.) filled with love and desire
The young couple are enamored with each other. encomium (n.) formal expression of high praise
The sitcom actress gave her co-stars a long encomium as she accepted her Emmy. encroach (v.) to trespass or intrude
It is unlawful to encroach on another's private property. encumber (v.) to hold back; to hinder; to burden, load down
The review of the ethic's committee encumbered the deal from being finalized. A brace will encumber the girl's movement.

(adj.) native to a particular area; constantly present in a particular country or locality
The endemic fauna was of great interest to the anthropologist.
A fast-paced style is endemic to those who live in New York City. endorse (v.) support; to approve of; recommend
The entire community endorsed the politician who promised lower taxes and a better school system. enervate (v.) to weaken; to deprive of nerve or strength
The sickness enervates its victims until they can no longer get out of bed. enfeeble
(v.) to make weak
The illness will enfeeble anyone who catches it. enfranchised (v.) to free from obligation; to admit to citizenship
The player was enfranchised when the deal was called off.
The recent immigrants were enfranchised when they took their oath to their new country. engender (v.) to bring about; beget; to bring forth
The group attempted to engender changes to the law. enhance (v.) to improve; compliment; make more attractive
The new fuel enhanced the performance of the rocket's engines. enigma (n.) mystery; secret; perplexity
To all of the searchers, the missing child's location remained a great enigma. enigmatic
(adj.) baffling
The enigmatic murder plagued the detective. ennui (n.) boredom; apathy
Ennui set in when the children realized they had already played with all the toys.

(n.) an indefinitely long period of time
The star may have existed for eons. ephemeral (adj.) very short-lived; lasting only a short time
Living alone gave him an ephemeral happiness, soon to be replaced with utter loneliness. epicure (n.) a person who has good taste in food and drink
As an epicure, Lance is choosy about the restaurants he visits. epigram (n.) a witty or satirical poem or statement
The poet wrote an epigram about the upcoming election. epilogue (n.) closing section of a play or novel providing further comment.
The epilogue told us the destiny of the characters. epiphany (n.) an appearance of a supernatural being
The man bowed to the epiphany. epitaph (n.) an inscription on a monument; in honor or memory of a dead person
The epitaph described the actions of a brave man. epitome (n.) model; typification; representation
The woman chosen to lead the dancers was the epitome of true grace. equanimity (n.) the quality of remaining calm and undisturbed
Equanimity can be reached when stress is removed from life. equinox (n.) precise time when day and night is of equal length
On the equinox we had twelve hours of night and day. equivocal (adj.) doubtful; uncertain
Scientific evidence was needed before the equivocal hypothesis was accepted by the doubting researchers. equivocations (n.) a purposely misleading statement
The equivocations by the man sent the search team looking in the wrong direction. eradication
(n.) the act of annihilating, destroying, or erasing
Some have theorized that the eradication of the dinosaurs was due to a radical change in climate. errant (adj.) roving in search of adventure
The young man set out across country on an errant expedition. erratic (adj.) unpredictable; irregular
His erratic behavior was attributed to the shocking news he had received. The kitten's erratic behavior was attributed to the owner's cruel method of disciplining his pet. erroneous (adj.) untrue; inaccurate; not correct
The reporter's erroneous story was corrected by a new article that stated the truth. erudite (adj.) having a wide knowledge acquired through reading
The woman was so erudite, she could recite points on most any subject. eschew (v.) to shun; to avoid
Eschew the traffic and you may arrive on time. esoteric (adj.) understood by only a chosen few; confidential
The esoteric language was only known by the select group.
We have had a number of esoteric conversations. estimable (adj.) deserving respect
The estimable hero was given a parade. ethereal (adj.) very light; airy; heavenly; not earthly
The ethereal quality of the music had a hypnotic effect.
The dancer wore an ethereal outfit which made her look like an angel. ethnic (adj.) pertaining to races or peoples and their origin classification, or characteristics Ethnic foods from five continents were set up on the table. eulogy (n.) words of praise, especially for the dead

The eulogy was a remembrance of the good things the man accomplished in his lifetime. euphemism (n.) the use of a word or phrase in place of one that is distasteful
The announcer used a euphemism when he wanted to complain. euphony (n.) pleasant combination of sounds
The gently singing birds created a beautiful euphony.
The euphony created by the orchestra was due to years of practice. evanescent (adj.) vanishing quickly; dissipating like a vapor
The evanescent mirage could only be seen at a certain angle. evasion (n.) the avoiding of a duty
The company was charged with tax evasion, as they did not pay all that they owed. evoke (v.) to call forth; provoke
Seeing her only daughter get married evoked tears of happiness from the mother. Announcement of the results evoked a cheer from the crowd. exculpate (v.) to free from guilt
The therapy session will exculpate the man from his guilty feelings. execute (v.) to put to death; kill; to carry out; fulfill
The evil, murderous man was executed for killing several innocent children. I expected him to execute my orders immediately. exemplary (adj.) serving as an example; outstanding
The honor student's exemplary behavior made him a role model to the younger children.
Employees of the month are chosen for their exemplary service to the firm. exhaustive
(adj.) thorough; complete
It took an exhaustive effort, using many construction workers, to complete the new home by the deadline.

(v.) to unearth; to reveal
The scientists exhumed the body from the grave to test the body's DNA.
The next episode will exhume the real betrayer. exigent (adj.) a situation calling for immediate attention; needing more than is reasonable The exigent request for more assistance was answered quickly.
The bank seemed to feel that another extension on their loan payment was too exigent a request to honor. exonerate (v.) to declare or prove blameless
Hopefully, the judge will exonerate you of any wrongdoing. exorbitant (adj.) going beyond what is reasonable; excessive
Paying hundreds of dollars for the dress is an exorbitant amount. exotic (adj.) unusual; striking; foreign
Many people asked the name of her exotic perfume.
The menu of authentic Turkish cuisine seemed exotic to them, considering they were only accustomed to American food. expedient (adj.) convenient in obtaining a result; guided by self-interest
The mayor chose the more expedient path rather than the more correct one. There is no expedient method a teenager will not resort to in order to get the keys to a car of their own. expedite (v.) to hasten the action of
We can expedite the bank transaction if we tell them it is an emergency. explicit (adj.) specific; definite
The explicit recipe gave directions for making a very complicated dessert. exposition
(n.) setting forth facts
The exposition by the witness substantiated the story given by the prisoner. expunge
(v.) to blot out; to delete
Bleach may be used to expunge the stain. extant (adj.) existing; refers especially to books or documents
Some of my ancestor's letters remain extant. extemporize (v.) to improvise; to make it up as you go along
It was necessary for the musician to extemporize when his music fell off the stand. extol (v.) to give great praise
The father will extol the success of his son to everyone he meets. extraneous (adj.) irrelevant; not related; not essential
During the long, boring lecture, most people agreed that much of the information was extraneous. extricable (adj.) capable of being disentangled
The knots were complicated, but extricable. exultation (n.) the act of rejoicing
Exultation was evident by the partying and revelry. facetious (adj.) joking in an awkward or improper manner
His facetious sarcasm was inappropriate during his first staff meeting. facilitate (v.) make easier; simplify
The new ramp by the door's entrance facilitated access to the building for those in wheelchairs. facsimile (n.) copy; reproduction; replica
The facsimile of the elaborate painting was indistinguishable from the original. faction
(n.) a number of people in an organization working for a common cause against the main body
A faction of the student body supported the president's view.

(adj.) misleading
A used car salesman provided fallacious information that caused the naive man to purchase the old, broken car. fallible (adj.) liable to be mistaken or erroneous
By not differentiating themselves from the popular band, the group was especially fallible. fanatic (n.) enthusiast; extremist
The terrorist group was comprised of fanatics who wanted to destroy those who disagreed with them. fastidious (adj.) difficult to please; dainty
The fastidious girl would not accept any offers as suitable.
The woman was extremely fastidious, as evident in her occasional fainting spells. fathom (v.; n.) to understand; a nautical unit of depth
It was difficult to fathom the reason for closing the institution.
The submarine cruised at 17 fathoms below the surface. fatuous (adj.) lacking in seriousness; vain and silly
The fatuous prank was meant to add comedy to the situation.
His fatuous personality demands that he stop in front of every mirror. fealty (n.) loyalty
The baron was given land in exchange for his fealty to the king. feasible (adj.) reasonable; practical
Increased exercise is a feasible means of weight loss. fecund (adj.) productive
The construction crew had a fecund day and were able to leave early. feign (v.) pretend
It is not uncommon for a child to feign illness in order to stay home from school. feint
(v.; n.) to pretend to throw a punch, as in boxing; a fake show intended to

The fighter feinted a left hook just before he went for the knockout. ferment (v.) to excite or agitate
The rally cry was meant to ferment and confuse the opponent. ferret (v.; n.) to force out of hiding; to search for; a small, weasel-like mammal
The police will ferret the fugitive out of his hiding place.
I spent the morning ferreting for my keys
I have a pet ferret. fervent (adj.) passionate; intense
They have a fervent relationship that keeps them together every minute of every day. fervid (adj.) intensely hot; fervent; impassioned
Her fervid skin alerted the doctor to her fever.
The fervid sermon of the preacher swayed his congregation. fervor (n.) passion; intensity of feeling
The crowd was full of fervor as the candidate entered the hall. fester (v.) to become more and more virulent and fixed
His anger festered until no one could change his mind. fetid (adj.) having a smell of decay
The fetid smell led us to believe something was decaying in the basement. fetish
(n.) anything to which one gives excessive devotion
The clay figure of a fertility goddess was a fetish from an ancient civilization. fetter
(n.) a chain to bind the feet
A fetter kept the dog chained to the fence. fickle (adj.) changeable; unpredictable
He is quite fickle; just because he wants something today does not mean he will want it tomorrow.

Because the man was fickle he could not be trusted to make a competent decision. fidelity
(n.) faithfulness; honesty
His fidelity was proven when he turned in the lost money. figment (n.) something made up in the mind
The unicorn on the hill was a figment of his imagination. finesse (n.) the ability to handle situations with skill and diplomacy
The executor with the most finesse was chosen to meet with the diplomats. finite
(adj.) measurable; limited; not everlasting
It was discovered decades ago that the universe is not finite; it has unknown limits which cannot be measured.
The finite amount of stored food will soon run out. fissure (n.) a cleft or crack
The earthquake caused a fissure which split the cliff face. flaccid (adj.) lacking firmness
The old dog's flaccid tail refused to wag. flag (v.) to become weak; to send a message
The smaller animal flagged before the larger one. flagrant (adj.) glaringly wrong
The flagrant foul was apparent to everyone. flamboyant (adj.) being too showy or ornate
The flamboyant nature of the couple was evident in their loud clothing. fledgling (n.; adj.) inexperienced person; beginner
The fledgling mountain climber needed assistance from the more experienced mountaineers.
The course was not recommended for fledgling skiers. flinch (v.) wince; drawback; retreat

The older brother made his younger sister flinch when he jokingly tried to punch her arm. flippant (adj.) talkative; disrespectful
The youngsters were flippant in the restaurant.
The teacher became upset with the flippant answer from the student. flout (v.) to mock or jeer
Do not flout an opponent if you believe in fair play. fluency (n.) ability to write easily and expressively
The child's fluency in Spanish and English was remarkable.
The immigrant acquired a fluency in English after studying for only two months. flux
(n.) a flow; a continual change
With the flux of new students into the school, space was limited. foist (v.) to falsely identify as real
The smuggler tried to foist the cut glass as a priceless gem. foray (v.) to raid for spoils, plunder
The soldiers were told not to foray the town. forbearance (n.) patience; self-restraint
He exhibited remarkable forbearance when confronted with the mischievous children. forensic (adj.) pertaining to legal or public argument
The forensic squad dealt with the legal investigation. formidable (adj.) something which causes dread or fear
The formidable team caused weak knees in the opponents. fortitude (n.) firm courage; strength
It is necessary to have fortitude to complete the hike. fortuitous (adj.) happening accidentally
Finding the money under the bush was fortuitous.

(v.) encourage; nurture; support
A good practice routine fosters success.
After the severe storm the gardener fostered many of his plants back to health. fractious
(adj.) rebellious; apt to quarrel
Fractious siblings aggravate their parents. fraught (adj.) loaded; charged
The comment was fraught with sarcasm. frenetic (adj.) frenzied
A frenetic call was made from the crime scene. fret (v.) to make rough or disturb
The pet will fret the floor if he continues to scratch. frivolity (adj.) giddiness; lack of seriousness
The hard-working students deserved weekend gatherings filled with frivolity. froward
(adj.) not willing to yield or comply with what is reasonable
The executive had to deal with a froward peer who was becoming increasingly difficult. frugality (n.) thrift; economical use or expenditure
His frugality limited him to purchasing the item for which he had a coupon. Preparing to save money to send their daughter to college, the parents practiced extreme frugality for several years. fulminate (v.) to blame, denunciate
It is impolite to fulminate someone for your mistakes.
Senator Shay fulminated against her opponent's double-standard on campaign finance reform. fulsome (adj.) disgusting due to excess
The man became obese when he indulged in fulsome eating.

(adj.) basic; necessary
Shelter is one of the fundamental needs of human existence. furtive (adj.) secretive; sly
The detective had much difficulty finding the furtive criminal. fustian (n.) pompous talk or writing
The fustian by the professor made him appear arrogant. futile (adj.) worthless; unprofitable
It was a futile decision to invest in that company since they never made any money. gaffe (n.) a blunder
Calling the woman by the wrong name was a huge gaffe. gainsay (v.) to speak against; to contradict; to deny
With Senator Bowker the only one to gainsay it, the bill passed overwhelmingly. galvanize
(v.) to stimulate as if by electric shock; startle; excite
The pep rally will galvanize the team. gamut (n.) a complete range; any complete musical scale
The woman's wardrobe runs the gamut from jeans to suits.
His first composition covered the entire gamut of the major scale. garbled (adj.) mixed up; distorted or confused
The interference on the phone line caused the data to become garbled on the computer screen. garish (adj.) gaudy, showy
The gold fixtures seemed garish. garner (v.) to gather up and store; to collect
The squirrels garnered nuts for the winter. garrulous (adj.) extremely talkative or wordy

No one wanted to speak with the garrulous man for fear of being stuck in a long, one-sided conversation. gauche (adj.) awkward; lacking social grace
Unfortunately, the girl was too gauche to fit into high society. gauntlet (n.) a protective glove
The gauntlet saved the man's hand from being burned in the fire. generic (adj.) common; general; universal
While generic drugs are often a better value, it always a good idea to consult your doctor before purchasing them. genial (adj.) contributing to life; amiable
Key West's genial climate is among its many attractive aspects.
Her genial personality made her a favorite party guest. genre (adj.) designating a type of film or book
The genre of the book is historical fiction. germane (adj.) pertinent; related; to the point
Her essay contained germane information, relevant to the new
Constitutional amendment. gerrymander (v.) to gain advantage by manipulating unfairly
To gerrymander during negotiations is considered unfair. gibber (v.) to rapidly speak unintelligibly
They did not want him to represent their position in front of the committee since he was prone to gibbering when speaking in front of an audience. glib
(adj.) smooth and slippery; speaking or spoken in a smooth manner
The salesman was so glib that the customers failed to notice the defects in the stereo. gloat (v.) brag; glory over
She gloated over the fact that she received the highest score on the exam, annoying her classmates to no end.

