Premium Essay

Gi Function

In: Science

Submitted By hdebidat
Words 831
Pages 4
Copstead-Kirkhorn: Pathophysiology, 4th Edition
Chapter 35: Gastrointestinal Function
Key Questions
1. What are the major structures of the gastrointestinal tract and their corresponding functions? Mouth and salivary glands: Transport of food to the esophagus and protection of the airway from aspiration of food particles.
Pharynx: Transport of food to the esophagus and protection of the airway from aspiration of food particles. Esophagus: Movement of food to the stomach by peristaltic waves. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) prevents reflux of stomach contents.
Stomach: Reservoir for food, mixing, and initial digestion of proteins; secretion of hydrochloric acid, instrinsic factor, and gastrin. The pyloric sphincter prevents reflux of intestinal contents.
Small intestine: Digestion and absorption of nearly all nutrients in the duodenum and jejunum; absorption of bile salts in the terminal ilium. The brush border contains numerous digestive enzymes. The enzymes secretin and cholecystokinin are secreted by intestinal mucosa.
Pancreas and gallbladder: The pancreas delivers digestive enzymes and bicarbonate to the duodenum. The gallbladder delivers bile salts to the duodenum.
Large intestine: Reabsorption of water and storage of feces. Feces are delivered to the rectum for defecation (pgs. 805-812).
2. How does the autonomic nervous system influence gastrointestinal motility?
Sympathetic nervous system activity is generally inhibitory to GI motility and secretion.
Parasympathetic nervous system activity generally enhances motility (pgs. 813-814).
3. How do segmental and propulsive movements influence the digestive and absorptive functions of the small intestine?
Segmental and propulsive movement mixes the chyme and digestive enzymes to enhance digestion and spreads out the chyme along the intestinal mucosa to aid absorption (pg. 818-820).
4.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Gis and Tourism in Uttarakhand

...GIS and Tourism in Uttarakhand: The way forward Credits: Deepro Ganguly Agenda • Introduction to MapmyIndia • GIS empowering governments • GIS solutions for Tourism 2 Started in 1992 by Rakesh Verma and Rashmi Verma, the MapmyIndia team is now 750 member strong • India’s leader and pioneer in digital maps, geographic business intelligence (Geo-BI) and location-based services • Founded in 1992 • Head-Quartered in New Delhi (25,000 sq ft. facility), with Regional Offices in Mumbai & Bangalore and Area Sales offices in 10 cities across India • ~700 people strong organization, dedicated to India –350 field surveyors, 200 map and data specialist engineers, 120 sales staff and 30 seat customer support call center specialized in sales, training and support • ISO (Indian Standards Organization) 9001:2012 • Leading & most exciting brand for location-based services in India • De-facto licensing partner to the leading players in the country • Possesses IP ownership for the largest and leading digital map and data product of India 3 Lines of Businesses (LOB) GIS Solutions for governments Web Mobile Licensing GIS Solutions For Enterprises Navigation Tracking Print Lines of Businesses (LOB) GIS Solutions Web Mobile Print Licensing Devices GOVERNMENT CORPORATES GOVERNMENT CORPORATES CITIZENS GIS MAP NAVIGATION MAP TRACKING NAVIGATION Agenda • Introduction to MapmyIndia • GIS empowering governments • GIS solutions for......

Words: 1442 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Gis and Hazards

...reasons why you think GIS technology currently requires technical experts to apply it in crisis management situations. What are the key issues that need to be addressed? Suppose you had funding resources to combat this problem, where and why would you spend that money? The debate that surrounds the issue of GIS expertise in emergency management seemingly stems from the identity and capabilities of practitioners in crisis management situations. The first or local responders in crisis situations in all likelihood will be police, fire or medical response units; who although highly skilled will not be required to possess any substantial amount of GIS knowledge. Although this observation is simplistic, the cyclical nature and/or role of GIS within emergency management convey the link between GIS expertise and emergency management. The cyclical presence of GIS in the emergency response cycle for example displays how the discipline can be involved in the process of preparedness due to its role in the process of rescue. The presence of GIS expertise in emergency management can be in part explained by the want and desire on the part GIS professionals to retain the consistency and integrity of data pertaining to any given hazard or disaster. This endeavour to build and maintain a reliable data stream facilitates more accurate and thorough long term analysis leading to the delivery of relevant short term information. Operationally the presence of GIS expertise in......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Gi System Questions

