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Geopolitics

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Géopolitique et monde des affaires

A faire :
En groupe de 5-6 personnes
Un groupe est responsable pour présenter avant chaque session une revue de presse des événements internationaux majeurs.
La présentation doit être envoyée en PPT aux deux profs (laurent.estachy@kedgebs.com et yahia.zoubir@kedgebs.com). Il ne s’agit pas uniquement d’énumérer les faits mais de les analyser de manière succincte.

Ex : pourquoi il y’a eu intervention dans tel pays ? Quels sont ses intérêts ?

Géopolitique : définition
Pas une science
A connu une interprétation différente selon ses théoriciens, les pays et les époques
Elle dépend de la combinaison de multiples facteurs (économiques, politiques, militaires, idéologiques, religieux …) à chaque fois différents
Discipline portant sur l’étude des relations entre l’espace et le politique
C’est une discipline qui étudie les projets politiques des différents acteurs présents sur la scène mondiale en fonction de leur rapport à l’espace
Elle concerne donc l’étude des multiples influences (de la géographie, de la culture, de la société et de l’économie) qui orientent le comportement d’une nation et le type de relation que cette dernière entretient avec ses semblables.
La géopolitique est aussi perçue comme une approche de la politique des Etats
La géopolitique étudie l’importance politique, économique (géoéconomie) et stratégique de la géographien où la géographie est définie en termes de location, grandeur, fonction, la relation des lieux et ressources (eau, énergie, démographie, migrations …)
Grande évolution dans la définition de la géopolitique : certains ont mis l’accent sur la puissance maritime des Etats (domination des mers et océans …), ou domination par le commerce.

Après la seconde guerre mondiale, la géopolitique « disparaît » au profit de nouvelles disciplines des sciences humaines : relations internationales, droit international, sociologie politique, sociologie des relations internationales.
La géographie politique se penche sur par exemple la cartographie électorale …
Géostratégie, étude des intérêts des Etats et des acteurs politique dans l’espace surtout international
La géopolitique retrouve une nouvelle légitimité en tant que discipline suite aux différents conflits qui ont surgi dans les années 1970.
La géopolitique repose sur 5 données fondamentales qu’elle s’attache à analyser : - Conflictualité : intérêt divergent, recherche de pouvoir, perception - Espace : surface terrestre, maritime et aérienne - frontière - impérialité - mondialité
Conflictualité = lutte pour la détention des ressources (pétrole, eau), contrôle d’espaces (e.g. mers, routes.. pour accéder aux ressources), et domination idéologique, ethnique… pour affirmer la suprématie d’une communauté sur les autres et prendre contrôle d’un territoire, donc d’un facteur de puissance.

Espace = surface terrestre, maritime et aérienne. La conquête de l’espace a un intérêt capital car les mouvements de capitaux, de marchandises, les informations, les organisations transnationales. C’est ce que l’on appelle l’espace virtuel (les compagnies n’ont plus d’Etat)

Frontière = limite territoriale, politique et juridique. Au sens de l’Etat, on a commencé à avoir des frontières depuis le traité de Westphalie (guerre de 30 ans). Il y’a des frontières naturelles (ex : montagne), culturelle, ethnique …
Etat faillis/fragiles : ex : Somalie, Mali. Etat dans lequel on est obligé d’intervenir car il peut affecter la sécurité nationale.

Impérialité = puissance qui établit sa domination sur des populations diverses dans un territoire donné et qui impose son langage sur les autres ex : URSS

Mondialité = des lieux stratégiques qui peuvent avoir une certaine domination. Les Etats-Unis ont à l’heure actuelle dominé la majorité des lieux stratégiques.

Global register

Présence française en Centrafrique :
Ancienne colonie française (indépendance en 1960)
Politique très instable : coup d’état, régime militarisé
Envoi de renfort militaire français en Centrafrique (Bangui) d’ici fin décembre. Chaos depuis le 24 mars (renversement Bozize) qui entraine une fracture entre chrétiens et musulmans.
Enjeux stratégiques : - uranium : AREVA a signé en août 2008 un contrat de 27m€ sur 5 ans sur un projet de gisement d’uranium à Bakouma
Volonté de protéger ses intérêts. La France est la seule à exploiter l’uranium centrafricain.
Enjeux futurs : - gisement de pétrole encore inexploités. L’aide de la France sous-entend-il une future extraction de pétrole par nos groupes pétroliers ?

Iran :
Second producteur de pétrole au monde
1ère réserve de gaz naturel
Pourquoi l’Iran veut le nucléaire ? Raisons : économique (revente du pétrole pour avoir du nucléaire), politique, militaire (pays proche de l’Israël : puissance nucléaire, Turquie : membre de l’ONU, proches des pays ennemis), politique : pays souverain, indépendant, nécessité de se défendre.
Opposition des pays à l’acquisition du nucléaire par l’Iran : - violation du traité sur la non-prolifération des armes nucléaires - contraire à la démocratie et des droits de l’homme et menace de guerre nucléaire
Les entreprises françaises Renault et Peugeot ont abandonné le marché iranien à cause de pressions de groupes étrangers (United Against Nuclear Iran et General Motors)
Conséquences économiques pour la France : la France devient le 15ème partenaire commercial en 2013 contre le 4e en 2000).Baisse considérable du nombre de voitures vendues en Iran.

Ukraine :
Pays marqué par la révolution de 2004
Scrutin truqué par le gouvernement avec l’aide de la Russie et de Poutine
500 000 manifestants, annulation du scrutin et élection de Viktor Iouchtchenko
Le 21 novembre, le gouvernement ukrainien renonce à la signature d’un accord de libre échange entre l’Europe et l’Ukraine. Moscou a exercé d’énormes pressions sur l’Ukraine.

La méditerranée : interface entre le nord et le sud, croisement de civilisations, berceau des religions monothéistes.
Elle relie 3 continents…...

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