(n.) overeater
The glutton ate 12 hot dogs gnarled (adj.) full of knots; twisted
The raven perched in the gnarled branches of the ancient tree. goad (n.; v.) a driving impulse; to push into action
His goad urged him to pursue the object of his affection.
Thinking about money will goad him into getting a job. gourmand (n.) one who eats eagerly
A gourmand may eat several servings of an entree. grandiose (adj.) magnificent; flamboyant
His grandiose idea was to rent a plane to fly to Las Vegas for the night. gravity (n.) seriousness
The gravity of the incident was sufficient to involve the police and the
(adj.) fond of the company of others
Gregarious people may find those jobs with human contact more enjoyable than jobs that isolate them from the public. guffaw (n.) boisterous laughter
A comedian's success is assured when the audience gives forth a guffaw following his jokes. guile (n.) slyness; deceit
By using his guile, the gambler almost always won at the card table. guise (n.) appearance
The undercover detective, under the guise of friendship, offered to help the drug runner make a connection. gullible (adj.) easily fooled
Gullible people are vulnerable to practical jokes.

(adj.) commonplace; trite
Just when you thought neckties were becoming a hackneyed gift item, along comes the Grateful Dead collection.
Have a nice day has become something of a hackneyed expression. haggard (adj.) untamed; having a worn look
The lawn in front of the abandoned house added to its haggard look.
He looked as haggard as you would expect a new father of quadruplets to look.
Just by looking at her haggard features, you can tell she has not slept for many hours. halcyon (adj.) tranquil; happy
The old man fondly remembered his halcyon days growing up on the farm. hamper
(v.) interfere with; hinder
The roadblock hampered their progress, but they knew a shortcut. haphazard (adj.) disorganized; random
He constantly misplaced important documents because of his haphazard way of running his office. hapless (adj.) unlucky; unfortunate
The hapless team could not win a game. harangue (n; v.) a lengthy, heartfelt speech; to talk or write excitedly
We sat patiently and listened to her harangue.
When he finally stopped his haranguing, I responded calmly. harbor (n.; v.) a place of safety or shelter; to give shelter or to protect.
We stood at the dock as the ship sailed into the harbor.
The peasants were executed for harboring known rebels.
The rabbits used the shed as a harbor from the raging storm.
Her decision to harbor a known criminal was an unwise one. harmonious (adj.) having proportionate and orderly parts
The challenge for the new conductor was to mold his musicians' talents into a harmonious orchestra.

(adj.) proud of oneself and scornful of others
The haughty ways she displayed her work turned off her peers.
The haughty girl displayed her work as if she were the most prized artist. hedonistic
(adj.) living for pleasure
The group was known for its hedonistic rituals.
Hot tubs, good food, and a plethora of leisure time were the hallmarks of this hedonistic society. heed (v.) obey; yield to
If the peasant heeds the king's commands, she will be able to keep her land. hefty
(adj.) heavy or powerful
The unabridged dictionary makes for a hefty book. heresy (n.) opinion contrary to popular belief
In this town it is considered heresy to want parking spaces to have meters. heretic
(n.) one who holds opinion contrary to that which is generally accepted
Because he believed the world was round, many people considered
Columbus to be a heretic. hiatus (n.) interval; break; period of rest
Summer vacation provided a much-needed hiatus for the students.
Between graduation and the first day of his new job, Tim took a threemonth hiatus in the Caribbean. hierarchy (n.) a system of persons or things arranged according to rank
I was put at the bottom of the hierarchy while Jane was put at the top. hoary (adj.) whitened by age
The paint had a hoary appearance, as if it were applied decades ago. homage (n.) honor; respect
The police officers paid homage to their fallen colleague with a ceremony that celebrated her life.

(n.) maintenance of stability
Knowing the seriousness of the operation, the surgeons were concerned about restoring the patient to homeostasis. homily (n.) solemn moral talk; sermon
The preacher gave a moving homily to the gathered crowd. hone (n.; v.) something used to sharpen; to sharpen; to long or yearn for
He ran the knife over the hone for hours to get a razor-sharp edge.
The apprenticeship will give her the opportunity to hone her skills.
The traveler hones for his homeland. hubris (n.) arrogance
Some think it was hubris that brought the president to the point of impeachment. humility
(n.) lack of pride; modesty
Full of humility, she accepted the award but gave all the credit to her mentor. hybrid
(n.) anything of mixed origin
The flower was a hybrid of three different flowers. hyperbole (n.) an exaggeration, not to be taken seriously
The full moon was almost blinding in its brightness, he said with a measure of hyperbole. hypocritical (adj.) two-faced; deceptive
His constituents believed that the governor was hypocritical for calling for a moratorium on "negative" campaigning while continuing to air some of the most vicious ads ever produced against his opponent.
Most of his constituents believed the governor was hypocritical for calling his opponent a "mud-slinging hack" when his own campaign had slung more than its share of dirt. hypothetical (adj.) assumed; uncertain; conjectural
A hypothetical situation was set up so we could practice our responses.
The professor was good at using hypothetical situations to illustrate complicated theories.

(n.) one who smashes revered images; an attacker of cherished beliefs
Nietzche's attacks on government, religion, and custom made him an iconoclast of grand dimension.
The iconoclast spoke against the traditions of the holiday. ideology (n.) speculation; representative way of thinking
His ideology proved to be faulty.
The ideology of business can be found in the new book.
He joined the religious group because he agreed with their ideology. idiosyncrasy (n.) any personal peculiarity, mannerism
Her tendency to bite her lip is an idiosyncrasy. idyll (n.) a written piece of work describing a peaceful rural scene
Reading the idyll made me think of the family farm. igneous (adj.) having the nature of fire; volcanic
When the sun shone upon it, the material took on an igneous quality. ignoble (adj.) ordinary; dishonorable;
The king was adamant about keeping his son from wedding an ignoble serf. Consciously lying to someone is ignoble.
It was ignoble to disgrace the family in front of all of the townspeople. ignominious (adj.) contemptible; disgraced; degrading
The behavior was so ignominious he was ashamed to be associated with it. She left him because of his ignominious treatment of her. illuminate (v.) make understandable
I asked a classmate to illuminate the professor's far-ranging lecture for me. illusive
(adj.) deceiving, misleading
It was as illusive as a mirage. illusory (adj.) unreal; false; deceptive
He was proven guilty when his alibi was found to be illusory.

(v.) to soak or stain; permeate
The wound will imbue the shirt in blood.
The new day imbued him with a sense of optimism. immaculate (adj.) perfectly clean; correct; pure
An immaculate house is free of dust or clutter. imminent (adj.) likely to happen without delay
The storm clouds warned of the imminent downpour. immune (adj.) exempt from or protected against something
Doesn't everybody wish to be immune from the common cold? immutable (adj.) unchangeable; permanent
The ties that bind alumni to their university are immutable .
The man's immutable schedule soon became boring. impale (v.) pierce through with, or stick on; something pointed
The knight was impaled by the sharp lance. impartial (adj.) unbiased; fair
Exasperated by charges to the contrary, the judge reiterated that he had bent over backwards to be impartial in a case that crackled with emotion. impasse (n.) a situation that has no solution or escape
The workers and administration were at an impasse in their negotiations. impassive (adj.) showing no emotion
Even when his father died he gave an impassive response and walked out tearless. Her expected announcement was met by an impassive facial expression. impecunious (adj.) poor; having no money
The Great Depression made family after family impecunious. impede (v.) to stop the progress of; obstruct
The rain impeded the work on the building.

(adj.) without regret, shame, or remorse
It was obvious after his impenitent remark to the press that the defendant felt no remorse for his crime. imperious (adj.) arrogant; urgent
Her imperious manner cost her her two best friends.
It was imperious that the message reach the police chief. imperturbable (adj.) calm; not easily excited
The imperturbable West Point graduate made a fine negotiator. impervious (adj.) impenetrable; not allowing anything to pass through; unaffected
The vest that the policeman wears is impervious to bullets.
The child was impervious to the actions of the adult. impetuous (adj.) moving with great force; done with little thought
The impetuous movement took the art community by storm.
The impetuous teenager spent her money without considering what she needed the new purchase for.
Dagmar came to regret his impetuous actions, once he realized what he'd done. The pirate's men boarded the ship with impetuous matter-of-factness. impiety (n.) irreverence toward God; lack of respect
The bishop condemned the impiety of the celebrity's assertions.
Impiety is evident in the way many people commit rude actions. implacable (adj.) unwilling to be pacified or appeased
The baby was so implacable a warm bottle would not settle her.
The two year old was an implacable child; he cried no matter what his parents did to comfort him. implement (v.; n.) to carry into effect; something used in a given activity
In case of emergency implement the evacuation plan immediately.
The rack is an implement of torture. implication (n.) suggestion; inference
An implication was made that there might be trickery involved.

(adj.) understood but not plainly stated; without doubt
The child's anger was implicit.
Implicit trust must be earned. impolitic (adj.) unwise; imprudent
If you are planning to invest your money, impolitic decisions may be costly. imprecate
(v.) to pray for evil; to invoke a curse
A witch may imprecate an enemy with a curse of bad luck. impromptu (adj.) without preparation
Her impromptu speech was well-received, giving her new confidence in her ability to speak off the cuff. improvident (adj.) not providing for the future
An improvident person may end up destitute in latter life. impudent (adj.) disrespectful and shameless
Impudent actions caused him to be unpopular. impugn (v.) to attack with words; to question the truthfulness or integrity
The defense lawyer impugned the witness's testimony, which set back the prosecution's case.
If I believe the man is a fraud I will impugn his comments. imputation (n.) to charge, to attribute a fault or misconduct to another
The imputation of guilt was made by the judge. inadvertent (adj.) not on purpose; unintentional
It was an inadvertent error, to be sure, but nonetheless a mistake that required correction. inanimate (adj.) to be dull or spiritless; not animated, not endowed with life
The boy nagged his father for a real puppy, not some inanimate stuffed animal. inarticulate
(adj.) speechless; unable to speak clearly
He was so inarticulate that he had trouble making himself understood.

(adj.) not able to be heard
The signals were inaudible when the fans began to cheer. incessant (adj.) constant and unending
The mother gave in to the child after her incessant crying.
Incessant rain caused the river to flood over its banks. inchoate (adj.) not yet fully formed; rudimentary
The inchoate building appeared as if it would be a fast-food restaurant.
The outline of the thesis was the inchoate form of a very complex theory. incidental
(adj.) extraneous; unexpected
The defense lawyer argued that the whereabouts of the defendant's sneakers were only incidental to the commission of the crime. incisive (adj.) getting to the heart of things; to the point
His incisive questioning helped settle the matter quickly. inclined (adj.) apt to; likely; angled
The man's ear for music indicated he was inclined toward learning an instrument. The hillside was inclined just enough to make for a fairly serious climb. incognito (adj.) unidentified; disguised; concealed
The federal Witness Protection Program makes its charges permanently incognito. incoherent
(adj.) illogical; rambling; disjointed
Following the accident, the woman went into shock and became incoherent as medics struggled to understand her. incommodious (adj.) inconvenient
The incommodious illness caused her to miss an important interview. incompatible (adj.) disagreeing; disharmonious not compatible
Being incompatible with each other, children were assigned to sit on opposite sides of the room.

(n.) failing to meet necessary requirements
The alleged incompetence of the construction crew would later become the subject of a class-action suit. inconclusive (adj.) not final or of a definite result
The results being inconclusive, the doctors continued to look for a cause of the illness. incorporeal (adj.) not consisting of matter
The apparition appeared to be incorporeal. incorrigible (adj.) not capable of correction or improvement
The mischievous boy was an incorrigible practical joker. incredulous (adj.) skeptical
The incredulous look on his face led me to believe he was not convinced of its importance.
The reporter was incredulous on hearing the computer executive's UFO account. inculcate
(v.) to impress upon the mind, as by insistent urging
I will inculcate the directions if people are unsure of them. incursion (n.) an entry into, especially when not desired
The incursion by enemy forces left the country shocked. indecipherable (adj.) illegible
The scribbling on the paper is indecipherable. indelible (adj.) that which cannot be blotted out or erased
The photograph of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon made an indelible impression on all who saw it. indemnify (v.) to insure against or pay for loss or damage
It is important to indemnify your valuables with a reliable insurance company. indict
(v.) charge with a crime

The grand jury indicted her and her husband for embezzlement and six other lesser counts. indifferent (adj.) unconcerned
There he lay, indifferent to all the excitement around him. indigence (n.) the condition of being poor
The family's indigence was evident by the run-down house they lived in. indigenous (adj.) native to a region; inborn or innate
These plants are indigenous to all of the western states.
Piranha are indigenous to the tropics. indignant (adj.) expressing anger to an injustice
He was indignant over the way he was treated. indolent (adj.) lazy; inactive
If we find him goofing off one more time, we won't be able to escape the fact that he's indolent.
An indolent student slept all day. indomitable (adj.) not easily discouraged or defeated
The underdog candidate had an indomitable spirit. indubitably (adj.) unquestionably; surely
The officer was best indubitably the candidate for captain. indulgent (adj.) lenient; patient; permissive
He has indulgent tendencies to eat chocolate when he is happy. ineluctable (adj.) something inevitable
They were prepared for the ineluctable disaster. inept (adj.) incompetent; clumsy
She would rather update the budget book herself, since her assistant is so inept. inert (adj.) not reacting chemically; inactive
Inert gases like krypton and argon can enhance window insulation.

(adj.) sure to happen; unavoidable
A confrontation between the disagreeing neighbors seemed inevitable. infamous (adj.) having a bad reputation; notorious
After producing machines that developed many problems, the production company became infamous for poor manufacturing.
The infamous gang was known for robbery. infamy (n.) a bad reputation
The town had only 98 residents, so all it took was one bad apple to bring infamy on the whole place. infer (v.) form an opinion; conclude
From the broad outline he supplied it was easy to infer that the applicant knew a great deal about trains. ingenious (adj.) clever, resourceful
His ingenious idea made it possible to double production at no extra cost. ingenue (n.) an unworldly young woman
As an ingenue, Corky had no experience outside of her small town. ingenuous (adj.) noble; honorable; candid; also naive, simple, artless, without guile
The ingenuous doctor had a great bedside manner, especially when it came to laying out the full implications of an illness. ingratiate (v.) to bring into one's good graces
The man was hoping to ingratiate himself with his wife by buying a bouquet of flowers and candy. ingratitude (n.) ungratefulness
When she failed to send a thank-you card, her friend took it as a sign of ingratitude . inherent (adj.) part of the essential character; intrinsic
A constant smile is inherent in pageant competitors.
The inherent desire to do well is present throughout the family. inimical (adj.) hostile, unfriendly

The chess player directed an inimical stare at his opponent to knock him off his game. iniquitous (adj.) wicked; unjust
The verbal abuse towards the man was truly iniquitous. initiate (v.; n.) begin; admit into a group; a person who is in the process of being admitted into a group
He initiated the dinner discussion by asking his father to borrow the car.
As an initiate to the Explorers, George was expected to have a taste for the outdoor life. innate (adj.) natural; inborn
Her talent is wondrous: it hardly matters whether it's innate or acquired.
A lion's hunting skills are innate. innocuous (adj.) harmless; dull; innocent
The remark was rude but innocuous.
He couldn't bear to sit through another innocuous lecture.
The teens engaged in an innocuous game of touch football. innovate (v.) introduce a change; depart from the old
She innovated a new product for the home construction market. innuendo (n.) an indirect remark; insinuation
The student made an innuendo referring to the professor.
The office was rife with innuendo that a takeover was in the works. inquisitive (adj.) eager to ask questions in order to learn
An inquisitive youngster is likely to become a wise adult. insinuate (v.) to work into gradually and indirectly
He will insinuate his need for a vacation by saying how tired he has been lately. insipid
(adj.) uninteresting, boring flat, dull
Many people left the insipid movie before it was finished.
Declaring the offerings insipid, the critic grudgingly awarded the restaurant one star.