...Chapter 36 Quiz 1. A 34-year-old male was diagnosed with a bacterial GI infection. Which of the following types of diarrhea would most likely occur with his condition? Secretory. 2. The most common cause of mechanical bowel obstruction is: Adhesions. 3. Crohn disease is most often diagnosed in which age group? 15-25 years. 4. Which of the following clinical findings would suggest an esophageal rather than an oropharyngeal cause of dysphagia? Chest pain during meals. 5. What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include? Atrophy of the gastric mucosa with decreased secretions. 6. Acute right lower quadrant pain associated with rebound tenderness and systemic signs of inflammation are indicative of: Appendicitis. 7. How may a fistula form with Crohn’s disease? Recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops. 8. A 60-year-old male presents with GI bleeding and abdominal pain. He reports that he takes NSAIDs daily to prevent heart attack. Tests reveal that he has a peptic ulcer. The most likely cause of this disease is: Inhibiting mucosal prostaglandin synthesis. 9. Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because: Of reduced blood flow to the gastric wall and mucous glands. 10. A 50-year-old male complains of frequently recurring abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools. A possible diagnosis would be: Ulcerative Colitis. 11. What is a......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Integrating Gis

...Transactions in GIS, 2008, 12(3): 365– 375 XXX © 2008 UK 1467-9671 1361-1682 Transactions in GIS TGIS The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Oxford, 20083Blackwell Publishing Ltd Research Article Research D Ghosh Article A Loose Coupling Technique for Integrating GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Making A Loose Coupling Technique for Integrating GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Debasis Ghosh National Informatics Centre Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Calcutta, India Keywords Abstract Spatial decision making is characterized by problems associated with multiple and conflicting alternatives relating to geographical features and their attributes. As such, the search for the best possible alternative from a large set of such alternatives can be a daunting task. The aim of integrating GIS with Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is to develop a well-defined process that can scan through such extensive fields of choice to arrive at the best possible solution. Goal Programming is one tool (developed in conjunction with MCDM) that can handle a problem with multiple, conflicting and incommensurable alternatives, and this article explains how the loose coupling technique can integrate MCDM with GIS to assist decision making among competing alternatives. As an example, this methodology has been applied for community development purposes in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India. 1 Background The inclusion of...

Words: 3647 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Gi Intubation

...GASTROINTESTINAL INTUBATION Clients, especially those undergoing abdominal or gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, may require some type of tube placed within their stomachs or intestines gastrointestinal tubes provide nourishment to client who cannot eat. First, let’s take a look at which patients may be candidates for tube feeding .Patients with chronic illness or psychiatric or neurologic disorder ,such as alcoholism, chronic depression, or anorexia .Patients who are debilitated because of disease or injury .Patients undergoing maxillofacial or cervical surgery resulting from disease or injury. Patients with or pharyngeal or esophageal paralysis resulting from disease or injury, neoplasm, inflammation, trauma, or respitory failure. Tube feeding are not a one-size-fits- all measurement they have proximal and distal end, their size, construction, and composition vary according to their use. Tubes are measure by using the French scale each number on the scale equal approximately 0.33mm. The larger the number, the larger the diameter of the tube. That is one of the reason‘s why every patients condition is considered individually to determine whether which tube feeding is best for the patients specific condition and needs. Secondly, let’s discussed where the tubes maybe placed any why. Tubes can be identified according to the location of insertion, or there distal end. The choice of feeding route is based on the patient’s medical status, aspiration, and expected duration of...

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gi and Study Guide

...GI and Diabetes Exam Study Guide Tube Feeding – (enteral nutrition) refers to the administration of a nutritional balanced liquefied food or formula through a tube inserted into the stomach, duodenum, jejunum. It is used to provide nutrients via the GI tract either alone or as a supplement to oral or parenteral nutrition. - Nasogastric (NG) Tube – is most commonly used for short-term feeding problems. Other means of feeding are; esophagostomy, gastrostomy or jejunostomy. Transpyloric tube placement or placement into the jejunum is used when physiologic condition warrant feeding the pt below the pyloric sphincter. Special Indications – anorexia, orofacial fractures, head and neck cancer, neurologic or psychiatric conditions that prevent oral intake, extensive burns and those who are receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Procedure for tube feeding 1. Patient position – 30-45 degrees position. Head remain elevated for 30-60 mins 2. Patency of tube – Tube should be irrigated with water before and after each feeing to ensure patency. 3. Tube Position – Placement of tube is checked before each feeing or every 8 hours with continuous feeings. Checking methods; aspiration and pH. 4. Formula 5. Administration of feeding – feeing are given either by gravity drip method or by feeding pump. 6. General Nursing Considerations – daily weight, accurate I’s and O’s. Blood glucose check. Complication Related To tube and feeding - Vomiting and or Aspiration ......

