Free Essay

Fingerprint Biometric Authentication for Enhancing Staff Attendance System

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By azhari
Words 4926
Pages 20
International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org

Fingerprint Biometric Authentication for Enhancing Staff
Attendance System
Oloyede Muhtahir O.
Dept. of Info. and Comm. Science
University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

Adedoyin Adeyinka O.
Dept. of Info. and Comm. Science
University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

ABSTRACT
Biometric technology that involves the identification and verification of individuals by analyzing the human body characteristics has been widely used in various aspect of life for different purposes, most importantly as regards this study the issue of staff attendance. Despite the numerous advantages of the biometric system and its impact to various work sectors across the globe, most biometric technology users face the issue of defining the right and accurate biometric technology system that will be cost effective in solving particular problems in specific environment.
In this paper, a study was conducted using a telecommunication company in the South West region of Nigeria, in order to determine the specific biometric identifier that can be used to enhance their traditional staff attendance system which presently affects the productivity of the organization. The study was conducted using a quantitative approach by designing a questionnaire as the data collection instrument based on different biometric technologies. The survey involved 37 employees based on stratified random sampling technique. The results however show that fingerprint biometric identifier was found suitable for the staff attendance management system of the organization. It therefore, implies that attention should be paid to several factors before recommending biometric technology as a means of improving the productivity of an organization business processes.

Adewole Kayode S.
Dept. of Computer Science
University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

stated that staff productivity is greatly affected by the attendance of staffs [9].
According to [10] as stated in Human Resource Magazine
(2011) that, company staffs succeed in stealing the company’s productivity without the management even noticing through absenteeism and buddy punching. The use of the traditional methods for staff attendance, for example staffs signing on attendance sheet on entering the organization also contribute to the poor performance of the company’s productivity, though the impact of staff absentee and staff running late vary differently amongst different market sectors. It was further stated that “employee absence and buddy punching directly cost the UK economy nearly 17 billion pounds which equates to 27 million working days. This demonstrates the negative effect of buddy punching and staff absenteeism on a company’s productivity which can be solved by the introduction of a biometric technology system.

1.1

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this research is to critically analyze various forms of biometric technology systems and how they have been used in the past till the present time, especially on the issue of staff attendance system in various organizations.
Also, the study highlights various factors that are to be considered when implementing a biometric system for a particular purpose.

General Terms

1.2

Biometrics, Staff Attendance, Authentication.

This research covers the preferences of the respondents on which biometric technology system should be used for the purpose of staff attendance in the company situated at the
South West region of Nigeria. The six biometric technologies included in this study as options are the fingerprint, hand geometry, iris recognition, voice recognition, face recognition and signature verification. The respondents, who participated in the self-administer questionnaire, are employees of the company who use the traditional way of recording staff attendance. Furthermore, the study used the descriptive research method that subsequently uses a survey instrument in form of a questionnaire. Meanwhile, the sampling design used to select the respondents is through the pure random sampling.

Keywords
Biometric, verification, staff attendance, telecommunication, productivity. 1.

INTRODUCTION

Today, many industries are experiencing technological advancement and changes in the mode in which they carry out their business processes. With the rise of globalization, it is becoming essential to find an easier and more effective system to help an organization or company improve their employee’s productivity. In spite of this matter, there are still business establishments that use the old-fashioned way i.e the manual process of recording employee’s attendance [7].
Staff attendance management system is an easy way to keep track of attendance of staffs within an organization. It covers the requirements of the personnel department in terms of day to day monitoring of staffs, calculation of overtime and transfer of relevant information to the payroll system and manpower analysis. Hence, staff attendance is an important issue every kind of organization must take into consideration in order to be productive [8]. Also, a report from the Shropshire council

2.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES

The various forms of biometric technology have been in existence for several centuries for the purpose of identification.
One of the oldest forms of biometrics is the recognition of the human face because facial characteristics are matched within our memory. Civilization became larger and other methods arose, such was documenting images in portraiture, for example, in 1434 the Arnolfini marriage was painted by Jan
Van Eyke for the purpose of marriage certificate [11].
According to [22], in the mid 1960s, the face recognition

19

International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org system as a relatively new concept was developed. An administrator was required to point out certain body features like eyes, ears, nose and mouth on photographs before the distance and ratio are calculated to a common reference point which is then compared to a reference data. [22] further stated that the lip thickness and hair were used as specific subjective markers by Goldstein and Lesk in the 1970s to automate recognition. The problem that the solution faced was that measurements and locations were manually computed.
Biometric technologies include fingerprint, iris, hand geometry, handwriting signatory, voice recognition, facial scan, palmprint, keystroke and gait recognition.