(adj.) unable to pay debts
The insolvent state of his bank account kept him from writing any checks. instigate
(v.) start; provoke
It was uncertain to the police as to which party instigated the riot. insubordinate (adj.) disobedient to authority
The boy's insubordinate behavior was a constant source of tension between the school and his parents. insular (adj.) having the characteristics of an island; narrow-minded, provincial
After walking along the entire perimeter and seeing that the spit of land was actually insular, we realized it was time to build a boat.
His insular approach to education makes him a pariah among liberals. insularity (n.) having the characteristics of an island
The insularity of the country made it a great place to build a resort. intangible (adj.) incapable of being touched; immaterial
Intangible though it may be, sometimes just knowing that the work you do helps others is reward enough. intercede (v.) to plead on behalf of another; mediate
The superpowers were called on to intercede in the talks between the two warring nations. intermittent (adj.) periodic; occasional
Luckily, the snow was only intermittent, so the accumulation was slight.
The intermittent blinking light was distracting. intractable (adj.) stubborn, obstinate; not easily taught or disciplined
Every teacher in the school became frustrated with the intractable student and sent him to the principal's office.
An intractable pet can be very frustrating.. intransigent (adj.) uncompromising
With intransigent values, no amount of arguing could change her mind.

The baseball owners and players remained intransigent, so a deal was never struck. intrepid (adj.) fearless, bold
The intrepid photographer flew on some of the fiercest bombing raids of the war.
Her intrepid actions deserved a medal. inundate (v.) to flood; to overwhelm with a large amount of
The broken water main inundated the business district with water.
Surfing the Internet can inundate you with information: That's why a web browser comes in handy. inured (adj.) accustomed to pain
Beekeepers eventually become inured to bee stings. inveterate (adj.) a practice settled on over a long period of time
The inveterate induction ceremony bespoke one of the school's great traditions. invoke
(v.) ask for; call upon
The parishioners invoked divine help for their troubles. iota (n.) a very small piece
There wasn't one iota of evidence to suggest a conspiracy. irascible (adj.) prone to anger
The irascible teenager was known to cause fights when upset.
Knowing that the king was irascible, the servants decided not to tell him about the broken crystal. ironic (adj.) contradictory, inconsistent; sarcastic
Is it not ironic that Americans will toss out leftover French fries while people around the globe continue to starve? irrational (adj.) not logical
It would be irrational to climb Mt. Everest without some very warm clothing. irreparable
(adj.) that which cannot be repaired or regained

The damage to the house after the flood was irreparable.
The head-on collision left the car irreparable. irreproachable (adj.) without blame or faults
The honesty of the priest made him irreproachable. itinerary (n.) travel plan; schedule; course
Their trip's itinerary was disrupted by an unexpected snow storm. jaded (adj.) worn-out
A person may become jaded if forced to work too many hours. jargon (n.) incoherent speech; specialized vocabulary in certain fields
The conversation was nothing but jargon, but then the speakers were nothing but cartoon characters who specialize in an oddly bracing form of gibberish. The engineers' jargon is indecipherable to a layperson. jeopardy (n.) danger; peril
The campers realized they were in potential jeopardy when the bears surrounded their camp. jester (n.) a person employed to amuse
The jester tried all of his tricks to get the girl to laugh. jettison (v.) to throw overboard goods to lighten a vehicle; to discard
To raise the balloon above the storm clouds, they had to jettison the ballast. jocund
(adj.) happy, cheerful, genial, gay
The puppy kept a smile on the jocund boy's face.
The jocund atmosphere was due to the team's victory in the playoffs. jollity (n.) being fun or jolly
The jollity of the crowd was seen in the cheering and laughing. jovial (adj.) cheery; jolly; playful
She was a jovial person, always pleasant and fun to be with.

(adj.) to have or show sound judgment
Because the elder was judicious, the tough decisions were left to him.
Putting money away for a rainy day is a judicious decision. juncture (n.) critical point; meeting
When the gas changed into a liquid, they sensed that they'd come to a critical juncture in their experimentation. juxtapose (v.) place side-by-side
The author decided to juxtapose the two sentences since they each strengthened the meaning of the other. ken (v.; n.) to recognize; one's understanding
It was difficult to ken exactly what she had in mind.
My ken of the situation proved to be incorrect. kindle (v.) ignite; arouse
Being around children kindled her interest in educational psychology. kinship (n.) family relationship; affinity
Living in close proximity increased the kinship of the family. kith (n.) relatives and acquaintances
Our kith will meet at the family reunion. knavery (n.) a dishonest act
An act of knavery is cause for loss of trust.
The teacher refused to have knavery in his classroom. knead (v.) mix; massage
After mixing the ingredients, they kneaded the dough and set it aside to rise. knotty
(adj.) to be puzzling or hard to explain
The mystery was knotty. labyrinth (n.) maze
Be careful not to get lost in the labyrinth of vegetation.

(v.) to tear or mangle; to wound or hurt
Sharp knives may lacerate the skin of an unsuspecting user.
Her rejection will lacerate my self-esteem. laconic (adj.) sparing of words; terse, pithy
After a laconic introduction the program began.
The people enjoyed the public addresses of the laconic queen. laggard (n.; adj.) a person who has fallen behind; moving slowly
The laggard child was lost in the crowd.
The train was laggard.
Anything can happen in a swim meet: Last year's leader can become this year's laggard. lambaste (v.) to scold or beat harshly
If the boy broke the lamp his father will surely lambaste him. lambent (adj.) traveling gently over surface; flickering
The lambent flame lit the dark room as the breeze wafted in. lament (v.; n.) to mourn or grieve; expression of grief or sorrow
The boy is lamenting the loss of his pet.
Pedro's only lament was that his wife didn't outlive him. languid (adj.) lacking vitality; indifferent
The languid student was always late to class.
I have studied so much that I have grown languid to the subject.
During her illness she was so languid she could not leave her bed. larceny (n.) theft; stealing
After robbing the liquor store, she was found guilty of larceny. lascivious (adj.) indecent; immoral; involves lust
He said it was a harmless pin-up poster, but his mother called it lascivious. Known as a skirt-chaser, his lascivious ways seemed to all but preclude a stable marriage. lassitude (n.) a state of being tired or listless

Lassitude was evident in the nurses who had been working for 24 hours straight. Ten days of continual work caused a feeling of lassitude for the worker. latency (n.) a period of inactivity
Its latency was small solace for the girl who feared that the cancer would re-emerge fiercer than ever. laud (v.) praise
He lauded his daughter for winning the trophy. lax (adj.) careless; irresponsible
She was lax in everything she did and therefore could not be trusted with important tasks. lecherous (adj.) impure in thought and act
The lecherous Humbert Humbert is Nabokov's protagonist in Lolita, a novel that sparked great controversy because of Humbert's romantic attachment to a young girl.
The lecherous man lurked on the corner. lethargic (adj.) lazy; passive
Feeling very lethargic, he watched television or slept the whole day. levee (n.) a landing on the edge of a river or field
The swimmer came ashore on the levee. levity (n.) lack of seriousness; instability
The levity with which he faced the destruction hampered the rescue effort. Levity characterized the first months of his administration.
Levity is a necessary trait for a comedian. lewd (adj.) lustful; wicked
The comment was so lewd it could not be repeated in front of children. liaison (n.) connection; link
The student council served as a liaison between the faculty and the student body.

(n.) believing in personal freedom (favoring reform or progress)
If you believe in liberalism, the First Amendment is sacrosanct. libertine (n.) one who indulges his desires without restraint
For the libertine, missing his child's birthday was not as significant as missing a football game. licentious (adj.) morally lacking in restraint
The people of Sodom and Gomorra were known for their licentious lifestyle. ligneous
(adj.) having the composition of wood
The ligneous material appeared to be pure maple. limber (adj.) flexible; pliant
The dancers must be limber to do their ballet steps. lithe (adj.) easily bent; pliable; supple
It is best to use a lithe material when constructing a curved object.
A gymnast needs to be lithe in order to do a split. litigate (v.) to involve a lawsuit
A number of the state attorneys-general are litigating against the tobacco companies. livid (adj.) discolored, as if bruised; extremely angry; furious
After the fall, her arm was livid.
She became livid when she heard the news.
When she found out she had been robbed, the woman was livid. loiter (v.) to spend time aimlessly
Many teenagers loiter around the mall when there is nothing else to do. loquacious (adj.) very talkative; garrulous
She was having difficulty ending the conversation with her loquacious neighbor. The staff knew the meeting would be long because the administrator was in a loquacious mood.

(adj.) shining; translucent
The flowing garment gave the woman a lucent quality when standing in the spotlight. lucid (adj.) shiny; clear minded
He chose a shimmering, lucid fabric for his curtains.
When lucid, the man spoke of vivid memories. lucrative (adj.) profitable; gainful
She entered the pharmaceutical industry in the belief that it would be lucrative. br>
full of sorrow;
The man's lugubrious heart kept him from enjoying the special occasion.


(adj.) emitting light; shining; also enlightened or intelligent
The luminous quality of the precious stone made it look like a fallen star.
They found their way through the darkness by heading toward the luminous object in the distance. lunge (v.) to move suddenly
The owl will lunge at its prey in order to take it off guard. lurid (adj.) glowing through haze; shocking, sensational
A lurid sun shone upon them as they watched the sun set on the beach.
The tabloid specialized in lurid stories about celebrities' indiscretions. lustrous (adj.) bright; radiant; shining
Surrounded by rubies, the lustrous diamond looked magnificent. luxuriant (adj.) to grow with energy and in great abundance
The luxuriant flowers grew in every available space. macerate (v.) to soften by steeping in liquid
It was necessary to macerate the food before the elderly man could eat it. They placed her foot in the solvent to macerate the cement she had stepped in. maculate (adj.; v.) spotted, blotched; hence defiled, impure (opposite: immaculate); to stain, spot, defile

The maculate rug could not be cleaned.
Grape juice maculated the carpet. magnanimity (n.; adj.) a quality of nobleness of mind, disdain of meanness or revenge; forgiving; unselfish
Being full of magnanimity he asked the thief only for an apology and set him free.
The magnanimous store owner did not press charges once an apology was given.
The magnanimity of the professor overcame the rage of the student. malediction (n.) putting a curse on someone; talking negatively about another
With the threat of a malediction, the man left the fortuneteller's house.
Never having a nice word to say about anyone, her conversations are full of malediction. malefactor (n.) an evil person
The malefactor ordered everyone to work over the holidays.
The prison contains malefactors of all ages. malevolent (adj.) wishing evil (opposite: benevolent)
The man threatened his opponent with threats and malevolent words.
She had malevolent feelings toward her sister. malicious (adj.) spiteful; vindictive
The malicious employee slashed her tires for revenge. malign (v.; adj.) to speak evil of; having an evil disposition toward others
(opposite: benign)
In her statement to the judge she maligned her soon-to-be ex-husband.
She had such a malign personality that no one even tried to approach her, mostly out of fear. malinger (v.) to pretend to be ill in order to escape work
He will malinger on Friday so he can go to the movies.
The soldier will malinger to avoid fighting. malleable (adj.) easy to shape or bend; pliable
The malleable material was formed into a U shape.
The sculptor uses malleable substances to create complex masterpieces.

(n.) order; charge
The new manager wrote a mandate declaring that smoking was now prohibited in the office. manifest (v.; adj.) to show clearly; to appear; obvious, clear
The image should manifest itself as the building when the fog lifts.
When the missing document suddenly manifested, the search for the person that buried it began.
America's manifest destiny was to acquire all of the land between the
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. mar (v.) damage
The statue was marred by the ravages of time. marauder (n.) plunderer or raider
The marauder had been traveling for two months searching for the large stash. materialism
(n.) the belief that everything in the universe is explained in terms of matter; the belief that worldly possessions are the be-all and end-all in life Spiritualists will tell you that materialism is only half the story.
Some said that the prince's profligacy gave materialism a bad name. maudlin (adj.) foolishly and tearfully sentimental
The maudlin affair consisted of three speeches in honor of the benefactor. maverick
(n.) a person who does not conform to the norm
The maverick drove a large truck as others were purchasing compact cars. meander
(v.; adj.) wind, wander; winding, wandering aimlessly
The stream meanders through the valley.
Because we took a long, meandering walk, we arrived home well after dark. They meandered through the woods for the afternoon. melancholy (n.) depression; gloom
The funeral parlor was filled with the melancholy of mourning.

(adj.) having a sweet sound
The flute had a beautifully mellifluous sound. melodious (adj.) pleasing to hear
The melodious sounds of the band attracted many onlookers. menagerie (n.) a place to keep or a collection of wild or strange animals
Little Ryan couldn't wait to visit the zoo to see the menagerie of wild boars. mendacious
(adj.) not truthful; lying
The couple was swindled out of their life's savings by the mendacious con men. mentor (n.) teacher; wise and faithful advisor
Alan consulted his mentor when he needed critical advice. mercenary (adj.; n.) working or done for payment only; hired (soldier)
Lila was suspicious that Joe had jumped at the chance only for mercenary reasons.
A mercenary was hired for a hundred dollars a month, good money in those days even if you had to fight a war to get it. mercurial (adj.) quick, changeable, fickle
The mercurial youth changed outfits six times before deciding what to wear. meretricious
(adj.) deceptive beauty - alluring by attractive appearance
A cubic zirconia is a meretricious way of impressing others. mesmerize (v.) hypnotize
The swaying motion of the swing mesmerized the baby into a deep sleep. metamorphosis (n.) change of form
A metamorphosis caused the caterpillar to become a beautiful butterfly. meticulous (adj.) exacting; precise
The lab technicians must be meticulous in their measurements to obtain exact results.