Words: 7940 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Functions

...handled by an Executive Committee of the Board composed of three senior members for tentative action until the next Board meeting. The University Executive Body The executive body of the University is headed by the President, assisted by an Executive Vice President. Under the Executive Vice President is the Senior Vice President and Treasurer. The University President The President is the highest in the University. The functions of the position are as follows: ➢ recommend for the approval of the Board of Trustees institutional policies, plans, and programs consistent with the University's mission and thrusts; ➢ ensures the implementation of the University policies, plans and programs approved by the Board of Trustees; ➢ confers, with the authority from the Board of Trustees, academic degrees, diplomas or certificates to qualified candidates for graduation upon the recommendation of the Vice President for Academic Affairs; ➢ officially represents the University in academic, civic, social and other important functions; ➢ executes in behalf of the University, contracts, deeds, and other legal documents as authorized by the Board of Trustees; ➢ recommends to the board of trustees the appointment, promotion and termination of principal officers of the University; ➢ appoints, promotes, and terminates such other officers as are not reserved to the Board; ➢ establishes and maintains linkages with government and......

Words: 2554 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Role of Gis in Power Transmission

...A PROJECT REPORT ON ROLE OF GIS IN POWER TRANSMISSION CASE STUDY OF THE KENYA ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COMPANY, BY David M. Kariuki To Central Institute of Rural Electrification International training program on upgrades of power utilities management using it/automated solutions. 29-10-2012 to 23-11-2012 CONTENTS CONTENTS...................................................................................... i 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................... iii 2 MY EXPERIENCE ..................................................................... iv 3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................... v 4 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES. ............................................. vi 5 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 1 5.1 Background.......................................................................... 1 5.2 Mandate ............................................................................... 1 5.3 Core Functions ..................................................................... 2 5.4 KETRACO PROJECTS .......................................................... 5 5.4.1 NATIONAL GRID PROJECTS ........................................... 6 5.4.2 REGIONAL POWER INTERCONNECTIONS. ..................... 7 5.4.3 AFRICAN POWER POOLS ................................................ 8 5.4.4 AFRICAN POWER POOLS – (INTERCONNECTORS) .......... 9 6 SCOPE OF......

Words: 3989 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Implementing Gis

...IMPLEMENTING GIS Abstract This paper tries to study the GIS implementation in the state of Arkansas and tries to identify the potential of using the Arkansas GeoStor implementation blueprint for similar application in other states. The paper also tries to identify the differences which may be required in the system if the blueprint is to be used for other states. The factors affecting these differences would also be identified and the expected value realizations for other states as compared to the state of Arkansas. Expanding Business Intelligence to GISs Governments around the world have lots of location based data which is very important for managing the state and serving the citizens. Having all this data in physical formats makes it very difficult to manage and work efficiently. GIS systems are invcreasingly being used to convery the location based data into digital formats. A lot of different government agencies require location based data which is useful to their field area. Having multiple government agencies using different sets of location based data can make colloobration very difficult and time consuming. Integrating the location based data from various government agencies into a single data warehouse can go a long way in helping not only government agencies but also other businesses to take advantage from it. "Geographic information is the key to better decision-making; just about everything a community, business, or public agency does, whether in......

Words: 1640 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Expanded Applications of Gis/Gps

...Expanded applications of GIS/GPS Pamela Armstrong GEO/215 December 8th, 2015 Zahid Vermani Expanded applications of GIS/GPS Geography gives visualization to the world around us and helps identify different types of environments and our relation to their development. Through time humans have employed new and advancing geographical tools to help describe the world. For example, one of the first geological tools used to describe the planet were maps and over the years they have become increasingly detailed and interactive. The current geological tools incorporate maps and computer technologies known as GIS and GPS. Continuously, GIS stands for geographic information systems, and it combines visual data concerning information about shapes, sizes, and locations that can be analyzed. The power of a GIS is its ability to analyze location, features or objects (such as a stream), and feature characteristics (such as water quality, direction of flow), in relation to other locations, features, and their characteristics (National Park Service US Department of Interior, n.d.). GPS is defined as a global positioning system using satellites to accurately pinpoint locations and give directions to other locations by using satellites that orbit the earth. With this in mind, a combination of these two tools help to give a 3d image of the earth and bring all its geological features to life but most importantly they can be used to analyze information to help improve many areas of......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Geographic Information Systems (Gis)

...The term Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a term used to refer to a system installed in a computer capable of manipulating, assembling, displaying and storing information that has been geographically referenced. Large volumes of data are mapped, analyzed and modeled using a single database depending on their locations. In short, the software gives one power to create maps. Information such latitudes, longitudes, elevations and ZIP codes are fed into the system and the results can be used to determine whether and climate patterns of different regions (Global Geographic Information Systems, 2007). Different organizations use GIS generated data to seek information regarding specific areas of interest they are interested in. Organizations such as the World Health Organization used the software to map different areas. For instance, GIS is used to map areas that have been struck by polio. The World Health Organization which is a world-wide specialized agency also employs GIS in its management. The organization was established in the year 1948 and it has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. It is part of United Nation and its major role is to deal with international public health. The organization covers a large geographical area and hence the need to use a specialized system to monitor its activities. The organization has employed the GIS to help eradicate some of its most annoying challenges; polio. The fight against olio is estimated to have a 99% failure rate, but......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Understand Gis/Gps