2.1

Review of Existing Biometric
Technology and Its Usefulness in
Various Sectors

The origin of biometrics has been in the public sector; however biometrics is used for the identification and verification of criminals [18]. Other sectors where biometrics has also thrived are the Banking, Education and Health sectors. For example, emerging application markets include biometrically enabled transactional payment solutions and biometrically enables wireless for business use. Some European banks use the 3D facial recognition of employees into bank buildings, thereby eliminating the issue of keys been lost, stolen or misused [19].
Furthermore, biometric application has been useful in various other sectors which include the Government using it for the purpose of stopping terrorist attacks and fighting crimes. After the 9/11 incident, the Yeager Airport in Charleston introduced the biometrics system, which is used to secure access to its control tower [20]. Also, the biometrics system has been very useful in the Education sector where it has assisted students in the borrowing and returning of books out and into the library respectively. The positive impact of biometrics to the health sector cannot be left out has it has helped in stopping fraud where some healthcare bill for services they never performed.
A palm scanner which reads a patient’s unique vein pattern was implemented in Sharp Healthcare in San Diego for the purpose of stopping patient identity theft, the system was known to be very secure and performed efficiently well for its purpose [23].
Furthermore, biometrics can be integrated with other systems for it to carry out its purpose of identification. Various homeland security databases require the use a card access system integrated with a biometric technology to gain access
[24].

2.2

Biometric and Staff Attendance

Biometrics is the detailed measurements of the human body.
Biometrics deals with automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on physiological or behavioural characteristics [12]. Fingerprints are graphical flow-like ridges present on human fingers; their formations depend on the initial conditions of the embryonic mesoderm from which they develop [13].
With fingerprint authentication technology, it is easier to track employee's time and attendance with the touch of a finger.
Biometric fingerprint authentication is the most accurate way to collect employee's time and attendance information. It verifies an employee’s identity based on the characteristics of their fingerprint [14].
The American Payroll Association (APA) estimates that time theft, tardy arrivals, buddy punching, lollygagging (wasting time getting to the work area), extended breaks and early

departures costs businesses 1.5 to 5 percent of gross payroll, amounting to hundreds of billions of dollars every year.
Industry studies support these estimates and in recent APA surveys, employees were reported to be stealing an average of
4.5 hours each week, equivalent to a six-week paid vacation per year. According to a Nucleus Research study, buddy punching is experienced by 74 percent of organizations [15].
However, technological advances in biometrics have now made this surprisingly affordable and popular. The Biometric
Fingerprint reading sensor scans any fingerprint in under 1 second; this in turn will make clocking in and out much faster for your employees and at the same time saving your company time and money by paying your employees for the exact time they work. Your company will also reduce costly payroll and data entry errors caused by the old time card system [14].

3.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

Research Design

Research design is the plan on how the researcher goes about finding an accurate answer to the research question. The research design plan contain clear objectives, derived from research question(s), specify the sources from which data are to be collected, and consider the constraints that may arise, such as access to data, time, location and money as well as discussing ethical issues [16]. This study employed the use of quantitative research method as the study involves data being obtained to be analyzed and processed before it can be of meaning. However, quantitative techniques such as graphs, charts and statistics allows for this, making data obtained by the researcher to be useful and turn them to information [17].

3.2

Research Questions

Many organisations have dwell into the implementation of biometric technology systems to solve the issue of staff attendance. In most cases, the biometric systems chosen do not serve its purpose effectively because biometric technology characteristics such as cost effectiveness, reliability, and the need for the technology itself are not taking into consideration
[5]. Hence, the following research questions were considered:
i.

What type of biometric technology system are you familiar with?

ii.

Does your company need to enhance the recording of attendance of employees?

iii.

Do you prefer your company should use a biometric system to enhance staff attendance?

iv.

What type of biometric technology do you preferred your company to use?

3.3

Sample Population and Sample Size

The amount of data needed to be collected by acquiring data from only a subgroup rather than an entire population is made possible by the use of sampling techniques that provides a range of methods to achieve this [16]. The sample population of this study involves the total number of staffs in the company in which there is a total number of about 250 staffs and 6 departments, each department in the company has its own supervisor and divisional heads. Though, this study involves all the staffs of the company where the proposed biometric technology system is to be implemented to solve the problem of staff attendance, however the time involved in sampling the whole population may affect the completion of this research.

20

International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org
Hence, a sample of the staff population shown in table 1 has been targeted for the success of this study.
Table 1: Sample size
STATUS

GENDER

FREQUENCY

4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The analysis of the results obtained based on the questionnaire filled by the respondents who are the employees of the organization which a biometric system is to be proposed, that will sustainably solve the present issue of staff attendance within the company is therefore presented in this section.

MALE

FEMALE

SUPERVISORS

3

1

4

4.1

STAFF

22

18

40

TOTAL

25

19

44

The findings of the survey with reference to the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age and status/position in the company are tabulated as shown in tables 2 and 3 respectively. Table 2 shows that 12 employees or 32.43 % of the total participants composed the largest size of the respondents who belong to the age bracket of 30 to 39 at the time they participated in the survey. By a mere difference of 1 employee or 2.7 %, the largest percentage is followed by 11 employees or 29.73% who belong to the age bracket of 18 to
29. It is then followed by 9 employees or 24.32% who belong to the age bracket of 40 to 49; and lastly, 5 employees or
13.51% who belong to the age bracket of 50 and above. The researcher deemed it necessary to know the age of the respondents who are the employees of the company in which a biometric technology system is to be proposed to sustainably solve the issue of staff attendance, this is because age that reflects on biometric technology systems such as fingerprint technology and voice recognition changes. Several factors that might affect this biological identification to change are as follows: occupation, age, skin dryness, trauma, illness, injury, or trauma to hand [3]. [3] further stated that "when a biological identification of a person degrades, re-enrolments of such biometric features are necessary".