(n.) spirit, courage, ardor
He proved he had the mettle to make it through basic training. mien (n.) appearance, being or manner
Her mien was typically one of distress, especially after the mishap. mimicry (n.) imitation
The comedian's mimicry of the president's gestures had the audience rolling in the aisles. minatory (adj.) threatening
The minatory stance of the dog warned the thief of an attack. minute (adj.) extremely small, tiny
Being on a sodium-restricted diet, he uses only a minute amount of salt in his dishes. mire (v.) to cause to get stuck in wet, soggy ground
The car became mired in the mud. misanthrope (n.) a person who distrusts everything; a hater of mankind
After the man swindled all of the woman's savings, she became a misanthrope. The misanthrope lived alone in the forest. miscreant (adj.; n.) evil; an evil person; villain
Her miscreant actions shocked and surprised her family.
The miscreant thought nothing of taking others' money and belongings. miser (n.) penny pincher, stingy person
The miser made no donations and loved counting his money every night. mite (n.) a very small sum of money; very small creature
The mite they pay me is hardly worth the aggravation.
The baseball team was made up of such small children they were nicknamed the "Mites". mitigate (v.) alleviate; lessen; soothe

She tried to mitigate the loss of his pet by buying him a kitten.
The lawyer will attempt to mitigate the sentence probation. modulate (v.) to regulate or adjust; to vary the pitch
He modulated the color knob on the television set until the picture was perfect. A trained singer knows how to modulate her voice to the desired pitches. mollify (v.) to soften; to make less intense
We used our hands to mollify the sound of our giggling. molten (adj.) melted
Steel becomes molten after heating it to thousands of degrees. moot (adj.) subject to or open for discussion or debate
The discussion of extending the girl's curfew was a moot point. mordant (adj.) cutting; sarcastic
Her mordant remark made me feel unqualified and useless. morose (adj.) moody, despondent
He was very morose over the death of his pet.
After the team lost the fans were morose. motif (n.) theme
Although the college students lived in Alaska, they decided on a tropical motif for their dorm room.
The decorations include a rose motif. motility (n.) spontaneous motion
The motility of the car caused the driver to lunge for the brake. mundane (adj.) ordinary; commonplace
The small town was very mundane.
Going food shopping soon became mundane, losing all of its excitement. munificent (adj.) giving generously
The civic group made a munificent donation to the homeless shelter.

(v.) to think or speak meditatively
I expect I'll have to muse on that question for a while. myriad (n.) a large number
Buying an old house often necessitates fixing a myriad of problems.
Gazing up on the clear, dark midnight sky, the astronomer saw a myriad of stars. narcissistic (adj.) egotistical; self-centered; self-love, excessive interest in ones appearance, comfort, abilities, etc.
The narcissistic actor was difficult to get along with. nascent (adj.) starting to grow or develop
The nascent rage of in-line skating began on the West Coast. nautical (adj.) of the sea; having to do with sailors, ships, or navigation
The coastal New England town had a charming nautical influence. nebulous (adj.) unclear or vague
The ten page directions were a collection of nebulous words and figures. nefarious (adj.) morally bad; wicked
The nefarious criminal was the scourge of the local police force. nefariousness (adj.) being villainous or wicked
The nefariousness of the ruler was apparent when he hoarded all of the food. negligence
(n.) carelessness
Negligence contributed to the accident: She was traveling too fast for the icy conditions. nemesis (n.) a person who inflicts just punishment; retribution; a rival
The criminal was killed by his nemesis, the brother of the man he murdered. The football team plays its nemesis on Saturday. neologism (n.) giving a new meaning to an old word
Bad is a neologism for good.

(n.) beginner; newcomer
Critics applauded the neophyte's success and speculated how much better he would get with age and experience.
The neophyte dancer was overcome by the fast tempo and exotic rhythms. nettle
(v.) annoy; irritate
The younger brother nettled his older sister until she slapped him.
The boy will nettle the father into agreeing. neutral (adj.) impartial; unbiased
The mother remained neutral regarding the argument between her two children. nexus
(n.) a connection
The nexus between the shuttle and the space station was successful. noisome (adj.) harmful to health; having a foul odor
The noisome food was the cause of their illness.
The family was forced from the home by a noisome odor. nostalgic (adj.) longing for the past; filled with bittersweet memories
She loved her new life, but became nostalgic when she met with her old friends. nostrum
(n.) a questionable remedy for difficulties
The doctor's prescription was so unusual that it could be seen as a nostrum. The nostrum of pine leaves and water did not seem to cure the illness. notorious (adj.) infamous; renowned; having an unfavorable connotation
Discovering that her new neighbor was notorious for thievery, she decided to purchase an alarm system for her home.
The criminal had a notorious reputation. novel (adj.) new
It was a novel idea for the rock group to play classical music.

(adj.) harmful to one's health
The noxious fumes caused the person to become ill. nugatory (adj.) trifling; futile; insignificant
Because the problem was nugatory it was not addressed immediately. nullify (v.) cancel; invalidate
Drinking alcohol excessively will nullify the positive benefits of eating well and exercising daily. oaf (n.) a clumsy, dumb person
The waiter has been called an oaf ever since he dropped the tray. obdurate (adj.) stubborn
The obdurate child refused to go to school.
The obdurate youngster refused to eat the Brussels sprouts. obeisance (n.) a gesture of respect or reverence
As an obeisance, the man took off his hat as the funeral procession drove past him. obfuscate (v.) to darken, confuse, bewilder
The lunar eclipse will obfuscate the light of the sun. objective (adj.; n.) open-minded; impartial; goal
It's hard to set aside your biases and be objective.
The law student decided that her primary objective after graduation was to pass the Bar examination. objurgate (v.) to chide vehemently
The girls disliked those boys who objurgated the group. obligatory (adj.) mandatory; necessary; legally or morally binding
In order to provide a reliable source of revenue for the government, it is obligatory for each citizen to pay taxes. obliterate (v.) destroy completely
Poaching nearly obliterated the world's whale population.

(n.) widespread condemnation or abuse; disgrace or infamy resulting from this.
The child suffered quite an obloquy at the hands of his classmates.
Lawyers must face frequent obloquy with their reputation as "ambulance chasers." obscure
(adj.) not easily understood; dark
The orchestra enjoys performing obscure American works, hoping to bring them to a wider audience. obsequious (adj.) servilely attentive; fawning
The man's attraction to the woman would be obvious if his obsequious behavior could be noted.
The princess only seemed to encourage the obsequious behavior of her court to enhance her own feeling of superiority. obsolete (adj.) out of date; pass'
Computers have made many formerly manual tasks obsolete. obstinate (adj.) stubborn
Her father would not allow her to stay out past midnight; she thought he was obstinate because he would not change his mind. obtrude (v.) to force oneself or one's ideas upon another; to thrust forward; to eject The inquisitive coworker obtrudes into the conversation often. obtuse (adj.) dull; greater than 90± but less than 180±; slow to understand or perceive
The man was so obtuse, he even made the dog yawn.
The textbook problem asks the reader to solve for the obtuse angle.
He's obtuse when it comes to abstract art. obviate (v.) to make unnecessary
The invention of cars has obviated the use of horse and carriage.
A cure for the common cold would obviate the need for shelf after shelf of cold remedies. occult (adj.) hidden; beyond human understanding; mystical; mysterious
The occult meaning of the message was one of dislike for the authorities.
Some spend years pursuing the occult, only to find themselves no closer

to the answer.
Relating to the occult world means entering a new realm. odious (adj.) hateful; disgusting
Having to chaperone her brother was an odious chore for the girl. odium (n.) a hate; the disgrace from a hateful action
Odium could be felt for the man who destroyed the school. oligarchy (n.) form of government in which the supreme power is placed in the hands of a small, exclusive group.
The oligarchy took control after the king was overthrown. ominous (adj.) threatening
Seeing ominous clouds on the horizon, the street fair organizers decided to fold up their tent and go home. omniscient (adj.) having knowledge of all things
The future can be told by the omniscient woman. opalescent (adj.) iridescent
Her new nail polish was opalescent making her finger tips look like pearls. opaque
(adj.) dull; cloudy; non-transparent
Not having been washed for years, the once beautiful windows of the
Victorian home became opaque.
They chose an opaque shade of green for their bathroom walls. opprobrious (adj.) abusive
Nobody liked working for him because he was so opprobrious. optimist (n.) person who hopes for the best; sees the good side
He's ever the optimist, always seeing the glass as half full. opulence (n.) wealth; fortune
A 40-room mansion on 65 wooded acres is only the most visible sign of her opulence.

(adj.) elaborate; lavish; decorated
The courthouse was framed by ornate friezes. orthodox (adj.) traditional; accepted
The gifted child's parents concluded that orthodox methods of education would not do their son any good, so they decided to teach him at home. oscillate (v.) to move back and forth; to have a wavering opinion
The oscillating sprinkler system covered the entire lawn.
The couple often oscillates between going out and staying home. ossify (v.) to turn to bone; to harden
Over time, the plant matter has ossified.
The tablet will ossify when left in the sun. ostensible (adj.) apparent
The ostensible reason for choosing the girl was for her beauty. ostentatious (adj.) being showy
Sure he'd won the lottery, but coming to work in a stretch limo seemed a bit ostentatious . ostracize (v.) to exclude
The students tend to ostracize the children they dislike from their games. oust (v.) drive out; eject
The dictator was ousted in a coup detat. p (adj.) mocking; cynical
He has a wry sense of humor which sometimes hurts people's feelings. paean (n.) a song of praise or triumph
A paean was written in honor of the victorious warrior. pagan (adj.) polytheistic
Moses, distraught over some of his people's continuing pagan ways, smashed the stone tablets bearing the Ten Commandments.

(adj.) thorough, careful, precise
Helga's painstaking research paid off with a top grade on her essay. palatial (adj.) large and ornate, like a palace
The new palatial home contained two pools and an indoor track for jogging. palindrome
(n.) a word or phrase which reads the same backwards and forwards
Bob, "Dad," and "Madam" are examples of palindromes. palliate (v.) to alleviate or ease pain but not cure; to make appear less serious
The medication will help palliate the pain.
The lawyer attempted to palliate the offense to the jury. pallid (adj.) pale in color
The visitor left the hospital room with a pallid face. pallor (n.) lack of facial color
The more vivid the testimony grew, the more the witness seemed to take on a ghostly pallor. palpable (adj.) touchable; clear, obvious
The palpable decision was to discontinue the use of drugs.
On a flight that had included a sudden 5,000-foot drop, the passengers' relief upon landing was palpable . panegyric (n.) high praise
Upon his retirement, he received a great panegyric from many of his associates. His panegyric to his opponent stood in sharp contrast to the harsh tenor of the campaign. paradigm (n.) model, prototype; pattern
The machine could no longer be produced after the paradigm was destroyed. The Massachusetts gubernatorial race was considered a paradigm of campaign civility. paradox (n.) a tenet seemingly contradictory or false, but actually true

The paradox seemed so unlikely though it was true.
At first blush, the company's results were a paradox: Sales were down, yet profits were up. parapet (n.) a wall for protection; a low wall or railing
The parapet protected the kingdom from the raging army.
The parapet kept the child from falling into the river. paraphernalia (n.) equipment; accessories
She looked guilty since the drug paraphernalia was found in her apartment. pariah
(n.) an outcast
The pariah of the group sat by himself under the tree. parity (n.) state of being the same in power, value, or rank
When the younger brother was promoted to co-president with the elder son, it established parity between the two. parley (v.) to speak with another; to discourse
I will parley the information to the appropriate person. parochial (adj.) religious; narrow-minded
Devout Christians, the Chesterfields enrolled their children in a parochial school. Governor Kean urged Republicans to rise above parochial interests and be the party of inclusion. parody (n.) a piece of work imitating another in a satirical manner; a poor imitation The play was a parody of the Prince and Princess's marital difficulties.
Ugh! This is a parody of a fashionable dress! parry (v.) to avoid; to ward off
I dislike talking to the woman so I will attempt to parry her by ducking around the corner. parse (v.) to separate (a sentence) into parts and describe the function of each
An English teacher may ask a student to parse a sentence.

(adj.) very frugal; unwilling to spend
The owner was so parsimonious he refused to purchase new curtains when the old ones fell off the window.
The parsimonious individual argued that twenty-five cents was much too expensive for a pack of gum. parsimony (n.) to be unreasonably careful when spending
The parsimony of the wealthy woman was uncalled for. partisan (n.; adj.) supporter; follower; biased; one-sided
The union president is a partisan of minimum-wage legislation.
A partisan for the incumbent mayor will not support the challenger. passive (adj.) submissive; unassertive
He is so passive that others walk all over him. paucity (n.) scarcity
The described feast was actually a buffet with a paucity of food. pavilion (n.) a large tent or covered area, usually used for entertainment
The wedding pavilion was not only beautifully decorated, but also served as welcome protection from a sudden downpour. peccadillo (n.) a slight fault or offense
The child was embarrassed when he was caught committing the peccadillo of eating chocolate before dinner. pecuniary (adj.) pertaining to money
The retiring employee was delighted when he received a pecuniary gift. pedagogue (n.) a teacher
Seeing the way she worked with children there was no doubt she was a true pedagogue. pedantic (adj.) emphasizing minutiae or form in scholarship or teaching
Professor Jones's lectures were so pedantic that his students sometimes had a tough time understanding the big picture.
It is important to understand pedantic terminology before beginning a lecture. pedestrian
(adj.) mediocre; ordinary
We expected the meal to be exceptional, but it was just pedestrian. pejorative (adj.) making things worse
The pejorative comment deepened the dislike between the two families. pellucid (adj.) transparent
The pellucid material was not an adequate shield from the sun. penchant (n.) a liking for
I have a penchant for all flavors of ice cream. penitent (adj.) feeling sorry for what one has done
The burglar expressed his penitent feelings during his confession. pensive (adj.) reflective; contemplative
She was in a pensive mood, just wanting to be alone to think.
My hours alone are often more pensive than the time I spend with friends. The pensive mood was broken by a witty joke. penurious (adj.) stingy, miserly
The penurious man had millions of dollars, but lived in a cottage to save money. Charles Dickens' Scrooge is the most penurious character in any of his tales. perceptive
(adj.) full of insight; aware
The perceptive detective discovered that the murder weapon was hidden in a safe under the floor. percussion (n.) striking one object against another
The loud percussion of the hunter's gunshot startled the birds. perdition (n.) ruination
The perdition of the building was caused by the strong quake. peremptory (adj.) barring future action; that cannot be denied, changed, etc.
The peremptory means of defense was satisfactory to keep out the

The wildcat strike was a peremptory move on the part of the workers. perfidious (adj.) faithless; treacherous
The trust between the business associates was broken after the perfidious actions by one of the partners. perfunctory (adj.) done in a routine, mechanical way, without interest
Change in career is a good cure for someone who has become bored with their occupation and is currently performing their duties in a perfunctory fashion. The girl will not improve unless she changes her perfunctory attitude. peripheral (adj.) marginal; outer
Those are peripheral problems; let's look at the central challenge.
The peripheral shrubs were used to create a fence-like blockade.
He thought he was my best friend, when in fact, he was a peripheral acquaintance. perjury
(n.) the practice of lying
The already sensational trial of a star athlete turned all the more so when it turned out that a police detective had committed perjury.
Lying while on the witness stand is perjury. permeable (adj.) porous; allowing to pass through
Because the material was permeable, the water was able to drain. pernicious (adj.) dangerous; harmful
Standing oil combined with a fresh rain on the asphalt can have a pernicious impact on a driver's control of the road.
The pernicious fire engulfed four blocks of homes. perpetual (adj.) never ceasing; continuous
Perpetual pain keeps the woman from walking. perquisite (n.) extra payment; a tip
After working overtime, I had enough money to make a perquisite on my loan. pertinent
(adj.) related to the matter at hand

