Free Essay

Fdi in Retail

In: Business and Management

Submitted By SHRIAKNTDGAIKWAD
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Pages 33
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, AURANGABAD. 2011-2012

PROJECT REPORT on “FDI in indian retail sector”
Submitted By
Mr. Sagar P. Mahalkar Mr.Sachin Shinde
Mr. Shrikant Gaikwad Mr.Akshay Shisode

Guided By Prof. Ramesh Sardar

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE,
UNIVERSITY CAMPUS,
AURANGABAD.
2011-2012
“CERTIFICATE”
This is to certify that the project report entitled ”FDI IN INDIAN RETAIL SECTOR” is the confide work of the candidate satisfactorily completed during the academic year 2011-2012 as the partial fulfillment of requirement for the M.B.A.(F.Y.) in the Department of Management Science.
Submitted by
Mr. Sagar P. Mahalkar
Mr. Shrikant Gaikwad Guided by DIRECTOR Prof. Ramesh Sardar Prof. Abhijeet Shelke Acknowledgement
We would specially like to thank to the people who directed, encouraged, and advised us for the whole project. This is a real project we are getting something new information about various problems of FDI in retail sector in India.
This project clarifying our views about FDI what we thought and problems of FDI in retail sector in India what actually is.
We are very thankful to my guider that, he given us his valuable time and advised us time to time for this project.
I am also very thankful to all the people who guided, directed, and helped me during throughout the project work directly or indirectly.

Sagar P. Mahalkar Shrikant Gaikwad Shinde Sachin Akshay Shisode

INDEX Sr. No. | Title | Page No. | 1. | | | 2. | | | 3. | | | 4. | | | 5. | | | 6. | | | 7. | | | 7. | | | 8. | | |

Table of Contents

Sr.No. Title Page No.

1] Table

2] Pie-Chart

Introduction

FDI * Is the process whereby residents of one country (the source country) acquire ownership of assets for the purpose of controlling the production, distribution, and other activities of a firm in another country (the host country). * The international monetary fund’s balance of payment manual defines FDI as an investment that is made to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. The investors’ purpose being to have an effective voice in the management of the enterprise’. * The united nations 1999 world investment report defines FDI as ‘an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control of a resident entity in one economy (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor ( FDI enterprise, affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate).

Retail * Retail is stocking the producer’s goods and involves the act of selling it to the individual consumer, at a margin of profit. * Retailing can be said to be the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers Retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain. A retailer is involved in the act of selling goods to the individual consumer at a margin of profit.
Objective of Research

The main objective of the study is to analyze the FDI inflows in India with special reference to Sector –wise
The other objectives are: 1.) To analyze the FDI flows as to identify country wise approvals of FDI inflows to India. 2.) To explore the Sector wise distribution of FDI inflows in order to point out the dominating sector, 3.) which has attracted the major share. 4.) To rank the sectors based upon highest FDI inflows. 5.) To find out the co relation between FDI and Economic Development.

Scope of Research

1.) To

2.) To study identify the problems of FDI in retail sector in India.

3.) Examines the trends and patterns in the foreign direct investment (FDI) across different sectors and from different countries in India.

4.) Influence of FII on movement of Indian stock exchange during the post liberalization period that is 1991 to 2007.

Limitations

1.) ........... 2.)