According to [16], there are different situations where sampling is necessary, such as: when it is impracticable for a researcher to survey the whole population; when time constraints prevent the researcher to survey the whole population and also budget which can prevent the researcher to survey the whole population. The population eventually targeted as a sample population for this study is the staffs of the Human Resource department of the company, i.e.1 out of the 6 departments of the company.
The department consists of a head of department, 3 divisional heads and 40 staffs.

3.4
Sampling Procedure and Sampling
Selection
Due to the limited time involved in carrying out this research, it was not possible to carry out the survey on the total population of staffs in the company. However, a sample out of the total population was used. Sampling which is mostly used by researchers using the quantitative research method is a process where a representative sample or a small collection of population from a larger population is drawn, such that the sample information enables the researcher to study the smaller group and produce accurate generalization about the larger group [21]. Furthermore, [21] stated that researchers have two motivations for using the random sampling; the first motivation being that it saves time and cost i.e. instead of gathering data from 250 employees of the company, the researcher will draw a sample of 44 employees. However, the data from the 44 employees will be equal to the data from all the 250 employees of the company. Secondly, the purpose for using the random sampling is accuracy i.e. a well designed and executed sampling can produce accurate results than trying to acquire data from all employees within the company. Hence, the respondents of this survey are the employees of the company that remains using the traditional system of monitoring the attendance records of the employees. The researcher has predetermined the total population of 250 and arrived to having the sample population size of 44 employees as respondents for the survey. Thus, 37 respondents eventually participated in the survey. In order to confirm the participation of the sample size, the researcher liaised with the Head of Human Resources
Department of the company who made sure the questionnaire gets to the right number of staffs. Following the pure random sampling, which was the actual conduct of the survey, the respondents were sent the link to the survey via the Head of
Human Resources Department by the researcher.

Demographic profile of the employees

Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Age
Age

Frequency Distribution Percentage
%

18 to 29

11

29.73

30 to 39

12

32.43

40 to 49

9

24.32

50 and above

5

13.51

Total

37

100

In addition, table 3 shows the distribution of respondents according to position/status in the company. 33 employees or
89.19% hold the staff status, while the remaining 4 employees or 10.81% hold the supervisory status. This demography was deemed essential for inclusion in this research by the researchers. It is believed that the number of respondents who hold the staff status is very significant for they are the main people who use the traditional way of attendance recording and monitoring. Since all of the respondents are the “users” of the traditional method, it is necessary that this research employ their views on which biometric system is useful to them.
Furthermore, the inclusion of respondents who hold the supervisory status is also important has their views will help the researchers to know if a biometric technology system is needed in the company. However, this research paper recognizes that the decision making power on whether to

21

International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org incorporate a biometric system in monitoring staff attendance in the company and which biometric technology system best fits the company budget lies in the management of the organization. Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Position/Status
Position/Status Frequency Distribution Percentage

the option strongly disagree, Disagree, nor Undecided. This is supported with a research conducted by InfoTronics, Inc., which suggests that an advantage of a biometric system in an industry is that it prevents attempts of time fraud [4]. Another advantage of using a biometric system, which is actually related to the first one, is that it helps the company management in recording the working hours of the employees and automated report and time sheet generation [1].

%
Staff

33

89.19

Supervisory

4

10.81

Total

37

100

4.2
Biometric technology employees are familiar with

system

the

Figure 1 represents the responses to the research question (i).
Most of the respondents are familiar with the fingerprint biometric technology system with 17 or 45.95%. The second biometric system the respondents are familiar with is the hand geometry technology where 6 respondents or 16.22% had chosen it. The third system the respondents are familiar with is the iris recognition biometric technology system with 5 respondents or 13.51%. Comes next according to their ranking are voice recognition biometric technology system, chosen by 4 employees or 10.81%; face recognition biometric technology system, chosen by 3 or 8.11%; and signature verification biometric technology system with 2 respondents or 5.41%.
None of the respondents chose that they are not familiar with any of the options.

Figure 2: Showing respondents' views on the issue of staff attendance enhancement

4.4
The need for a biometric system to enhance staff attendance in the company
Since most of the respondents chose strongly agree that the company where they work needs to enhance the recording and monitoring of staff attendance as shown in figure 3. Hence, all the 37 respondents or 100% chose the “yes” to the research question (iii).

Figure 3: Preference of the respondents to whether their company should use a biometric system or not

4.5
The preferred biometric technology for staff attendance system in the company

Figure 1: Showing the biometric technology system respondents are familiar with
This research paper recognizes that indeed most individuals are more familiar with the fingerprint biometric technology since it is among the oldest biometric technologies and as popular as face recognition [2],[6].