During a trial everyone should concentrate on the same subject, stating only pertinent information. peruse (v.) to read carefully; to study
A vast majority of time was spent perusing the possible solution to the dilemma. pervade
(v.) to occupy the whole of
Her perfume was so strong that it pervaded the whole room. pervasive (adj.) spreading throughout
The home was filled with the pervasive aroma of baking bread. pessimism (n.) seeing only the gloomy side; hopelessness
After endless years of drought, pessimism grew in the hearts of even the most dedicated farmer. petty (adj.) unimportant; of subordinate standing
With all of the crime in the world, stealing bubble gum is considered petty theft. petulant (adj.) peevish; cranky; rude
The long illness put the boy in a petulant mood.
The tone of his voice and the things that he says become quite petulant when he has not gotten enough sleep. phenomenon (n.) exceptional person; unusual occurrence
Not for nothing do they call Yankee Stadium "The House that Ruth
Built"-the Babe was a phenomenon.
The northern lights are a rare phenomenon for those not living near the
Arctic Circle. philanthropy (n.) charity; unselfishness
After years of donating time and money to the children's hospital, Mrs.
Elderwood was commended for her philanthropy. phlegmatic (adj.) without emotion or interest; sluggish and dull
The playwright had hoped his story would take theatergoers on an emotional roller coaster, but on opening night they just sat there,

stonefaced and phlegmatic.
The phlegmatic child rarely went outside to play. phobia (n.) morbid fear
Fear of heights is a not uncommon phobia. pied (adj.) colored, blotched together
The extreme heat caused the colors to become pied. pinioned (adj.) bound fast
The two rafts were pinioned by steel wire. pious (adj.) religious; devout; dedicated
The religious couple believed that their pious method of worship would bring them eternal life.
The statues of the saints have pious symbolism.
Many people think of this land as pious territory. pique (n.; v.) resentment at being slighted; to provoke
Being passed over for the promotion aroused his pique.
The more he piqued her, the redder she grew. pithy (adj.) terse and full of meaning
Columnist William Safire, a former presidential speech writer, has a way with words that often yields pithy comments. pittance (n.) a small amount
The reward money was only a pittance compared to the money lost.
The little girl received a pittance every week for keeping her room clean. placate
(v.) to appease or pacify
The entire family attempted to placate the stubborn child.
With a soothing voice and the promise of a juicy steak, the trainer placated the escaped lion so that he wouldn't hurt anyone. placid (adj.) undisturbed and calm
The placid lake's water was completely motionless.

(adj.) being mournful or sad
His wife's death made Sam plaintive. platonic (adj.) idealistic or impractical; not amorous or sensual
The platonic advice of the doctor was to stay away from all odors.
Our relationship is platonic now, but I hope it will someday be otherwise. plausible (adj.) probable; feasible
After weeks of trying to determine what or who was raiding the chicken coop, the farmer came up with a plausible explanation.
After scrimping and saving for a decade, it was now plausible to send his daughter to college. plenary (adj.) full; entire; complete
A plenary class of students staged the protest. plethora (n.) a superabundance
There was a plethora of food at the royal feast. plumb (adj.; v.) perfectly straight down; to solve
The two walls met plumb at the corner.
I was able to plumb the riddle in a few seconds. polemic (adj.) controversial
The polemic decision caused a stir in the community. polemicist (n.) a person skilled in argument
The polemicist could debate any case skillfully. pommel (n.) the rounded, upward-projecting front of a saddle
The woman was so nervous about being on the horse she would not let go of the pommel. ponderous (adj.) unwieldy from weight; dull or labored
The ponderous piano posed a serious challenge to having it pulled up to the 16th floor.
As if being grainy wasn't bad enough, the film's ponderous story made it tough to get through.

(v.) to be an omen of; signify
The distant roll of thunder portends of an oncoming storm. potable (adj.; n.) drinkable; a beverage that is drinkable
The liquid was not potable, but rather poisonous.
Sea water isn't potable. potent (adj.) having great power or physical strength
He took very potent medication and felt better immediately. pragmatic (adj.) matter-of-fact; practical
Since they were saving money to buy a new home, the pragmatic married couple decided not to go on an expensive vacation.
A pragmatic solution to the car's continual repairs would be to purchase a new car. prate (v.) talking foolishly; chatter
It is not uncommon for people to prate when they become nervous about speaking to a superior. prattle (n.; v.) childish babble; to babble while speaking
I've listened to his prattle for far too long.
The toddler does more prattling than talking. precarious (adj.) depending upon another; risky, uncertain
The precarious plans fell through when the second couple changed their plans. My position in the negotiations was precarious at best. precept (n.) a rule or direction of moral conduct
The organization believed their members should abide by certain precepts. precipitate
(v.; adj.) to cause to happen; happening quickly
A rude comment may precipitate an argument.
The precipitating flood caught the village off-guard. preclude (v.) inhibit; make impossible
A healthy diet and lifestyle will not preclude you from getting ill,

although it improves your immune system.
Exercise may help to preclude heart disease. precocious (adj.) developed or matured earlier than usual
The precocious eight year-old wanted to read the romance novel. predecessor (n.) one who has occupied an office before another
Although her predecessor did not accomplish any goals that would help the poor, the new mayor was confident that she could finally help those in need. prefatory (adj.) coming before
The prefatory comments informed the audience of what was to come. premise (n.) the basis for an argument
The prosecutor claimed that the defense lawyer's premise was shaky, and thus his whole argument was suspect. preponderate (adj.) to outweigh; to be superior in amount, weight, etc.
His positive qualities are the preponderate ones over his occasional rudeness. presage
(n.) an omen; a foreshadowing characteristic
They considered the rainbow at their wedding a presage for a happy life.
Bright sun in the morning was a good presage that it was going to be a good day. prescience (n.) knowing about something before it happens
The morning of the big game I had a prescience that we would win. prescriptive (adj.) done by custom; unbending
At the heart of the Australian aborigines' prescriptive coming-of-age rite for men is a walkabout. prevalent (adj.) generally occurring
Rain is usually more prevalent than snow during April. prevaricate (v.) to speak equivocally or evasively, i.e., to lie
The mayor's desperate attempt to prevaricate about the scandal was transparent to the voters.

His mother knew no one else could have done it, but the child foolishly prevaricated about the stain on the rug. pristine (adj.) primitive, pure, uncorrupted
The pristine lake had not been marred by pollution.
She had such a pristine look about her, you would have thought she was an angel. privy (adj.) private; confidential
He was one of a handful of people privy to the news of the pending merger. Only the woman's best friend was privy to her secret. probity (n.) honesty
The young man's probity was reassuring to the fearful parent. problematic (adj.) being hard to deal with; unsolved situation
The constant squeak of the door was problematic.
The tense political struggle remains problematic. prodigal (adj.) wasteful; lavish
The actor's prodigal lifestyle ultimately led to his undoing.
Spending his rent money on your birthday present was more than generous, it was prodigal.
The prodigal gift by the poor woman was truly a thoughtful gesture. prodigious (adj.) wonderful; enormous
The prodigious festivities lasted until the wee hours of the morning.
The Empire State Building required a prodigious amount of steel to erect. profound (adj.) deep; knowledgeable; thorough
It was with profound regret and sorrow that the family had to leave their homeland for a more prosperous country. profusion (n.) great wastefulness; a large abundance of
The profusion of the food-fight was unforgivable considering the worldwide hunger problem.
The profusion of uneaten food was sent to the shelter.
The wet winter brought about a profusion of mosquitoes.

(n.) children; offspring
It is through his progeny that his name shall live on.
The princes were the progeny of royalty. program (n.) the parts of entertainment; a plan for dealing with a matter; coded instructions The free-form music program on Sunday nights is virtually unique in commercial radio.
The program for better health is to eat more vegetables and fruits.
The store's computer program allows sale information to prompt at the register for certain items at certain hours. proliferate (v.) to reproduce quickly
Gerbils are known to proliferate quickly. prolific (adj.) fruitful
The merger resulted in a prolific business which became an asset to the community. promontory
(n.) a piece of land jutting into a body of water
The boat hit the rocky promontory, splitting the bow. propagate (v.) to reproduce or multiply
Rabbits and gerbils are said to propagate quickly. propensity (n.) a natural tendency towards; bias
I have a propensity to talk too fast.
She has a propensity to hire men over women. propinquity (n.) closeness in time or place; closeness of relationship
The propinquity of the disasters put the community in chaos.
The propinquity of the two stories was the basis of the teacher's lesson. propitiate (v.) to win the goodwill of
If I try my best I will hopefully propitiate my new supervisor. prosaic (adj.) tiresome; ordinary
He wanted to do something new; he was tired of the prosaic activities his

parents suggested each day.
The only entertainment would be a prosaic game of cards. proselytize (v.) to convert from one belief or religion to another
The preacher often attempts to proselytize wayward travelers. protocol (n.) an original draft or record of a document
The protocol was given to the president once it was completed. proverbial (adj.) well-known because it is commonly referred to
King Solomon's proverbial wisdom has been admired through the ages. provident (adj.) prudent; economical
It was provident, in his opinion, to wait and buy the new car when he was financially secure. provincial (adj.) regional; unsophisticated
After living in the city for five years, he found that his family back home on the farm was too provincial for his cultured ways. proviso (n.) A clause stating a condition or stipulation
The governor began the conference with a proviso stating the disastrous results of the flood. provocative (adj.) tempting; irritating
In the movie Roger Rabbit, the animated Jessica Rabbit demurs when she's told she's provocative, saying that she's only drawn that way.
The U.S. considered the invasion of Kuwait a provocative action. provoke (v.) to stir action or feeling; arouse
By calling him names, he was provoking a fight. quaff (v.) drinking deeply
A dog will quaff if he becomes overheated. quagmire (n.) marshy land
The vehicle became stuck in the quagmire. quaint (adj.) old-fashioned; unusual; odd

One of the best qualities of the bed-and-breakfast was its quaint setting in the charming English village. qualified (adj.) experienced, indefinite
She was well qualified for the job after working the field for ten years. qualm (n.) sudden feeling of uneasiness or doubt
His qualms about flying disappeared once the plane landed softly. quandary (n.) dilemma
Joe and Elizabeth were caught in a quandary: Should they spend
Thanksgiving with his parents or hers?
Unable to make a firm decision, I've been in this quandary for weeks.
When the car broke down the commuter was left in a quandary. quarantine (n.) isolation of a person or persons to prevent the spread of disease
To be sure they didn't bring any contagions back to Earth, the astronauts were put under quarantine when they returned. quiescence (n.) state of being at rest or without motion
After a tough day on the shipping dock, one needs quiescence.
A period of quiescence is useful to calm the nerves. quiescent (adj.) inactive, at rest
Everyone deserves a day off and should remain quiescent on Sundays.
The Bible says that the Lord created the Earth in six days and on the seventh He was quiescent. quintessence (n.) the pure essence of anything
This story is the quintessence of American fiction. quirk (n.) peculiar behavior; startling twist
Nobody's perfect-we all have our quirks.
Our vacation went smoothly save for one quirk-a hurricane that came barreling into the coastline as we were preparing to head home.
The plot of that movie had so many quirks that it became very hard to follow. Always needing to put the left shoe on first is a peculiar quirk. quixotic (adj.) foolishly idealistic; romantically idealistic; extravagantly chivalrous

He was popular with the ladies due to his quixotic charm.
She had a quixotic view of the world, believing that humans need never suffer. rabid
(adj.; n.) furious; with extreme anger; a disease affecting animals
The insult made him rabid.
Discovering that the dog was rabid, the mail carrier knew he'd have to get a shot.
He's been a rabid sports fan for as long as I have known him. raconteur (n.) a person skilled at telling stories
Our entertainment was a raconteur who told a story of talking animals. ramification (n.) the arrangement of branches; consequence
One of the ramifications of driving fast is getting a speeding ticket. rampant (adj.) growing unchecked; widespread
Social unrest was rampant because of the lack of food available to the people. rampart
(n.; v.) a defense; to defend
The ramparts where beginning to crumble. rancid (adj.) having a bad odor
Left out too long, the meat turned rancid. rancor (n.) strong ill will; enmity
Her rancor for the man was evident in her hateful expression.
Sure they had their disagreements, but there was no rancor between them. rant
(v.) to speak in a loud, pompous manner; rave
He disputed the bill with the shipper, ranting that he was dealing with thieves. rapacious
(adj.) using force to take
Rapacious actions were needed to take the gun from the intruder. ratify (v.) to make valid; confirm
The Senate ratified the new law that would prohibit companies from

discriminating according to race in their hiring practices.
Hunters were called in to rarefy the deer population. rationalize (v.) to offer reasons for; account for on rational grounds
His daughter attempted to rationalize why she had dropped out of college, but she could not give any good reasons. raucous (adj.) disagreeable to the sense of hearing; harsh; hoarse
The raucous protesters stayed on the street corner all night, shouting their disdain for the whale killers. raze (v.) to scrape or shave off; to obliterate or tear down completely
The plow will raze the ice from the road surface.
It must be time to give the cat a manicure; she razed my skin last night.
They will raze the old Las Vegas hotel to make room for a $2.5 billion gambling palace. realm (n.) an area; sphere of activity
In the realm of health care, the issue of who pays and how is never far from the surface.
The bounding islands were added to the realm of the kingdom. rebuff (n.) a blunt refusal to offered help
The rebuff of her aid plan came as a shock. rebuttal (n.) refutation
The lawyer's rebuttal to the judge's sentencing was to present more evidence to the case. recalcitrant (adj.) stubbornly rebellious
The boy became recalcitrant when the curfew was enforced.
The recalcitrant youth dyed her hair purple, dropped out of school, and generally worked hard at doing whatever others did not want her to do. recession (n.) withdrawal; economic downturn
Oscar's gum recession left him with sensitive teeth.
Soaring unemployment in the nation's industrial belt triggered recession. recidivism (n.) habitual or chronic relapse of criminal or antisocial offenses

Even after intense therapy the parolee experienced several episodes of recidivism, and was eventually sent back to prison. reciprocal (adj.) mutual; having the same relationship to each other
Hernando's membership in the Picture of Health Fitness Center gives him reciprocal privileges at 245 health clubs around the U.S.
Although his first child was adopted, she had a reciprocal relationship with her father. recluse (adj.; n.) solitary; a person who lives secluded
His recluse life seems to make him happy.
Howard Hughes, among the most famous and enigmatic figures of the
20th century, ultimately retreated to a life as a recluse. recondite (adj.) hard to understand; concealed
The students were dumbfounded by the recondite topic.
Many scientific theories are recondite, and therefore not known at all by the general public. rectify (v.) correct
The service manager rectified the shipping mistake by refunding the customer's money. recumbent (adj.) resting
The recumbent puppy stirred. recusant (adj.) disobedient of authority
Recusant inmates may be denied privileges. redolent (adj.) sweet-smelling; having the odor of a particular thing
The redolent aroma of the pie tempted everyone.
The restaurant was redolent with the smell of spices. redundant (adj.) wordy; repetitive; unnecessary to the meaning
The redundant lecture of the professor repeated the lesson in the text.
Her comments were both redundant and sarcastic.
With millions of transactions at stake, the bank built a redundant processing center on a separate power grid. refurbish (v.) to make new; renovate