Literature Review * Cheng, (1993) noted the growing importance of cross-border R & D activities and suggested that additional research on FDI should be done on why firms internationalize their R & D. * Nagesh Kumar (2001) analyses the role of infrastructure availability in determining the attractiveness of countries for FDI inflows for export orientation of MNC production. * Kulwinder Singh (2005) has analyzed FDI flows from 1991-2005. A sectoral analysis in his study reveals that while FDI shows a gradual increase has become a staple of success in India, the progress is hollow. The telecommunication and power sector are the reasons for the success of infrastructure. He finds that in the comparative studies the notion of infrastructure has gone a definitional change.FDI in sectors is held up primarily by telecommunication and power is not evenly distributed. * In their study on FDI and its economic effects in India, Chandand Chakroborty and Peter Munnen Kamp (2006) assess the growth implications of FDI in India by subjecting industry specific FDI and output to causality tests. * Jaya Gupta (2007) in his paper made an attempt to review the change in sectoral trends in India due to FDI Inflows since liberalization. This paper also examines the changed policy implications on sectoral growth and economic development of India as a whole. * Jayashree Bose (2007) in his book studied the sectoral experiences faced by India and China in connection with FDI inflows. This book provides information on FDI in India and China, emerging issues, globalization, foreign factors, trends and issues in FDI inflows, FDI inflows in selected sectors. A comparative study has also been conducted on FDI outflows from India and China. * Tanay Kumar Nandi and Ritankar Saher (2007) in their work made an attempt to study the Foreign Direct Investment in India with a special focus on Retail Trade. This paper stresses the need of FDI in India in retail sector and uses the augment that FDI is allowed in multiple sectors and the effects have been quite good without harming the domestic economy. The study also suggests that FDI in retail sector must be allowed.
Research Methodology
Research
Research concerns itself with obtainin g information through emprical observation that can be used to systematically develop logically related so as to attempt to establish casual relationship among variables.
A careful investigation of inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research as a process involves defining & redefining problems, hypothesis, formulation, organizing and evaluating data, deriving deductions, inferences and conclusions after careful testing and analysis.
Research design
Research design is the blue print of the research,the researcher going to do.
It is plan of action to be carried out in connection with the research project. It is the guideling for the researcher to enable him to keep track of his project and to know whether he was moving in the right direction or not. Research design economizes on time, energy, manpower and other costs involved in the study.
Appropriate design prevents the researcher from wandering aimlessely. It guides him to collect only the relevant data and provides kind of information.

Different types research designs are generally used but here basically descriptive research design is used.
Descriptive research aims at fact findings so here we collect the facts and figures and analyze them and then evaluate it critically.

Data collection
The ability to gather, analyze, evaluate, present and utilize information is therefore is a vital skill for the manager of today.
In order to accomplish this project successfully I will take following steps.

1) Data Collection: • The analysis will be done with the help Secondary data (from internet site and journals). • The data is collected mainly from websites, annual reports, World Bank reports, research reports, already conducted survey analysis, database available etc.