4.3
The need for enhancing traditional staff attendance system

the

With reference to research question (ii), the respondents were requested to scale their responses from the options Strongly
Disagree, Disagree, Undecided, Agree, and Strongly Agree.
Figure 2 presents the responses according to the scaling. It indicates that most of the respondents, 29 or 78% chose the option strongly agree while the remaining 8 respondents or
22% chose the Agree option. None of the respondents chose

After the respondents were asked whether the company where they work needs a biometric system for enhancing staff attendance, they were then requested as stated in the research question (iv) to select from the options, fingerprint biometric, hand geometry, iris recognition, voice recognition and signature verification, their preferred biometric system for their organization. Figure 4 shows that fingerprint biometric system is the most preferred by the respondents having 15 employees or 41%. The second most preferred biometric system is the iris recognition having 8 respondents or 22%. The third most preferred system are the hand geometry biometric system and face recognition having equally selected by 5 respondents or
14%. The least preferred is the voice recognition biometric technology system being selected by 4 respondents or 11%.

22

International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org

Figure 4: Showing the most preferred biometric technology system to be used by the company
Furthermore, the following discussion and analyses represented by figure 5 to 8 are focused on the findings of the survey as to the preferred biometric technology system based on qualities or features such as affordability, sustainability and acceptability.
Using the likert scale (1 to 3, where 1 indicates agree, 2 indicates disagree and 3 indicates respondents who are neutral).
Hence, the respondents were requested to scale each quality per type of biometric technology system.

4.6

Affordability

Figure 6: Most preferred biometric system in terms of sustainability 4.8

Figure 7 presents the preferences of the respondents on the biometric systems based on the acceptability feature. The most preferred system is the fingerprint selected by 22 respondents or 59.46%. These respondents chose that the fingerprint biometric system has the acceptability feature among others. It is followed by four systems namely hand geometry, voice recognition, face recognition, and signature verification as the second most preferred. Each of these is selected by 20 respondents or 54.05%. The least preferred is the iris recognition selected only by 18 respondents or 48.65%.

Figure 5 with reference to the affordability quality shows that fingerprint biometric system is the most preferred system. 21 respondents or 56.76% chose that they agree that the fingerprint biometric system is the most affordable among other biometric systems. Hand geometry is the second most preferred system selected by 20 respondents or 54.05%. Placed as the third most preferred is the voice recognition selected by
19 respondents or 51.35%. The second to the least preferred are the iris recognition and face recognition equally selected by 18 respondents or 48.65%. The least preferred is the signature verification, which is selected by only 15 respondents or
40.54%.

Figure 7: Most preferred biometric system in terms of acceptability feature.

5.

Figure 5: Most preferred biometric system in terms of affordability 4.7

Sustainability

The preferences of the respondents according to sustainability quality as shown in figure 6 indicate that all of the biometric systems are most likely sustainable. There is a small difference between the numbers of respondents who selected each biometric system. However, the fingerprint biometric system remains the most preferred. 20 respondents or 54.05% chose that they “agree” that it is the most sustainable. Hand geometry, iris recognition, and signature verification are each selected by
19 respondents or 51.35% as the second most preferred system.
The least preferred systems are the voice recognition and face recognition each selected by 18 respondents or 48.65%.

Acceptability

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION

Since biometric technology will involve the employees of the proposed company using the behavioural or physiological part of their body for identification and verification, this however satisfies the fact that the system will be sustainable. Hence, biometric technology is surely a global ICT strategy that can be use to enhance staff attendance.
Therefore, this study has come to a conclusion that fingerprint is the best biometric technology system that can sustainably solve the lingering problem of staff attendance in the proposed organization. This will eliminate buddy punching and increase staff productivity. It is therefore, recommended that attention should be paid to several factors before recommending biometric technology as a means of improving the productivity of an organization business processes.

6.

REFERENCES

[1] BioLink 2006. Time and attendance, Retrieved 11th
December,
2011 from http://www.m3biometrics.co.uk/Portals/2/downloads/BioT ime_Time_and_Attendance.pdf. 23

International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868
Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA
Volume 5– No.3, February 2013 – www.ijais.org
[2] Graevenitz, G. A. 2003. Introduction to fingerprint technology. Retrieved 10th December, 2011 from http://info.bioenabletech.com/training/fingerprint/Introduc tion%20to%20Fingerprint.pdf.
[3] Hashim, A. Y. 2011. An enduring relationship between biometric traits and security systems, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Information Security and
Privacy, 1(1), pp. 1-6.
[4] InfoTronics, Inc. 2008. Biometrics: Advantages for employee attendance verification, Michigan: Farmington
Hills.
Retrieved
11th November,
2011
from www.mwtime.com/biometrics.pdf. [5] Lease, D. R. 2005. Factors Influencing the Adoption of
Biometric
Security
Technologies.
Information
Technologies and Security Managers. Retrieved 15th
August,
2011 from http://drdavidlease.com/uploads/David_Lease_Dissertatio
n.pdf.
[6] Sandhu, P. S, Kaur, I., Verma, A., Samriti, J. and Singh, S.
2009. Biometric methods and implementation of algorithms. International Journal of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering, 3(8).
[7] Yuihotakaishi, 2011. Attendance Monitoring System
Using Biometrics for Security Staff, studymode Inspiring.
Retrieved
9th
June,
2012 from http://www.studymode.com/essays/AttendanceMonitoring-System-Using-Biometrics-For-732262.html.
[8] Kadry, S. and Smaili, M. 2010. Wireless Attendance
Management System Based on Iris Recognition. Scientific research essay. Retrieved 15th October, 2012 from http://academicjournals.org/sre/PDF/pdf2010/18Jun/Kadr y%20and%20Smaili.pdf.
[9] Mycroft, R. 2011. Performance and Strategy Scrutiny
Committee. Staff productivity. Retrieved 16th November,
2012
from http://www.shropshire.gov.uk/committee.nsf/0/5994B308 D8ECC9B48025788C004A5A54/$file/Item%207%20%20Staff%20Productivity.pdf.
[10] Clavereau, M. (2011). Absence: time to tackle the root causes. Retrieved
9th December,
2012
from
[18] Jiexun L., Wang .A. and Chen H (2011). ‘Identity matching using personal and social identity features’; 13:
101 – 113
[19] Capoor
S.
(2006).
‘Biometrics
as a Convenience Security’, Business story December 1, 48,
50. Retrieved
16th
October,
2012
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1182578 721&SrchMode=1&sid=7&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VTy pe=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1304031215& clientId=13314.
[20] Dubin, C. (2011). ‘Biometrics: Hands Down’, ID management. Security, February 1, 52, 54. Retrieved
13th
November
2011from
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2277161
341&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VTy
pe=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1304030671& clientId=13314 .