The Newsomes are refurbishing their old colonial home with the help of an interior designer. refute (v.) challenge; disprove
He refuted the proposal, deeming it unfair regal (adj.) royal; grand
The regal home was lavishly decorated and furnished with European antiques. The well-bred woman behaves in a regal manner. reiterate (v.) to repeat again
Rose found that she had to reiterate almost everything, leading her to fear her husband was going deaf.
If you did not hear me the first time, I will reiterate the directions for you. relegate
(v.) banish; put to a lower position
With Internal Affairs launching an investigation into charges that Officer
Wicker had harassed a suspect, he was relegated to desk duty. relevant (adj.) of concern; significant
Asking applicants about their general health is relevant since much of the job requires physical strength. relinquish (v.) to let go; abandon
House Speaker Jim Wright had to relinquish his position after an ethics investigation undermined his authority. remonstrate (v.) to protest or object to
The population will remonstrate against the new taxes. remorse (n.) guilt; sorrow
The prosecutor argued that the defendant had shown no remorse for his actions. renascence
(n.) a new life; rebirth
The renascence of the band resulted in a new recording contract. rend (v.) to rip or pull from; to split with violence; to disturb with a sharp

The kidnapper rent the newborn baby from the arms of its mother as she was leaving the hospital.
A freakish water spout rent the fishing boat in half.
Every morning, the 5:47 local out of New Brunswick rends the dawn's silence with its air horn. render (v.) deliver; provide
The Yorkville First Aid Squad was first on the scene to render assistance. renegade
(n.) a person who abandons something, as a religion, cause or movement; a traitor
Benedict Arnold remains one of the most notorious renegades in
American history. repast (n.) food that is eaten
The repast consisted of cheese, wine, and bread replete (adj.) well supplied
The kitchen came replete with food and utensils. replica (n.) copy; representation; reproduction
The equine sculpture was a replica of a Remington. reprehend (v.) to reprimand; to find fault with
Finding the need to reprehend the student's actions, she gave her detention. reproach
(v.) to blame and thus make feel ashamed; to rebuke
The major reproached his troops for not following orders. reprobate (v.) to condemn; to reject
The teacher will reprobate the actions of the delinquent student.
His assertions were reprobated as inappropriate. reproof (n.) a rebuke
For all his hard work, all he got was a reproof of his efforts. repudiate (v.) to disown; to deny support for; reject; cancel

The man will repudiate all claims that he was involved in the deal.
Although his party supported the bill, this senator repudiated it.
The offer was repudiated because of its cost. repugnant (adj.) inconsistent; resistance
The repugnant actions of the man made others lose trust in him.
Despite their efforts to convince her, she remained repugnant. resignation (n.) quitting; submission
He submitted his resignation because he found a new job.
You could see the resignation on his face: Things just weren't working out as he'd expected. resilient (adj.) flexible; capable of withstanding stress
The elderly man attributed his resilient health to a good diet and frequent exercise. resolution
(n.) proposal; promise; determination
Former U.S. Senator George Mitchell journeyed to Ireland to help bring about a peaceful resolution to years of strife. resonant (adj.) resounding; re-echoing
Beautiful resonant music escaped from the cathedral's windows. respite (n.) recess; rest period
The workers talked and drank coffee during the respite.
The team was given a respite from the long practice schedule. resplendent (adj.) dazzling and shining
Her new diamond was resplendent in the sunshine. resurgent (adj.) rising or tending to rise again
A resurgent wave of enthusiasm erupted from the once quiet crowd. reticent (adj.) silent; reserved; shy
The reticent girl played with her building blocks while the other children played tag.
It was difficult to get the reticent boy to join the conversation.

(v.) to draw or take back
Once you say something, it's hard to retract. retroaction (n.) a reverse action
The retroaction of the car sent those standing behind it fleeing.
The bill's retroaction stood to save taxpayers an average of $500 a head. reverent (adj.) respectful; feeling or showing deep love, respect, or awe
The congregation was very reverent of its spiritual leader. reverie (n.) the condition of being unaware of one's surroundings, trance; dreamy thinking or imagining, especially of agreeable things
As their anniversary neared, Lisa fell into a reverie as she recalled all the good times she and Roscoe had had.
After spending the morning in reverie, I decided to work in the afternoon. revile (v.) to be abusive in speech
It is not appropriate for a teacher to revile a student. rhapsodize (v.) to speak or write in a very enthusiastic manner
Hearing the general rhapsodize about his time as a plebe sent a wave of recognition through the academy grads. rhetorical (adj.) having to do with verbal communication; artificial eloquence
In posing a rhetorical question, he hoped to get people thinking.
The perception that Gary Hart was spouting rhetorical flourishes enabled fellow Democrat Walter Mondale to score debate points by asking,
"Where's the beef?" ribald (adj.) vulgar joking or mocking
Some people find the comedian's ribald act offensive.
The ribald story proved an embarrassment to its audience. rigor (n.) severity
She criticized the planning board's vote with rigor. rivet (v.) to secure; to hold firmly, as in eyes
We can rivet the boat to the dock.
She could not look away from the morbid scene; she was riveted to it.

(adj.) rose-colored
The roseate sunset faded into the sky. rout (n.; v.) a noisy or disorderly crowd; a retreat or terrible defeat; to dig up
The rout kept the police busy all morning with crowd control.
The Scarlet Knights beat the Fighting Irish in a rout, 56-14.
I need to rout the backyard in order to put in the pipes. rudimentary (adj.) elementary
Adding two plus two is a rudimentary activity. ruffian (n.) tough person or a hoodlum
Contrary to popular opinion, ruffians are nothing new in the city. ruminate (v.) to consider carefully
The doctor will ruminate on his diagnosis.
Facing a tough decision, he decided to ruminate before making his thoughts known. rummage (v.) search thoroughly
Determined to find his college yearbook, he rummaged through every box in the garage. rustic (adj.) plain and unsophisticated; homely; of or living in the country
The president enjoyed spending weekends at Camp David, a rustic retreat in the Catoctin Mountains of Maryland. saga (n.) a legend; any long story of adventure or heroic deed
The saga of King Arthur and his court has been told for generations. sagacious (adj.) wise
Many of her friends came to her with their problems because she gave sagacious advice.
The old man gave sagacious advice. salient (adj.) noticeable; prominent
What's salient about the report is its documentation of utter despair in the heartland of the richest nation on Earth.

His most salient feature is his nose.
His salient bruise will alert his mother to the altercation. salubrious (adj.) promoting good health
Salubrious food helps maintain an ideal weight.
Exercising frequently and eating healthy foods are salubrious habits. salutatory (adj.) of or containing greetings
Two messengers were sent to the new neighbors with a salutatory letter. salvage (v.) rescue from loss
The family tried to salvage their belongings after their home was destroyed by a tornado. sanction (v.; n.) an act of giving authoritative permission; to give encouragement; a blockade
The government has sanctioned the meetings as a worthy cause.
He did more than tolerate her actions, he sanctioned them.
Before committing troops to war, the president wanted to give the sanctions a chance to work. sanguine (adj.) optimistic; cheerful; red
Even when victory seemed impossible, the general remained sanguine.
The dress was sanguine with a bright green border stripe.
With a sanguine nod the interviewee entered the office. sapid (adj.) having a pleasant taste
Yellow and blue icing covered the sapid pastry. sarcasm (n.) ironic; bitter humor designed to wound
The teacher did not appreciate the student's sarcasm and gave him detention. sardonic
(adj.) having a sarcastic quality
H.L. Mencken was known for his sardonic writings on political figures. satire (n.) a novel or play that uses humor or irony to expose folly
The new play was a satire that exposed the President's inability to lead the country.

(v.) soak thoroughly; drench
She saturated the sponge with soapy water before she began washing the car. saturnine
(adj.) gloomy, sluggish
The never-ending rain put everyone in a saturnine mood. saunter (v.) to walk at a leisurely pace; stroll
The loving couple sauntered down the wooded path. savant (n.) one who is intelligent
The savant accepted his award of excellence. savor (v.) to receive pleasure from; to enjoy with appreciation; dwell on with delight After several months without a day off, she savored every minute of her week-long vacation. scanty (adj.) inadequate; sparse
The malnutrition was caused by the scanty amount of healthy food eaten each day. schism (n.) a division in an organized group
When the group could not decide on a plan of action, a schism occurred. scourge (v.) to whip severely
The trainer will scourge the animal if it attacks someone. scrupulous (adj.) honorable; exact
After finding a purse with valuable items inside, the scrupulous Mr.
Prendergast returned everything to its owner.
A scrupulous cleaning was conducted before the family moved. scrutinize (v.) examine closely; study
After allowing his son to borrow the family car, the father scrutinized every section for dents. scurrilous (adj.) vulgarity
The scurrilous language made the mother twinge.

(adj.) to be narrow minded or limited
A sectarian precluded him from listening to the other side. sedentary (adj.) characterized by sitting; remaining in one locality
The sedentary child had not moved after two hours.
The old woman who never left her home town has led a sedentary life. sedition (n.) a revolt
The sedition by the guards ended with their being executed for treason. sedulous (adj.) working diligently; persistent
The sedulous habits of the team will surely conclude in victory.
Only the most sedulous salespeople will succeed. seethe (v.) to be violently disturbed
By the time I arrived, she was seething with anger.
He seethed at the prospect of losing the business to his conniving uncle. sequester (v.) to separate or segregate
The jury was sequestered at the local inn. serendipity (n.) an apparent aptitude for making fortunate discoveries accidentally
Serendipity seemed to follow the lucky winner where ever he went. serrated (adj.) having a saw-toothed edge
While camping, the family used a serrated band saw to cut firewood. servile (adj.) slavish; groveling
He knew they both possessed equal abilities, and yet he was always treated as a servile underling.
His servile leadership forced her to take over.
The servile nurse did everything the doctor told her to do. shady (adj.) a character of questionable honesty
A shady person would not be trusted with a sensitive secret. shoal (n.) a large group or crowd
Shoals of grain were stored in the barn.

(adj.) of inferior quality; cheap
The state's attorney said many homes, as they were built with shoddy materials, were bound to just blow apart even in winds of 60 or 70 miles per hour.
The shoddy homes were blown over in the storm. sinuous (adj.) full of curves; twisting and turning
Sinuous mountain roads at night present extra danger at night when it's harder to see the road's edge. skeptic (n.) doubter
Even after seeing evidence that his competitor's new engine worked, the engineer remained a skeptic that it was marketable. skulk (v.) to move secretly, implies sinister
The thief skulked around the neighborhood hoping to find his next target.
They found the boy skulking in the bushes.
The woman attempted to skulk away from cleaning the house by hiring a cleaning service. slander (v.) defame; maliciously misrepresent
Orville said he'd been slandered, and he asked the court who would-or could- give him his name back. sloth (n.) disinclination to action or labor
Employers want to guard against hiring sloths as new employees. slothful (adj.) lazy
The slothful actions of the player led to his benching. slovenly (adv.) sloppy
His mother-in-law did not approve of his slovenly manner. sodden (adj.) soggy; dull in action as if from alcohol
The flowers were sodden after the rain.
The sodden reaction of the man caused the accident. sojourn (v.) to stay temporarily
The family will sojourn at their summer home.

The guest remained only for a sojourn; she was going to leave in the afternoon. solace
(n.) hope; comfort during a time of grief
When her father passed away, she found solace amongst her friends and family. solemnity
(n.) a deep, reverent feeling often associated with religious occasions
The church service was full of solemnity.
The solemnity of the funeral procession stood in stark contrast to the young children splashing with delight in a nearby pool. solicit (v.) ask; seek
The jobless man solicited employment from many factories before he was able to find work. soliloquy (n.) a talk one has with oneself (esp. on stage)
Imagine T.S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land performed on stage as a kind of soliloquy!
The soliloquy by the man standing alone on the cliff sent a message of regret. solubility
(n.) that can be solved; that can be dissolved
The solubility of sugar causes it to disappear when put in water. somber (adj.) dark and depressing; gloomy
The sad story had put everyone in a somber mood. soporific (adj.) causing sleep
The soporific medication should not be taken when you need to drive. sordid (adj.) filthy; base; vile
The sordid gutters needed to be cleaned after the long, rainy autumn.
The criminals thought patterns were so sordid that he was not granted parole. sovereign
(adj.) superior
The power was given to the sovereign warrior. specious (adj.) plausible, but deceptive; apparently, but not actually, true

The jury forewoman said the jury saw through the defense lawyer's specious argument and convicted his client on the weight of the evidence. I was unsure of the meaning of the specious statement. spelunker (n.) one who studies caves
The spelunker made a startling discovery in the old mine. spendthrift (n.) a person who spends money extravagantly
The spendthrift bought two new necklaces and three pairs of shoes. splenetic (adj.) marked by hostility
The splenetic warriors advanced with no thought of what they were destroying. sporadic
(adj.) rarely occurring or appearing; intermittent
In the desert there is usually only sporadic rainfall. spurious (adj.) not genuine, false; bogus
Spurious claims by the importer hid the fact that prison labor had been used in the garments' fabrication.
The newspaper was notorious for spurious information. spurn (v.; n.) to push away; a strong rejection
The woman spurned the advances of her suitor, saying she wasn't ready for a commitment.
Unlucky enough to be the ninth telemarketer to call Jane that evening, he caught her spurn. squalid (adj.) filthy; wretched (from squalor)
The lack of sanitation piping caused squalid conditions.
He makes good money, but I would never want to work in those squalid crawl spaces. stagnant (adj.) motionless, uncirculating
The stagnant water in the puddle became infested with mosquitoes. staid (adj.) marked by self-control
The horse was staid as it entered the stable.

(n.) endurance
Anybody who can finish the New York Marathon has lots of stamina. stanch (v.) to stop or check the flow of; staunch
It is necessary to stanch the bleeding from the wound as soon as possible. stanza
(n.) group of lines in a poem having a definite pattern
The poet uses an odd simile in the second stanza of the poem. static (adj.) inactive; changeless
The view while riding in the train across the endless, flat landscape remained static for days.
The static water of the lake reflected the image of the trees. steadfast (adj.) loyal
The secret service agents are steadfast to their oath to protect the president. stigma
(n.) a mark of disgrace
The "F" on his transcript is a stigma on his record. stigmatize (v.) to characterize or make as disgraceful
The gross error will stigmatize the worker as careless. stipend (n.) payment for work done
She receives a monthly stipend for her help with the project.
The bank will pay the woman a stipend of a hundred dollars a week. stoic (adj.) detached; unruffled; calm; austere indifference to joy, grief, pleasure, or pain
The soldier had been in week after week of fierce battle; nonetheless, he remained stoic.
With stoic obedience the child sat quietly on the chair. stoke (v.) to feed fuel to; especially a fire
With the last embers dying, he stoked the fire one more time.