FDI IN RETAIL SECTOR IN INDIA

Opponents of the entry of foreign direct investment (FDI) in retail trade generally point to its adverse impact on employment. This is indeed an important issue, as around 40 million people are engaged in retail trade in India, and even a small percentage loss of employment in this sector amounts to lakes of unemployed. At the same time, we need to take note of certain other issues as well, in particular the nature of the relations which international retailing giants establish with their suppliers, and their implications for workers and cultivators in countries like India.
Though FDI in retail trade is as yet restricted, the Government of India has a more liberal policy towards wholesale trade, franchising, and commission agents’ services, thus preparing the ground for FDI in retail as well. Foreign retailers have already started operations in India through various routes: (i) joint ventures where the Indian firm is an export house; (ii) franchising (e.g. Kentucky Fried Chicken, Nike); (iii) sourcing of supplies from small-scale sector; (iv) ‘cash and carry’ operations (Giant in Hyderabad, Metro in Bangalore); (v) non-store formats – direct marketing (Amway). Large international retailers of home furnishing and apparels such as Pottery Barn, The Gap and Ralph Lauren have made India one of their major sourcing hubs. Up to 100 per cent FDI is allowed in ‘cash and carry’ operations. The Great Wholesaling Club Ltd is one such example. In February 2002, the world’s largest retailer, Wal-Mart, opened a global sourcing office in Bangalore. In November 2006, it announced its entry under a joint venture with the Indian corporation Bharti. For the time being, Bharti is to own the chain of front-end retail stores, while the two firms will have an equal share in a firm that will engage in wholesale, logistics, supply chain and sourcing activities. This is seen as a preliminary step by Wal-Mart pending the removal of all restrictions on FDI in retail trade.
Distinct character of Indian retail trade
The Indian trading sector, as it has developed over centuries, is very different from that of the developed countries. In the developed countries, products and services normally reach consumers from the manufacturer/producers through two different channels:
(a) via independent retailers (‘vertical separation’) and
(b) directly from the producer (‘vertical integration’).
In the latter case, the producers establish their own chains of retail outlets, or develop franchises.
In India, however, the above two modes of operation are not very common: For in India, today, less than three per cent of the retail transactions are done in the organised sector; and this is projected to increase to 15-20 per cent by 2010. To date, the organised sector is restricted to metropolises. The second mode is found in a few national firms and some subsidiaries of global firms. Indian wholesale trade too is not organised. The few government initiatives (such as the formation of Boards for tea, coffee, and spices, and the State Trading Corporations) have largely become defunct by now, and private initiatives have mostly remained localised.
Small and medium enterprises dominate the Indian retail scene. The trading sector is highly fragmented, with a large number of intermediaries. So also, wholesale trade in India is marked by the presence of thousands of small commission agents, stockists and distributors who operate at a strictly local level. Apart from these, in many cases small producers such as artisans and farmers sell their goods directly to end consumers (often one family member is a producer and another sells the products). The existence of thousands of such individual producer-cum-sellers is an example of ‘vertical integration’ as it is found in the Indian retail sector. There is no ‘barrier to entry’, given the structure and scale of these operations.
‘Customer relationship management’ (to use the marketing jargon) is handled in India by numerous small vendors locating themselves close to their customers – either by opening a tiny outlet in a residential area or by hawking goods at the consumer’s doorstep. In this process, a personal relationship develops, often extending beyond immediate business interests.
The retail sector acts as an important shock absorber for the present social system. Thus when a factory shuts down rendering workers jobless; or peasants find themselves idle during part of the year or get evicted from their land; or the stagnant manufacturing sector fails to absorb the fresh entrants into the job market, the retail sector absorbs them all. A skilled labourer turns into a street hawker, a farmer turns to delivering milk packets door to door, an educated unemployed youth hawks newspapers and a better off unemployed person starts a telephone booth and retails telecom cards as an ‘add on’ service. When (in exceptional cases) the factory reopens, or harvesting time arrives, some of these new entrants leave the retail trade and return to their respective employments.
Thus, after agriculture, the incidence of under-employment is probably highest in the Indian retail sector. There are nearly 12 million retail outlets. Small retailers operating in the unorganised sector dominate the trade. Those displaced as a result of FDI in retail may not show up as an increase in visible unemployment. Only the extent of under-employment in the retail sector might increase.

The Question of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Retail:

Given this backdrop, the recent clamour about opening up the retail sector to
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) becomes a very sensitive issue, with arguments to support both sides of the debate. It is widely acknowledged that FDI can have some positive results on the economy, triggering a series of reactions that in the long run can lead to greater efficiency and improvement of living standards, apart from greater integration into the global economy. Supporters of FDI in retail trade talk of how ultimately the consumer is benefited by both price reductions and improved selection, brought about by the technology and know-how of foreign players in the market. This in turn can lead to greater output and domestic consumption.
But the most important factor against FDI driven “modern retailing” is that it is labour displacing to the extent that it can only expand by destroying the traditional retail sector. Till such time we are in a position to create jobs on a large scale in manufacturing, it would make eminent sense that any policy that results in the elimination of jobs in the unorganised retail sector should be kept on hold.
Though most of the high decibel arguments in favour of FDI in the retail sector are not without some merit, it is not fully applicable to the retailing sector in India, or at least, not yet. This is because the primary task of government in India is still to provide livelihoods and not create so called efficiencies of scale by creating redundancies. As per present regulations, no
FDI is permitted in retail trade in India. Allowing 49% or 26% FDI (which have been the proposed figures till date) will have immediate and dire consequences. Entry of foreign players now will most definitely disrupt the current balance of the economy, will render millions of small retailers jobless by closing the small slit of opportunity available to them.
Imagine if Wal-Mart, the world’s biggest retailer sets up operations in India at prime locations in the 35 large cities and towns that house more than 1 million people. The supermarket will typically sell everything, from vegetables to the latest electronic gadgets, at extremely low prices that will most likely undercut those in nearby local stores selling similar goods. Wal-
Mart would be more likely to source its raw materials from abroad, and procure goods like vegetables and fruits directly from farmers at preordained quantities and specifications. This means a foreign company will buy big from India and abroad and be able to sell low – severely undercutting the small retailers. Once a monopoly situation is created this will then turn into buying low and selling high.
Such re-orientation of sourcing of materials will completely disintegrate the already established supply chain. In time, the neighbouring traditional outlets are also likely to fold and perish, given the ‘predatory’ pricing power that a foreign player is able to exert. As Nick Robbins wrote in the context of the East India Company, “By controlling both ends of the chain, the company could buy cheap and sell dear”. The producers and traders at the lowest level of operations will never find place in this sector, which would now have demand mostly only for fluent English-speaking helpers. Having been uprooted from their traditional form of business, these persons are unlikely to be suitable for other areas of work either.
It is easy to visualise from the discussion above, how the entry of just one big retailer is capable of destroying a whole local economy and send it hurtling down a spiral. One must also not forget how countries like China,
Malaysia and Thailand, who opened their retail sector to FDI in the recent past, have been forced to enact new laws to check the prolific expansion of the new foreign malls and hypermarkets.
Given their economies of scale and huge resources, a big domestic retailer or any new foreign player will be able to provide their merchandise at cheaper rates than a smaller retailer. But stopping an Indian retailer from growing bigger is something current public policy cannot do, whereas the State does have the prerogative in whether foreign entry in the retail sector should be stalled or not.
It is true that it is in the consumer’s best interest to obtain his goods and services at the lowest possible price. But this is a privilege for the individual consumer and it cannot, in any circumstance, override the responsibility of any society to provide economic security for its population. Clearly collective well-being must take precedence over individual benefits.

Impact of the Retail FDI Policy on Indian Consumers

There is a close linkage between economic development, rise in per capita income, growing consumerism, proliferation of branded products, and retail modernisation.With high economic growth, per capita income increases; this, in turn, leads to a shift in consumption pattern from necessity items to discretionary consumption. Furthermore, as the economy liberalises and globalises, various international brands enter the domestic market. Consumer awareness increases and consumers tend to experiment with different international brands. The proliferation of brands leads to increase in retail space. Thus, retail modernisation is a part of the development process.
Retail modernisation in India depicts a similar story. Over the past decade,
1) the gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita income has grown at an average annual rate of seven per cent and five per cent, respectively.
2) India‟s GDP growth rate for 2010-11was 8.6 per cent and
3) it is expected to grow by 9 per cent in 2011-12.
4) In India, around 60 per cent of the GDP is consumed.5 In 2007, India was ranked the twelfth largest consumer market.
This has made the country an attractive destination for foreign retailers.

Indian government formulated a brand-based retail FDI policy in 2006. The policy allows 51 per cent FDI in a retail enterprise with the following conditions:
(a) only single-brand products can be sold (i.e., the sale of multiple brands by a foreign retailer, even if produced by the same manufacturer, is not allowed),
(b) products should be sold under the same brand internationally (c) the retail would only cover products that are branded during manufacturing and
(d) any addition to product categories would require fresh approval from the government.
India is probably the only country in the world that has a brand-based retail FDI policy. This policy assumes that Indian consumers are brand conscious, have knowledge of foreign brands, and want access to foreign brands in the Indian market.

Introduction

Scope of Research

Research Design

Research design is the blue print of the research,the researcher going to do. I followed Descriptive Design here because 1) This research is conducted first by me. 2) I have no control over the variables. 3) I have to mention just what there is to be seen.

While in the part of the research design I have selected the operational design because it includes sample design, observational design, and statistical design.