...Understand GIS/GPS Maryalice Anderson Feb. 29, 2016 Marquette University Understand GIS/GPS Geographic Information System (GIS), is defined in our text as “a computer system used to organize, store, analyze, and display geographic information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is defined in our text as, a navigational tool consisting of a fleet of satellites orbiting Earth, broadcasting digital codes, and a portable receiver that can receive those codes and determine its location” (Dahlman & Renwick, 2015, Chapter 1). GIS has been called a way to learn the geographic reasoning for anything. We can use the GPS system to find any place anywhere on this earth. GPS operates in real-time, 24 hours per day. Using GIS/GPS Currently consisting of approximately 24 satellites, GPS also uses ground stations to match information and use that information as reference points of a location that is accurate to within a couple of yards. GPS was formally used strictly for the military. Now it is used in and by everything. From the cell phone to automobiles, boats and computers. GIS makes use of computer software to pass along a location on earth. The components or parts that make GIS work consist of three categories. The computer and its software, real time data, and people that are trained to use the information. The data is digitized and has been created by government or commercial operations that they make freely available in most cases. ......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Expanded Application of Gis/Gps

...Expanded Application of GIS/GPS When I started my GEO 215 class I was quite unsure exactly what we would be talking about. First thing that came to mind was maps, then it was on different areas in the world, then how different cultures survive and adapt to different areas etc. So my mind began wondering down this Geography journey. So once I got the first assignment about the Expanded Application if GIS and GPS, I was stomped. So of course that's exactly where I started my research. First thing I looked up was what is GIS or Graphic Information Systems. "A GIS combines visual data concerning information about shapes, sizes, and locations that can be analyzed" (Wikipedia 2016). A GPS also known as global positioning system uses satellites to pinpoint locations and give directions to other places by using satellites that orbit the the earth. So the more I read the more I realized how these two tools play a major role in Geography. Geography gives visualization to the world around us and helps identify different types of environments and our relation to their development. When you bring these two types of geographical tools together you will be able have to analyze information to let you know the unknowns of the world. For instance when you get the information from you GIS or GPS or can tell you if there is traffic ahead or if the weather is bad or if there is a river ahead. We use GIS and GPS all around the world. The satellites help share the collected information all......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Low Gi Diabetic Rice

...Low GI Diabetic Rice Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the degenerative diseases which its prevalence continues to increase. Now Bangladesh ranked 10th in the world as a country with over 7 (seven) million diabetic patients and a growth of 5% - 6 % per year. The alarming fact is that over half the number of patients is still undiagnosed, though the disease can be controlled in around 70 per cent of the cases. Strict diet is often done to control blood glucose levels by reducing and even avoiding rice consumption because rice is considered as hyperglycemic food (can raise blood glucose level quickly) and replacing it with tubers. Whereas rice has a range of Glycemic Index value (GI), from low to high GI depending on the species and varieties. Rices that raise blood glucose level quickly have high GI levels, whereas with low GI will raise blood glucose levels slowly. Glycemic Index (GI) The number listed next to each food is its glycemic index. This is a value obtained by monitoring a person’s blood sugar after eating the food. The value can vary slightly from person to person and from one type or brand of food and another. A noticeable difference is the GI rating of Special-K which produced considerably different results in tests in the US and Australia, most likely resulting from different ingredients in each location. Despite this slight variation, the index provides a good guide to which foods you should be eating and which foods to avoid. The glycemic index......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gi Joe

...G.I. Joe has been a brand in the market for toys since its launch in 1964 with $3 billion in sales over the last 20 years, with 16% of the market share. Despite the brands success the GI Joe is positioned as a physical product, as appose to an all-encompassing brand and the toy market has volatile sales depending upon trends created by consumer demand. Hasbro is now challenged to take the G.I. Joe brand to the next level and market it in such a way that will allow the brand continues to thrive while preserving the brands legacy. One major issue facing G.I. Joe besides their competitor Barbie (Mattel) is that the industry has changed drastically in the last decade. The target customer for G.I. Joe is a shrinking market due to technologically savvy youths who prefer playing electronic games as opposed to playing with action figures. In addition, lifecycles within the industry are also getting weak, with 70% of sales belonging to toys released within the last 3 to 4 years. Manufacturers have also adopted a more short-term goal oriented strategy based on the creation of the “instant gratification” attitude among their target market. Retailers have joined manufacturers in shifting their strategies to focus on multipurpose department stores as the primary location to purchase toys, with the top five players comprising 75% of sales of toys in 2003. This has a major effect on one of Hasbro’s core strengths (see appendix) a unique relationship with retailers which is a key asset......

Words: 585 - Pages: 3