(adj.) showing little emotion
With a stolid expression, the man walked away from the confrontation. striated (adj.) having lines or grooves
The striated road was ready for traffic. stridency (n.) harshness or shrillness sound
The stridency of the whistle hurt the dog's ears. strident (adj.) creaking; harsh, grating
Her strident voice hampered her chances of getting the announcer position. stupor
(n.) a stunned or bewildered condition
He was in a stupor after being hit on the head. stymie (v.) to hinder or obstruct
Large amounts of snowfall will stymie the rescue effort. suave (adj.) effortlessly gracious
She was a suave negotiator, always getting what she wanted without anyone feeling they'd lost anything.
The elegant woman entered the room with a suave walk. subjugate (v.) to dominate or enslave
The bully will attempt to subjugate the remainder of the class.
The royal family subjugated the peasants, making them perform hard labor. subliminal
(adj.) below the level of consciousness
Critics of advertising say that it's loaded with subliminal messages. subsidiary (adj.) giving a service; being in a subordinate position
The function of the subsidiary was to oversee the bank's commercial loans. He acknowledged the importance of the issue, but called it subsidiary to a host of other concerns. substantive (adj.) existing independently of others; a large quantity

The only company not acquired in the merger retained its substantive existence. A substantive amount of money will be needed to fund the project. subsume (v.) to include within a larger group
The AFL was subsumed by the NFL in the 1960s. subtlety (n.) propensity of understatement; so slight as to be barely noticeable
There was no subtlety in the protest; each person carried a sign and yelled for civil rights.
With great subtlety we slipped away from the boring party. succinct (adj.) clearly stated; characterized by conciseness
The speech was succinct yet emotional.
Usually, the most succinct definition is the right one.
Articles in USA Today are so succinct that some observers nicknamed the newspaper "McPaper." succor (n.) aid; assistance
Succor was given to the fire victim in the form of clothes and temporary shelter. succumb
(v.) give in; yield; collapse
When dieting, it is difficult not to succumb to temptation. suffuse (v.) to overspread
The rain will suffuse the spilled sand around the patio. sumptuous (adj.) involving great expense
A sumptuous spread of meats, vegetables, soups and breads was prepared for the guests. sunder (v.) break; split in two
The Civil War threatened to sunder the United States.
Management seeks to sunder the workers' connections to the union. sundry (adj.) various; miscellaneous; separate; distinct
This store sells many sundry novelty items.
Sundry items may be purchased as a single item.

(adj.) on the surface, narrow minded; lacking depth
The victim had two stab wounds, but luckily were only superficial. superfluous (adj.) unnecessary; extra
Although the designer considered the piece superfluous, the woman wanted the extra chair in her bedroom.
Only the first sentence is necessary; all of these details are superfluous.
After they finished their seven-course meal, a large dessert seemed superfluous. superlative
(adj.) of the highest kind or degree
The Golden Gate Bridge is a superlative example of civil engineering. supplant (v.) to take the place of
Can you supplant my position if I cannot play? suppliant (adj.) asking earnestly and submissively
Her suppliant request of wanting to know the name of the man was met with a laugh. suppress (v.) to bring to an end; hold back
The illegal aliens were suppressed by the border patrol. surfeit (v.; n.) excessively indulging; overindulgence
The teenagers were warned not to surfeit at the party.
The result of her surfeit was a week of regret. surmise (n; v) a guess; to guess
Was my surmise correct?
I surmise that we will not
He surmised how the play would end before the second act began. surpass (v.) go beyond; out do
After recovering from a serious illness, the boy surpassed the doctor's expectations by leaving the hospital two days early. surreptitious (adj.) done secretly
The surreptitious maneuvers gave the advancing army an advantage.

(adj.) easily imposed; inclined
She gets an annual flu shot since she is susceptible to becoming ill. swathe (v.) to wrap around something; envelop
Soft blankets swathe the new born baby. sycophant (n.) flatterer
Rodolfo honed his skills as a sycophant, hoping it would get him into
Sylvia's good graces.
The sycophant is known for attending many parties. syllogism (n.) reasoning in order from general to particular
The syllogism went from fish to guppies. symmetry (n.) correspondence of parts; harmony
The roman columns give the building a symmetry. synthetic (adj.) not real, rather artificial
The synthetic skin was made of a thin rubber. table (n.) a systematic list of details
The train schedule was set up as a table. tacit (adj.) not voiced or expressed
The National Security Agency aide argued, in effect, that he had received the president's tacit approval for the arms-for-hostages deal. taciturn (adj.) inclined to silence; speaking little; dour, stern
The man was so taciturn it was forgotten that he was there. tantalize (v.) to tempt; to torment
The desserts were tantalizing, but he was on a diet. tarry (v.) to go or move slowly; delay
She tarried too long, and therefore missed her train. taut (adj.) stretched tightly
They knew a fish was biting, because the line suddenly became taut.

(adj.) tastelessly ornamented
The shop was full of tawdry jewelry. tedious (adj.) wearisome, tiresome
Cleaning the house is a tedious chore for some people.
With so many new safety precautions instituted, flying has become a tedious affair. teem (v.) to be stocked to overflowing; to pour out; to empty
The new plant seemed to be teeming with insects.
It is healthier to teem the grease from the broth before serving it. temerity (n.) foolhardiness
Temerity can result in tragedy if the activity is dangerous. temper (v.) to moderate, as by mingling with something else; to bring to the proper condition by treatment
She drew a hot bath, but then realized she'd have to temper it with a little cool water or end up scalded.
The craftsman tempered the steel before being able to twist it to form a table leg. temperament (n.) one's customary frame of mind
The girl's temperament is usually very calm. tenacious (adj.) holding; persistent
With a tenacious grip, the man was finally able to pull the nail from the wall. After his tenacious pleas, she finally conceded.
His hold on his dreams is as tenacious as anyone I know. tenet (n.) a principle accepted as authoritative
The tenets of socialism were explained in the book. tensile (adj.) undergoing or exerting tension
The pipeline was capable of flexing to withstand the tremendous tensile strain that might accompany an seismic movement. tentative (adj.) not confirmed; indefinite

Not knowing if he'd be able to get the days off, Al went ahead anyway and made tentative vacation plans with his pal. tenuous (adj.) thin, slim, delicate; weak
The hurricane force winds ripped the tenuous branches from the tree.
The spectators panicked as they watched the cement block dangle from one tenuous piece of twine. tepid (adj.) lacking warmth, interest, enthusiasm; lukewarm
The tepid bath water was perfect for relaxing after a long day. termagant (n.) a constantly quarrelsome woman
Agreement with the termagant was an impossibility. terrestrial (adj.) pertaining to the earth
Deer are terrestrial animals; fish are aquatic. terse (adj.) concise; abrupt
She believed in getting to the point, so she always gave terse answers.
The terse speech contained only the essential comments. tether (n.) the range or limit of one's abilities; rope or chain used to keep a boat from drifting or an animal from wandering
My tether of playing basketball is shooting air balls.
The bulldog was tethered to his doghouse. thrall (n.) a slave
The worker was treated like a thrall, having to work many hours of overtime. thrifty
(adj.) frugal, careful with money
Being thrifty, the woman would not purchase the item without a coupon.
The thrifty couple saved money by taking the bus to work. throe (n.) spasm or pang; agony
A particularly violent throe knocked her off her feet.
The wounded soldier squirmed in throes of agony. thwart (v.) prevent from accomplishing a purpose; frustrate
Their attempt to take over the country was thwarted by the palace guard.

(n.) the quality of sound which distinguishes one from another
The timbre of guitar music is different from that of piano music. timorous (adj.) lacking courage; timid
The timorous child hid behind his parents.
Hillary came to accept him as a timorous soul who needed succor. torpid (adj.) being dormant; slow, sluggish
When we came upon the hibernating bear, it was in a torpid state.
A torpid animal does not act with energy.
The old, torpid dog spent most of his time sleeping. tortuous (adj.) full of twists and turns; not straight forward; possibly deceitful
The suspect confessed after becoming confused by the tortuous questioning of the captain. toxic (adj.) poisonous
It's best to store cleansing solutions out of children's reach because of their toxic contents. tractable (adj.) easily managed (opposite: intractable)
The boat was so lightweight it was tractable by one person.
Having a tractable staff made her job a lot easier. traduce (v.) to defame or slander
His actions traduced his reputation. tranquillity (n.) peace; stillness; harmony
The tranquillity of the tropical island was reflected in its calm blue waters and warm sunny climate. transmutation (n.) a changed form
Somewhere in the network's entertainment division, the show underwent a transmutation from a half-hour sitcom into an hour-long drama. transmute (v.) to transform
Decorators transmute ordinary homes into interesting showcases.

(v.) to take place; come about
With all that's transpired today, I'm exhausted. traumatic (adj.) causing a violent injury
It was a traumatic accident, leaving the driver with a broken vertebra, a smashed wrist, and a concussion. travail (n.) very hard work; intense pain or agony
The farmer was tired after the travail of plowing the fields.
The analgesic finally ended her travail. trek (v.) to make a journey
They had to trek through the dense forest to reach the nearest village. trenchant (adj.) cutting; keen or incisive words
Without a trenchant tool, they would have to break the branches rather than cut them.
The trenchant words hurt the man deeply. trepidation (n.) apprehension; uneasiness
Her long absence caused more than a little trepidation.
With great trepidation, the boy entered the water for the first time. tribunal (n.) the seat of judge
The tribunal heard the case of the burglary. tribute (n.) expression of admiration
Her performance was a tribute to her retiring teacher. trite (adj.) commonplace; overused
The committee was looking for something new, not the same trite ideas.
Eating tomato salads became trite after their excessive popularity. trivial (adj.) unimportant; small; worthless
Although her mother felt otherwise, she considered her dish washing chore trivial. troth (n.) belief; faith; fidelity
The couple pledged troth to each other through their vows.

(adj.) fierce, savage, cruel
Truculent fighting broke out in the war-torn country.
The truculent beast approached the crowd with wild eyes and sharpened claws. truncate
(v.) to shorten by cutting
With the football game running over, the show scheduled to follow it had to be truncated. tumid (adj.) swollen; pompous
The tumid river washed away the homes built on the shore.
After he earned his high-school diploma, he became insufferably tumid.
The tumid balloon floated, but the empty one did not. tumult (n.) a noisy commotion; disturbance
The tumult was caused by two boys wanting the same toy.
After the tumult, I found it difficult to resume my studies. turbid (adj.) thick and dense; cloudy
The turbid green waters of the lake prevented them from seeing the bottom. turbulence
(n.) condition of being physically agitated; disturbance
Everyone on the plane had to fasten their seat belts as the plane entered an area of turbulence. turmoil (n.) unrest; agitation
Before the country recovered after the war, they experienced a time of great turmoil. turpitude (n.) vileness
The turpitude of the action caused a rage among the people. tutelage (n.) the condition of being under a guardian or a tutor
Being under the tutelage of a master musician is a great honor. tycoon (n.) wealthy leader
The business tycoon prepared to buy his fifteenth company.

(n.) absolute power; autocracy
The people were upset because they had no voice in the government that the king ran as a tyranny. ubiquitous (adj.) omnipresent; present everywhere
A ubiquitous spirit followed the man wherever he went.
Water may seem ubiquitous, until a drought comes along. ulterior (adj.) buried; concealed; undisclosed
She was usually very selfish, so when she came bearing gifts he suspected that she had ulterior motives.
My ulterior concerns are more important than my immediate ones.
The man's ulterior motive was to spy on the lab, though he said he wanted a job. umbrage (n.) offense or resentment
The candidate took umbrage at the remark of his opponent. unalloyed (adj.) pure, of high quality
An unalloyed chain is of greater value than a piece of costume jewelry. uncanny (adj.) of a strange nature; weird
That two people could be so alike was uncanny. uncouth (adj.) uncultured; crude
The social club would not accept an uncouth individual. undermine (v.) to weaken; often through subtle means
The attempts to undermine the merger were unsuccessful.
The supervisor undermined the director's power and began controlling the staff. unequivocal (adj.) clear and unambiguous
The 50-0 vote against the bill was an unequivocal statement against the measure. His response was unequivocal, which seemed unusual for a politician. unfeigned (adj.) genuine; real; sincere
Her unfeigned reaction of surprise meant she had not expected the party.

(adj.) clumsy and unattractive
The ungainly man knocked over the plant stand. uniform (adj.) never changing, always with the same standard
The marching band moved in uniform across the field.
Patrons of fast-food chains say they like the idea of a uniform menu wherever they go. unique (adj.) without equal; incomparable
The jeweler assured him that the dubloon was unique, as it was part of the long lost treasure of the Atocha. universal (adj.) concerning everyone; existing everywhere
Pollution does not affect just one country or state- it's a universal problem. unobtrusive
(adj.) out of the way; remaining quietly in the background
The shy man found an unobtrusive seat in the far corner of the room.
It was easy to miss the unobtrusive plaque above the fireplace. unprecedented (adj.) unheard of; exceptional
Weeks of intense heat created unprecedented power demands, which the utilities were hard pressed to meet. unpretentious (adj.) simple; plain; modest
He was an unpretentious farmer: An old John Deere and a beat-up Ford pick-up were all he needed to get the job done. unruly (adj.) not submitting to discipline; disobedient
The unruly boys had to be removed from the concert hall. untoward (adj.) improper; unfortunate
Asking guests to bring their own food would be an untoward request.
All of their friends expressed sympathy about their untoward separation. unwonted (adj.) rare
The unwonted raise would be the only one received for a few years.
The changed migratory habits of the Canada geese, though unwonted, is unwanted because of the mess they make.

(n.) the final act or result
The upshot of the debate was that the bill would be released to the floor. urbane (adj.) cultured; suave
The gala concert and dinner dance was attended by the most urbane individuals. The English businessman was described by his peers as witty and urbane. usurpation
(n.) art of taking something for oneself; seizure
During the war, the usurpation of the country forced an entirely new culture on the natives. usury (n.) the lending of money with an excessively high interest rate
An interest rate 30 points above the prime rate would be considered usury in the United States.
Loan sharks frequently practice usury, but their debtors usually have little choice but to keep quiet and pay up. utopia (n.) imaginary land with perfect social and political systems
Voltaire wrote of a utopia where the streets were paved with gold. waft (v.) move gently by wind or breeze
The smoke wafted out of the chimney. waive (v.) to give up; to put off until later
I will waive my rights to have a lawyer present because I don't think I need one.
As hard as he tried, he could only waive his responsibility for so long. wan (adj.) lacking color; sickly pale
Her face became wan at the sight of blood. wane (v.) to gradually become less; to grow dim
After time, interest in the show will wane and it will no longer be as popular. The full moon waned until it was nothing but a sliver in the sky. wanton (adj.) unmanageable; unjustifiably malicious

My wanton hunger must be satiated.
With wanton aggression, the army attacked the defenseless village.
It is hard to lose weight when one has a wanton desire for sweets. warrant (v.) justify; authorize
The police official warranted the arrest of the suspect once enough proof had been found. welter (n.) a confused mass; turmoil
When the emergency alarm sounded, a welter of shivering office workers formed in the street as people evacuated the site.
The welter moved from street to street to escape the fire. wheedle (v.) to influence or persuade
The crook may attempt to wheedle the money from the bank.
He tried hard to wheedle his father into buying him a car. whet (v.) to sharpen by rubbing; to stimulate
Before carving the turkey, you must whet the blade.
The smell of cooking food has whet my appetite.
The smell of dinner cooking whetted her appetite. whimsical (adj.) fanciful; amusing
Strolling down Disney World's Main Street is bound to put child and grown-up alike in a whimsical mood. wily (adj.) concealing; sly
The wily explanation was meant to confuse the investigator. winsome (adj.) charming; sweetly attractive
His winsome words moved the crowd to love him even more. wither (v.) wilt; shrivel; humiliate; cut down
The plant withered slowly since it received little light and little water. wizened (adj.) shriveled; withered
The wizened face of the old man was covered by his hat. wooden (adj.) to be expressionless or dull
The wooden expression of the man made him look like a statue.

