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Fluids

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Lab Worksheet

Faculty of Science & Engineering

School of Engineering

Manchester
Metropolitan
University

Activity

Activity Title

Laboratory
Room No.

Level
34567

M/E

000

Principle of Saturation Pressure Measurement

5

Term

1

Duration

3

Max
Group
Size
12

Max Total
Students

12

Date of approval/review 10-12

Technical
Team Leader
Keith
Birchenough

Lead
Academic

Jiting Feng

Equipment (per group)

number Item
TH3 Saturation Pressure Apparatus
Armfield TH3 Saturation Pressure Apparatus Electric Console
500ml Beaker
PC with TH3 software
Stopwatch

Learning Outcomes (from unit spec)
Learning Outcome
To obtain an understanding of the principle of saturation pressure measurement

2
3

To measure the saturation pressure of water using a pressurised vessel
To examine the measurement accuracy

4
5
6

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Lab Worksheet

School of Engineering

Manchester Metropolitan University
2012-2013

Principle of Saturation Pressure Measurement

First Name

Second Name

Student Number

Group Number

Date

To be completed by Tutor

Marked
Awarded

Comments
(please also referred to the feedback sheet)

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Manchester
University

Lab Worksheet

School of Engineering
Manchester Metropolitan University

2012-2013

Manchester

Metropolitan
University

Advanced Mechanical Science

Principle of Saturation Pressure Measurement

Theory

The temperature at which water boils is referred to as its saturation temperature. It is generally known that water boils at 100°C, but really that is only true if the water is at a pressure of If the water pressure increases so too does its boiling point, and vice versa. The relationship between pressure and temperature of boiling water can be plotted on a so-called transition or phase diagram (Figure 1). In this lab, the boiling of water will be studied and plotted on a transition diagram.

Liquid

9 s \

1- Solid A

J Vapour

/ i! !
0.01
Temperature

Figure 1: Phase Diagram of Water
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Apparatus

The apparatus comprises a boiler and a heating element (Figure 2). The boiler (and the fluid it contains) is separated from the surroundings by isolating valves.

Pressure

Saturated vapour \

valve

T1

Filling point Isolating valve Viewing port

Boiler

Heating elements

Figure 2 TH3 Saturation Pressure Apparatus

In setting up the laboratory, the water is boiled with the isolating valves open. Vapour leaves the system, pushing out any atmospheric gases (oxygen and nitrogen). During your experimental work, you will heat the vessel and then allow it to cool, monitoring the temperature and pressure as you do so.

Measurement Devices

Temperature measurement

Platinum resistance thermometers are used to measure temperature, giving an electrical output in Ohms. These have a wide temperature range and give excellent accuracy. They can operate under a wider range of pressures, but require a protective shield in liquid and corrosive atmospheres. Such shielding does increase the response time of the sensor and the size of the sensor probe.

Pressure measurement

An electronic pressure sensor of semiconductor type (Figure 3) has been used. In this sensor, one side of a diaphragm is exposed to the pressure to be measured, while the other side is open to atmosphere. The resulting deflection forces a rod into a metallic strip with semiconductor resistance gauges bonded to the surface. The resulting tension or
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compression in these gauges produces a measurable change in the semiconductor
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Lab Worksheet

resistance, which can then be converted to a pressure reading by a suitable conditioning circuit. Silicon resistors Insulating glass - \

\

Stainless steel

\ Compression force -I transfer rod tension, resistance increases — Pressure bar deflects under force

Figure 3 Electronic Pressure Sensor

A conventional Bourdon-type gauge has been included to give a visual indication of the pressure inside the equipment. This is intended as an extra safety measure, indicating when the system is pressurised even if the water is not visibly active. Bourdon gauges can be constructed to cover a wide pressure range, but due to the nature of the display the changes will affect the accuracy of the sensor. The gauge is relatively bulky and robust, and output purely mechanical.

Experiment Set up

· Check that the isolating valve and the drain valve at the base of the boiler are both closed. · Check that the mains power to the console is switched off before filling the boiler.

· Open the filling point at the top using the key provided. Fill the equipment using purified or de-ionized water, until the water level is halfway up the sight-glass at the front of the boiler. Do not seal the filling point until instructed later.

Switch on the mains power to the console, and switch on the console itself.
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