http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/hro/news/1018998/absencetackle-root-causes.
[11] Tuller, M., Dhawan, A., Simon, B., Lee, K., and Ward, D.
2006. Biometrics: Strategic Technology Analysis
Technology Foresight Dynamics Group 4 White Paper.
[12] Bistarelli, S., Boffi, G., Rossi, F., 2003. Computer Algebra for Fingerprint Matching. Retrieved 11th July, 2012 from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1764265. [13] Jain, A., Hong, L., Pankanti, S., Bolle, R., 1997. An
Identity Authentication System Using Fingerprints.
Retrieved
10th
June,
2012 from http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/Publications/Fingerprint/Jai nEtAlIdentityAuthUsingFp_ProcIEEE97.pdf. [14] BioElectronix, Inc. 2012. Powerful & easy to use Time &
Attendance Software. Retrieved 11th July, 2012 from http://www.bioelectronix.com/ec_50.html. [15] Liz, P. 2012. Biometric Benefits; Fingerprint readers reduce inventory shrink and eliminate payroll fraud.
Retrieved
12th
December,
2012 from http://www.stores.org/STORES%20Magazine%20April%
202012/biometric-benefits#.UMpT1pG31d8.
[16] Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. 2007. Research
Methods for Business Students (4th ed.), Pitman publishing, ISBN: 978–0–273–7168670.
[17] Stake, R. E. 2010. Qualitative Research, Studying how things work. Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=wwwVp KNFoxEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Qualitative+Research+
Studying+How+Things+Work+Robert+E.+Stake&ots=M
aeZGsfzTp&sig=CPnqbO2ns.
[21] Neuman, W. L. 2007. Basics of social Research,
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Publisher’s
Design and Production Services, Pearson Education Inc.
ISBN: 0-205-48-13.
[22] NSTCS, 2006. Biometrics Technologies. National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Biometrics.
Retrieved
2nd
July,
2012 from http://techbiometric.com/downloads/view-documentdetails/biometrics-foundation documents [23] Kreimer .S. (2010). ‘Matching the Right Patient to the
Right
Record’. Hospitals
&
Health
Networks,November 1, 12. Retrieved 17th December
2011
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2212480 041&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VTy pe=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1304102414& clientId=13314.
[24] Zalud, B. (2010). ‘Poor Sister No More: Access Enters
Spotlight
Again’.
Journal
of
Access
management Security, August 1, 42,44-45. Retrieved 28th
April
2011 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=2114680
931&SrchMode=1&sid=18&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VT
ype=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1304034968
&clientId=13314

24…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Fingerprint Attendance System

...Investigation into Biometric Technologies and the Development of a Fingerprint Recognition Application . . . . . . . . . . Note: Incomplete, this document is currently in draft Abstract This preliminary document covers the presentation phase of a final year BSc (Hons) computing science project aiming to investigate biometric technologies and develop a fingerprint recognition application to allow logging of student attendance at lectures. The introduction offers some background to the project and establishes the aims and objectives of the project overall. Following on from the introduction, the literature review presents a critique of research material that provides the basis for the project. This material includes a number of texts, journals and research papers as well as additional information sourced from the Web. As drawn from the literature, the subject areas covered include; history and background to modern biometrics; technological, social, organisational and environmental influences; key technologies in the market today; design issues, including security, performance and testing. In chapter 3, attention turns to requirements analysis for the development of a fingerprint recognition system. The process follows a requirements engineering approach to development by formally establishing user requirements and allowing continuous requirements assessment throughout the project life-cycle. The design approach and methodology used to model the...