(adj.) commonplace
The workaday meal was not exciting to the world class chef. wrath (n.) violent or unrestrained anger; fury
Do not trespass on his property or you will have to deal with his wrath. wreak (v.) to give vent; to inflict
The dragon will wreak havoc upon the countryside. wrest (v.) to pull or force away by a violent twisting
The warriors wrest the power from the king. wretched (adj.) miserable or unhappy; causing distress
Brought up in an orphanage, Annie led a wretched existence.
The continual rain made for a wretched vacation. wry (adj.) mocking; cynical
He has a wry sense of humor which sometimes hurts people's feelings. xenophobia (n.) fear of foreigners
Xenophobia kept the townspeople from encouraging any immigrants to move into the neighborhood. yoke (n.) harness; collar; bond
The jockey led her horse by the yoke around its neck and face. yore (n.) former period of time
When he sees his childhood friends, they speak about the days of yore. zealot (n.) believer; enthusiast; fan
The zealot followed whatever rules the cult leader set. zenith (n.) point directly overhead in the sky; highest point
The astronomer pointed her telescope straight up toward the zenith.
The Broncos seemed to be at the zenith of their power just as their rivals on the turf were flagging.
The sun will reach its zenith at noon.
The zenith of her career occurred during her time as chairperson.

(n.) a gentle wind; breeze
It was a beautiful day, with a zephyr blowing in from the sea.
The zephyr blew the boat slowly across the lake.…...

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...2,填空 3 空题。《再要你命 3000》在原书上的改动如下: 1. 将原书的类比部分取消,以 Thesaurus 里的同义词进行替换。编者根据单词在以往 GRE 考试中出现的 频率进行同义词筛选。 2. 将只能在类反中考查的单词删除;补充在填空,阅读中容易涉及到的同义重复、反义重复词条。 3. 丰富单词的例句,更好地帮助考生在语境下把握单词的内涵。 4. 借助 Collegiate 和 Thesaurus 拓展单词考法的含义,与新 GRE Official Guide 中考查单词的丰富含 义,尤其是引申义保持一致。 整书单词依然强调单词的考法,即把握单词的深度。在新 GRE 考试中,记忆单词的深度远比拥有大量单词的广 度针对考试有价值的多。本书是各位考生在冲刺阶段必备的复习资料。 电子版更新每周更新 2 个 list。更新请关注我们的微博通告: 或者琦叔 的校内公共主页: 单词示例: abstract [5AbstrAkt] 【考法 1】 vt. 做总结,概括: to make an abstract of,summarize 【例】 abstracted the 135-page report in three short paragraphs 【近】 digest, recapitulate, synopsize, sum up, boil down 【反】 elaborate 详细描述 【考法 2】 vt. 使分心: to draw away the attention of 【例】 personal problems abstracted him 【近】 detract, divert, call off, throw off 【派】 abstraction n. 心不在焉 【反】 attention 关注 私人问题让他分心 将一份 135 页的报告概括为三段话 ___________________________ 【考法 1】——中文和英文解释 【例】——英文例句及中文解释 【近】——近义词 【反】——反义词及中文解释 【派】——派生词及中文解释 “summarize”、”attention”——英文解释中以粗体并下划线标示出的单词短语为该词汇的考法特征 Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 ” “考好 GRE 的唯一捷径就是重复,重复,再重复。 ——曹楚楠, 2008 年 10 月 Verbal 750, Quantitative 800, AW 5.5, 录取学校 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [E5bAndEn] 【考法 1】 n. 放纵: carefree, freedom from constraint 【例】 added spices to the stew with complete......

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... BOOST YOUR 0 VOCABUL Y1 Chris Barker PENGUIN ENGLISH Contents Unit Introduction Meellng I!!!Qple Pages Unit Pag es 4-5 5 - 8 Test yaurself 2 Test exercises 1 - 5 56-57 6-11 9 Saying hello a nd goodbye; Introducing yourself a nd other people; Personal details; Tlfles; Friends; British I American WOf"d list Free lime 58-63 Activities; Talking about post octMties; Music:; Muslcol instru ments 2 family Male and female ; Fomity members; 12-\7 10 ~h~ ~-~ Life stages; 's 3 Describing people: age _ ....;;"nd appearance a ", CO&OUrs; Shades; Clothes and footwear; 1\:"" of clothes; Style 18-23 11 Food and drink Prepe-ed food 70-75 Age ; Hair ~; Hoir colour; Eye ccOOur; Shades of colour; Height; Measurement of he ight; Measurement of weight; Build Basic food; Drinks ; Fruit; Vegetobtes; Meet; 12 Cauntrles, nallanalltles and 76 - 8\ lanquQQes Some countries and nation alities: Europe ; Euro pe I Asio; Midd le East and Asia; North Americo; Central America; South America; Africa ; Australosta; The twelve most wKIe1y spoke n languages 4 House and home Locat ion: prepositions 24-29 Description; Rooms I areas; My room ; I - 4 Test l1Qurself \ T exercises 1 - 5 est 30-3\ 9 -12 Test yourself 3 32-37 Test exercises 1 - 5 82-83 5 Time Days; Months; Y ears; Dates; Sea sons; Time prepositio ns; Time adverbials;......

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...1: Analyze the Question We are told that a, b, and c are prime numbers, and a , b , c. We are also told that y 5 a2bc. Step 2: State the Task We are asked how many non-prime factors of y are greater than 1. Step 3: Approach Strategically Picking Numbers is a great strategy for this question. Since a, b, and c are prime numbers, where a , b , c, let’s choose a 5 2, b 5 3, and c 5 5. Then y 5 a2bc 5 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 4 3 3 3 5 5 12 3 5 5 60. Thus, y 5 60. There are 12 positive integer factors of 60: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 60. Of this list, 8 positive integer factors of 60 are greater than 1 and are not prime numbers: 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 60. Choice (C) is correct. Step 4: Confirm Your Answer You can confirm why this would be true regardless of the exact values of a, b, and c by using the given variables and listing out all the ways they can be multiplied together to produce the nonprime factors of a2bc. You can list out the distinct products that can be formed from these four prime factors as follows: aa, ab, ac, bc, aab, abc, aac, aabc. Since these eight are the only possible combinations, (C) is the correct answer. 25 Quant Mastery A Answers and Explanations 22. (C) If abc  0, is a . 0 ? 3a ___​ (1) ​​ . 0 ​ b b __ (2) 2​ , 0 c Step 1: Analyze the Question Stem In this Yes/No question, we are told that abc  0, which means that none of the three variables is equal to zero. To determine whether a . 0, we......

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...GMAT数学电子讲义 主讲:王 燚 欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材 [pic] GMAT数学备考关键词 一、知识点:准确掌握 二、词汇、表达法:读懂题目 三、熟练:平均两分钟一道题 考试相关问题 一、时间与题量 二、题型 三、机经与换题库 四、其它 If a and b are positive integers such that a – b and a/b are both even integers, which of the following must be an odd integer? (A) a/2 (B) b/2 (C)(a+b)/2 (D) (a+2)/2 (E) (b+2)/2 If M is the least common multiple of 90, 196, and 300, which of the following is NOT a factor of M? (A) 600 (B)700 (C) 900 (D) 2,100 (E) 4,900 复习注意事项 *战略上重视 *初等数学的思维 *解法力求稳妥清晰 *把握好DS题型 *熟练重于技巧 推荐复习步骤 *知识点查缺补漏 *背熟词汇 *复习课上所学 *OG,及其它相关资料 *机经 第一章 算术 1. integer (whole number): 整数 * positive integer:正整数,从1开始,不包括0。 2. odd & even number 奇数与偶数 * 凡整数均具有奇偶性,如-1是奇数,0是偶数。 * 奇+奇=偶,奇+偶=奇… 若干个整数相乘,除非都是奇数,其乘积才会是奇数… 例: If a and b are positive integers such that a – b and [pic] are both even integers, which of the following must be an odd integer? (A)[pic] (B)[pic] (C) [pic] (D) [pic] (E) [pic] 3. prime number & composite number 质数与合数 * A prime number is a positive integer that has exactly two different positive divisors,1 and itself. * A composite number is a positive integer greater than 1 that has more than two divisors. * The numbers 1 is neither prime nor composite, 2 is the only even prime number. 4. factor(divisor) & prime factor 因子和质因子 * 一个数能被哪些数整除,这些数就叫它的因子(因数、约数)。 * 因子里的质数叫质因子(数)。 例1: If n=4p, where p is a prime number greater than 2, how many different......

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...Properties See page 7 for details. Bonus Question Bank for 'Manhauan G MAT the new standard Learn using Superior Tools developed by Superior GMAT Instructors • Scored in 99th percentile on the GMAT • Selected by rigorous face-to-face audition •Trained 100+ hours before teaching • Paid up to 4x the industry standard The Manhattan GMAT Advantage: Sophisticated "If you're SERIOUSabout getting a GREATSCOREon the GMAT, you have to go with MANHATTAN GMAT." - Student at top 5 b-school Strategies For Top Scores produce GMAT and GMAC are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council which neither sponsors nor endorses th"o :M.anhattanG MAT·Prep the new standard 1. DIVISIBIUTY & PRIMES In Action Problems Solutions 11 21 23 2. ODDS & EVENS In Action Problems Solutions 27. 33 35 3. POSITIVES & NEGATIVES In Action Problems Solutions 37 43 45 4. CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS InAction Problems Solutions 47 5S 57 5. EXPONENTS In Action Problems Solutions 61 71 73 PART I: GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 6. ROOTS IrfActiort,;Problems So1utioQS 75 83 85 7. PEMDAS In Action Problems .Solutions 87 91 93 8. STRATEGIES FOR DATASUFFICIENCY Sample Data Sufficiency Rephrasing 95 103 9. OmCIAL GUIDE PROBLEMS: PART I Problem Solving List Data Sufficiency List 109 112 113 :M.anliattanG MAT'Prep the new standard 10. DMSIBIUTY & PRIMES: ADVANCED 115 133 135 In Action......

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...GMAT GRADUATE MANAGEMENT ADMISSION TEST McGraw-Hill’s 2008 Edition James Hasik Stacey Rudnick Ryan Hackney New York | Chicago | San Francisco | Lisbon London | Madrid | Mexico City | Milan | New Delhi San Juan | Seoul | Singapore | Sydney | Toronto Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-151120-2 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-149340-9. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all......

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...Analysis of an Argument Questions for the GMAT® Exam This document contains all Analysis of an Argument questions used on the GMAT® exam. Each question is followed by this statement: Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion. The following appeared as part of an annual report sent to stockholders by Olympic Foods, a processor of frozen foods: “Over time, the costs of processing go down because as organizations learn how to do things better, they become more efficient. In color film processing, for example, the cost of a 3-by-5-inch print fell from 50 cents for five-day service in 1970 to 20 cents for one-day service in 1984. The same principle applies to the processing of food. And since Olympic Foods will soon celebrate its 25th birthday, we can expect that our long experience will enable us to minimize costs and thus maximize profits.” Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee......

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...punishment in the United States and the Philippines aligns with how the majority of citizens in those respective countries view the death penalty. There are not strong voices opposing the death penalty in the United States. Most American citizens who believe in the death penalty think that it acts as a deterrent for potential criminals, while most Filipino citizens do not. The legal standard used to determine whether a criminal should be sentenced to the death penalty in the United States is similar to the legal standard used in the Philippines before capital punishment was abolished there. 16. Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including emphysema and lung cancer. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by smoking. A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers, and found that smokers are significantly more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests? • • • • • Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems. Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking. Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study. Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema. Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several......

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... CHECK YOUR ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR I E L T S Rawdon Wyatt A & C Black Ⴇ London First edition published 2001 by Peter Collin Publishing, reprinted 2002 This second edition published in Great Britain 2004 by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc Reprinted 2005, 2007 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB © Rawdon Wyatt 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978 0 7136 7604 4 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0157-5 Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in the UK by Caligraving Ltd This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. ii Introduction This workbook has been written for students who are planning to sit either the general training or the academic modules of the IELTS exam. It covers some of the main vocabulary points that you will need for, or come across in, the listening, reading, writing and speaking sections of the exam. We hope that you find the modules in this book useful and that the vocabulary you acquire will help you to achieve the grade you want in the IELTS. Good luck! about this workbook About this......

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...GMAT 语法练习题精选 Part 1 The only way for growers to salvage frozen citrus is to have it quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns and rots the fruit. ANS:the way is to do...; citrus是单数 Carbon-14 dating reveals that the megalithic monuments in Brittany are nearly 2,000 years older than any of their supposed Mediterranean predecessors. ANS: as old as < older than; 看指代their表示megalithic monuments 6. In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of enzymes that are the organism's attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant. ANS: attempt to/try to do重复 Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by unobstrusive equipment, such as water heaters. ANS: Astronomers at the Palomar Observatory have discovered a distant supernova explosion, one they believe to be of a type previously unknown to science. ANS: 10. However much united States voters may agree that there is waste in government that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state. ANS: there be 直接排除; 主句有may; 宾从agree后that. 11. Using accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C.,......

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...Manhattan SIMPLE PRESENT general definitions SIMPLE PAST a specific, completed time period SIMPLE FUTURE Simple Tenses (In general, the GMAT prefers the simple tenses) express"eternal"states or frequent events future actions Progressive Tenses (ongoing,happening right now) Verbs that express general states do not normally take progressive forms Keep Verb Tenses Consistent, However, some sentences with more than one action do The Perfect Tenses: require you If an action began in the past and continues into to switch VERB verb tenses. the present (or its effect TENSE does ), use the Present (Meaning) Perfect tense. If one action in the past precedes another, and need to clarify or emphasize the time sequence, then use the Past Perfect tense. In a more subtle example, you can use the Past Progressive to describe a background event , while you use Simple Past to describe a more important event in the foreground .(语 义不在一个层级) PRESENT PROGRESSIVE PAST PROGRESSIVE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE Still In Effect… PRESENT PERFECT= HAVE/HAS + Past Participle the Present Perfect indicates either continued action or continued effect of a completed action. only to clarify or emphasize a sequence of past events. BUT if the sequence is already obvious, we often do not need Past Perfect. The Earlier A sequence of verbs with the same subject does not require Past Perfect. Rather, use Action(also indicate the......

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