Words: 11664 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

Automated Attendance Monitoring System

...CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Student absences jeopardize student and school success. Academic achievement scores are correlated with school attendance. Students who are not at school cannot receive instruction. Excessive school absence is a precursor of school dropout and is related to juvenile delinquency. And, because average daily attendance rates are a common determiner of school funding, absences mean that schools have less resources to do the job. Given all this, it is not surprising that reducing school absences is a top priority for many schools. (http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu) Now-a-days intelligent automation has stepped its presence in every field all over the world. This project has a stepping in the attendance and power management of the classrooms in the colleges/schools. The use of low cost technologies for highly reliable applications with the help of newly innovated algorithms makes the automation process to reach the consumers at cheaper and reliable cost. (http://www.muxtronics.com) The widespread of embedded computer networks as part of everyday peoples’ lives is leading the current research towards smart environments and Ambient Intelligence (AmI). AmI is a new information paradigm where people are empowered through a digital environment that is “aware” of their presence and context and is sensitive, adaptive and responsive to their needs. Mark Weiser, described the smart environments as physical worlds that invisibly......

Words: 4807 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Biometric Attenence System

...Biometric based secured real-time attendance system Abstract: It is every human responsibility to follow echo friendly systems as we know how our environment getting polluted. One of the echo friendly systems is avoiding paper usage as much as possible. This can be achieved easily with help of advancement in technologies. Now a day’s so many technologies are coming out to make our lives more comfort, user-friendly and luxurious. In this project we are replacing current paper based attendance system with Biometric technology. This is a complete stand alone attendance system in which we store all students attendance with time and date in excel file which will be created on SD card using LPC2148 micro controller. The advantage of using fingerprint module is we can avoid false attendances. Because the person must present there to give his attendance and the mismatching ratio of fingerprints with another person is too high so there is no chance of giving attendance of others with same person. This finger print module support more than 100 users and we increase the user and also delete the users. The processing time for scanning one’s fingerprints is around 3 to 5 seconds only The advantage of SD memory card is we can store more data, the storage range is in Giga Bytes and the read and write time is too fast and we can create files in suitable formats. The communication between SD card and our controller is established using SPI communication. And the......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student Attendance with Fingerprint

...the user to easily interface with the system. Microsoft Excel – Spreadsheet program that will be used to display the final data in columns and cells. PC – Acronym for personal computer. Perl - Acronym for practical extraction and report language, Perl is a programming especially designed for processing text. SDK – Acronym for software development kit. Transaction time – Time it will take for each student to move through the line and press his or her finger upon the scanning device and be recognized. Visual Basic – Commonly referred to as VB. A programming environment from Microsoft in which a programmer uses a graphical user interface to choose and modify pre-selected sections of code written in the BASIC programming language. 4 5 2 Introductory Materials This section includes seven subsections, which give a general overview of what the project is about; who it is intended for and how it will operate. 6 2.1 Executive Summary Throughout this report information is given about the need for the project, the actual project activities, the final results, and recommendations for follow-on work. This section will summarize this information. Project Need A growing problem with university classrooms is the inability to effectively and efficiently record classroom attendance. In many classes the student’s grades are dependent on their attendance to class. Many professors use sign-in sheets or attendance codes, but it is easy to have one......

Words: 9087 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Attendance Systems

...employee attendance management system project.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW!!! Related searches for employee attendance management sy… Employee Attendance Management Sy… Student Attendance Management Sys… Software for Attendance Managemen… Employee Time Management System Related searches Employee Attendance Management System Student Attendance Management System Software for Attendance Management System Employee Time Management System Attendance Management Software Employee Performance Management Systems Employee Health Management Systems Online Project Management Systems Employee Payroll and Attendance Management System | … www.freestudentprojects.com/vb-net-projects/employee-payroll-and-att Pls send me how to log this payroll management system and send me a Vb code? thanks Employee Attendance Monitoring System Project | 1000 Projects 1000projects.org/employee-attendance-monitoring-system-project.html Payroll Management System ASP.Net Project with Documentation and Source Code Payroll management system is the heart of any Human Resource System of an ... ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM | Projects - Classle http://www.classle.net/.../project_ideas/attendance-management-system Attendance management is the act of managing attendance or presence in a work setting to minimize loss due to employee downtime. Attendance control has … Attendance Management System | Free Student Projects www.freestudentprojects.com/.../attendance-management-system Attendance Management System.......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Biometric Uid Authentication Using Visual Cryptography

...[1] A.K. Jain and A. Ross, “Biometrics: a tool for information security”, IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 1, no. 2, Jun. 2006. [2] C. Blundo, A. De Santis, and D.R. Stinson. On the contrast in visual cryptography schemes. J. Cryptogr., 12:261-289, 1999. [3] J. B. Feng, H. C. Wu, C. S. Tsai, Y. F. Chang, and Y. P. Chu. Visual secret sharing for multiple secrets. Pattern Recognition, 41:3572-3581, 2008. [4] A. Ross and A. A. Othman, “Visual Cryptography for Biometric privacy”, IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 6, no. 1, Mar.2011. [5] M. Naor and B A. Shamir. Visual cryptography. in: A. De San tis (Ed.), Advances in Cryptology: Eurpocrypt'94, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 950: 1-12, 1995. [6] C.C. Wu and L.H. Chen. A study on visual cryptography, Master Thesis. PhD thesis, Institute of Computer and Information Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C., 1998. [7] M. Naor and A. Shamir “Visual cryptography:Improving the contrast via the cover base” IACR Eprint archive, 1996. [8] C. Blundo and A. De Santis and D.R. Stinson, “On the contrast in visual cryptography schemes”, Jurnal pf cryptography, vol. 12, pp. 261-289, 1996. [9] G. Ateniese and C. Blundo and A. De Santis and D.R. Stinson,“Extended Schemes for Visual Cryptography”, Theoretical Computer Science, 1996. [10] Z. Zhouand and G. R. Arce and G. Di Crescenzo, “Halftone visual cryptography” IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 15, no. 8, pp.......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Student Attendance System Using Fingerprint

...Title: STUDENT’S ATTENDANCE SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINT TECHNOLOGY by FARAHANUM BT MASRUNI (2004219959) FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECNOLOGY AND QUANTITATIVE SCIENCES BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (Hons) IN DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Approved by the examining committee: ……………………………….. ( En. Syamsul Ariffin b Yahaya ) Project Supervisor ……………………………….. ( En. Farok b Azmat ) Project Examiner MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SHAH ALAM MAY 2006 CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY This is to certify that I responsible for the work submitted in this project that the original work is my own except as specified in the reference and acknowledgement and that the original work contain here in have not been taken or done by unspecified sources or persons. ……………………………………….. Farahanum bt Masruni 2004219959 ii COPYRIGHT © UiTM ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah s.w.t, the most gracious and merciful for giving me the strength and wisdom in finishing this research. At last after a period of time, I have completed my final year project. For this golden opportunity, first and foremost, I would like to express my hearties gratitude to my supervisor, Encik Syamsul Ariffin b Yahaya, my examiner, Encik Farok b Azmat and my coordinator, Encik Adzhar b Abd Kadir for their understanding, and professional way s in assisting and giving their encouragement, guidance, comment and ideas that are useful towards in the development of my project paper. Very special thanks......

Words: 3961 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Fingerptrint Attendance System

..._________________________________________________________________________________     Automatic Biometric Student Attendance System: A Case Study Christian Service University College Dr Thomas Yeboah Dr Ing Edward Opoku-Mensah Mr Christopher Ayaaba Abilimi ABSTRACT In many tertiary institutions in Ghana such as Christian Service University the attendance of students is very important factor since it forms part of the students’ assessment and evaluation. It has therefore become imperative that proper measures should be put in place to ensure that no student signs for another. It has been observed that at Christian Service University College lecturers sometimes give the attendance book to students to sign without actually supervising them to see whether the right student is signing or making sure that no student signs for another. Moreover, if a lecturer wants to supervise the signing of the attendance book to make sure that the right student is signing and no student signs for a friend then the lecturer may end up by wasting a significant amount of the lecture period on the signing supervision. Furthermore, in the larger classes lecturers sometimes use their own ideology and principles to award the attendance marks (5%) that counts towards continuous assessment for students because they find counting each individual student’s attendance laborious, boring and even error prone. This means that the 5% marks obtained by students from attendance sometimes does not give a......

Words: 2527 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Biometric Authentication System

...Biometric Authentication System for Information Security Objective To explain about biometric system that can be used by the organization. By understand the biometric differences; organization can decide which technique is the most suitable for the business. Methodology The method used to know about biometric is scientific literature which will develop quantitative identification as the measurement for the authentication. Outcome To give better understanding about biometric system, biometric techniques as well as the advantages and disadvantages of biometric use in organization. Conclusion Organization can understand better value of biometric system and what is needed to implement the biometric system into the company. Keywords Biometrics CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Since January 2008, the technology had developed rapidly causing the world advancing towards a new era. A survey on 2008 had estimated about 541.7 million computers are connected in more than 250 countries on every continent even Antarctica. The internet is not a single network but it is a worldwide network that connected every individual computer hosts to network connection, in a variety ways. Thus, individuals and organizations can reach the internet without regard to national or geographic boundaries or time of day. However, along with the advantages and easy access to get information, there are also many risks such as the valuable information will be lost, stolen, changed or......

Words: 5215 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Biometric Attendance System

...researchgate.net/publication/269327743 Biometric-based attendance system with remote real-time monitoring for tertiary institutions in developing countries CONFERENCE PAPER · NOVEMBER 2013 DOI: 10.1109/NIGERCON.2013.6715633 DOWNLOADS VIEWS 86 111 4 AUTHORS, INCLUDING: U. Eze Peter Federal University of Technology Owerri 3 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: U. Eze Peter Retrieved on: 19 August 2015 Biometric-based Attendance System with Remote Realtime Monitoring for Tertiary Institutions in Developing Countries Eze Peter U., Joe-Uzuegbu C. K. A, Laz Uzoechi, Opara F.K Department Of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Federal University Of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria peter.eze@futo.edu.ng, joskie23@yahoo.co.uk, laz_okey@yahoo.com class album. The system will easily produce required reports for both lectures and examinations. For the staff, check-in by proxy needs to be eliminated and there should be a way of monitoring and automatically appraising the staff based on check-in/out time for each working day. Remote monitoring is allowed for managers because they may have travelled out of the four walls of the institution but still needs to know what is happening in real time. Remote check-in/out is NOT allowed. One has to be within the campus in order to check-in/out of the system. However, remote monitoring is allowed for personnel in the management level. Biometrics ensures physical presence......

Words: 3263 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Biometric

...Biometrics in Schools, Colleges and other Educational Institutions The following guidance has been prepared as an aid to schools, colleges and other educational institutions that may be considering the installation and use of a biometric system. This document is intended to encourage such institutions to fully consider if there is need for a biometric system in the first place and then to assess the privacy impact of different systems. The critical issues to be considered from a data protection perspective are the proportionality of introducing a biometric system and the requirement to obtain the signed consent of the student users (and their parents or guardians in the case of minors) giving them a clear and unambiguous right to opt out of the system without penalty. The document is not intended to promote any particular system, but is intended to make schools and colleges aware of their responsibilities under the Data Protection Acts 1988 & 2003. It is the use of a biometric system that may give rise to a data protection concern, not necessarily the production or sale of a system. All situations must be judged on a case-by-case basis. 1. Different types of Biometric systems All biometric systems operate on the basis of the automatic identification or authentication/verification of a person. What differs between systems is the nature of the biometric and the type of storage. 1.1 Information used to generate biometric data Biometric data may be created from physical or......

Words: 3989 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Introduction to Fingerprint Based Student Attendance

...I. INTRODUCTION Today, Secure and reliable user-authentication is an unavoidable need, and hence for user- authentication Biometric systems are widely used. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation for highly secure identification and personal verification solutions./ Biometric applications have the potential to offer much more robust authentication/identification security than traditional systems (eg: passwords or pass codes ,PINs , tokens). The main goal of applying biometrics to user authentication is to provide security to users and detect imposters in terms of users physiological (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, hand) or behavioural characteristics (e.g. speech, keystroke dynamics). Owing to the unique biometric characteristic that every person possesses, utilization of the same can be done in a form of identity access management. Ever since their inception, Fingerprint based biometric authentication and verification systems have gained immense popularity and acceptance. This is primarily because of the ease of operation, installation and easy acquisition of the biometric feature, which in this case is a fingerprint. Implementing fingerprint recognition system is secure to use since the uniqueness of one’s fingerprint does not change in user’s lifetime. The popularity of mobile devices is undeniable. According to the International Data Corporation (IDC), more smartphones were sold in 2012 than desktop and laptop computers combined. This...

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Design and Implementation of a Bio-Metric (Fingerprint) Clocking System

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Staff attenda nce management of an institution or organization can be very laborious using the conventional method of paper sheets and old file system method. Every corporate organization poses some standards concerning how attendance is to be confirmed for staff in offices. This is to enable the management of the organization identify those staff that are punctual and competent, that is why keeping the accurate record of attendance is very important. Also in institutions, tracking and monitoring staff time of attendance could pose a tedious task, time consuming and as well prone to errors. As an alternative to the traditional manual clocking process by staff in offices, biometrics characteristics can be used for authenticating staff. This research will focus on developing a Fingerprint based Biometric Clocking System.  The fingerprint Biometrics is adopted in this research work due to the fact that it is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. In the manual signing processes, where a sheet of paper is placed at the entrance of the office for staff to write their names and signature as a form of confirming their presence for a particular day in the office, falsification in staff attendance mostly occur. A situation whereby a staff can sign on behalf of his or her colleague as being present in the office when that is not true. This can be so difficult to prevent from happening especially for......

Words: 1919 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

A Fingerprint Based Biometric Authentication and Identification System for Time and Attendance Management

...A FINGERPRINT BASED BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT ABSTRACT This project is about designing a system that automates the whole process of taking attendance and maintaining its records in an academic institute. Managing people is a difficult task for most of the organizations, and maintaining the attendance record is an important factor in people management. When considering academic institutes, taking the attendance of students on daily basis and maintaining the records is a major task. Manually taking the attendance and maintaining it for a long time adds to the difficulty of this task as well as wastes a lot of time. For this reason an efficient system is designed. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of a fingerprint sensor and all the records are saved on a computer server. In order to mark the attendance, student/staff has to place his/her finger on the fingerprint sensor. On identification student’s attendance record is updated in the database and he/she is notified through a screen. . TABLE OF CONTENTS Certification Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures Chapter One Introduction Chapter Two Literature Review Chapter Three Methodology Chapter Four System Design Chapter Five Implementation Chapter Six Conclusion and Recommendation LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the background of the project, the objectives, scope......

Words: 2434 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Biometric Attendance System

...ABSTRACT This project is about designing and developing a system, Student’s Attendance System (SAS) that will record the attendance of student in FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE. SAS using fingerprint technology to authenticate every student by using their fingerprint in order to get an accurate record. The fingerprint technology is cheaper and easy to implement compared to other biometrics technology. The fingerprint only authenticates the validated student. SAS with the fingerprint features can make the system secure because no student can record their attendance except to be authenticated by the system. Besides provides security, this new system provides efficiency to both lecturers and students. SAS focused on the developing system using SDLC as the methodology. This system using personal computer that is run under Windows platform and develop using VB, PHP and MySQL. This system uses the questionnaire method in order to analyze the user acceptance among respondents. In conclusion, this is important to provide the reliable and efficient record. 1.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will focus on background of this project, problem of the manual system, the objectives, scope and significance of the project. 1.2 BACKGROUND Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics. It includes fingerprint, iris, facial and retinal. Biometrics technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive......

Words: 2173 - Pages: 9