The sample design deals with the item selection to be observed.

The observational design deals with the conditions under which observation is made.

The statistical design deals with the methods of analysis of data.

In the sample design I have population 40 women which related different sector that are banking, government sector, moles etc. The condition of observation is that the data collection should be in questionnaire form, among which I have categorized form, among which I have categorized the observation in two parts. One is the urban area and second one is the rural area, and as there are no that much quantitative data to be deled I am using just normal mathematical calculations for the research. The general format of research design:- 1.) Selection of the sample as the population , in this I have used random sampling method. 2.) Preparation of the questionnaire. With reference to the different field of working women I have put questions in five categories that are:- a) Workplace Problems b) Family Problems c) Financial Problems d) Social-Economic Status e) General

Data Collection
Data collection is the major part for any survey, as I have used the three methods for the data collection for this survey. One is questionnaire, second is interview and third is observational method of the data collection.
1] Questionnaire:- This is the one of the survey plus data collection method, I have used 36 questions divided into 5 parts as the questionnaire that includes questions for getting data of workplace problems, family problems, financial problems, social status and some general questions.
2] Observation:- In the observation method I have observed that women speak honestly or in under pressure of their senior or boss. I have also observed that many women afraid to given true information.
3] Interview:- This is also one of the survey plus data collection method as face to face communication, through the telephonic interview and different ways. But I have taken fourty women’s face to face interview. In interview I have asked various questions related problems face at the time of work, at the time of living in society, in their family and related to finance.

PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN
It is an open truth that working women have to face problems just by virtue of their being women. Working women here are referred to those who are in paid employment. Social attitude to the role of women lags much behind the law. This attitude which considers women fit for certain jobs and not others colors those who recruit employees. Thus women find employment easily as nurses, doctors, teachers the caring and nurturing sectors, secretaries or in assembling jobs-the routine submissive sectors. But even if well qualified women engineers or managers or geologists are available, preference will be given to a male of equal qualification. A gender bias creates an obstacle at the recruitment stage itself. When it comes to remuneration the law proclaims equality but it is seldom put into practice. The inbuilt conviction that women are capable of less work than men or less efficient than men governs this injustice of unequal salaries and wages for the same job. The age old belief of male superiority over women creates several hurdles for women at their place of work. Women on the way up the corporate ladder discover that they must be much better than their male colleagues to reach the top. Once at the top male colleagues and subordinates often expect much greater expertise and efficiency from a woman boss than from a male boss. Conditioned by social and psychological tradition women colleagues too don’t lend support to their own sex. Working in such conditions inevitably put much greater strain on women than what men experience. These problems tend to make women less eager to progress in their careers. Indeed many of them choose less demanding jobs for which they may even be over-qualified. A woman’s work is not merely confined to paid employment. |
She has to almost always shoulder the burden of household chores as well. A woman could still bear up with these problems if she had control over the money she earns. But in most families even now her salary is handed over to father, husband or in-laws. So the basic motive for seeking employment of getting independence is nullified in many women’s case. Problems of gender bias beset women in the industrial sector. Technological advancement results in retrenchment of women employees. No one thinks of upgrading their skills. Maternity leave is seldom given. It is much easier to terminate the woman’s employment and hire someone else. Trade Unions do little to ameliorate the lot of women workers. Women’s issues do not occur on the priority list of most of the trade unions. Women going to work are often subject to sexual harassment. Public transport system is overcrowded and men take advantage of the circumstances to physically harass women. Colleagues offer unwanted attention which can still be shaken off but a woman is placed in a difficult situation if the higher officer demands sexual favors. If refused the boss can easily take it out on the woman in other ways to make life miserable for her. There have been several cases of sexual harassment recently involving even the senior women officials. On the other hand if a woman is praised for her work or promoted on merit, her colleagues do not hesitate to attribute it to sexual favors. The psychological pressure of all this can easily lead to a woman quitting her job. Most of the problems that beset working women are in reality rooted in the social perspective of the position of women. Traditionally men are seen as the bread winner and women as the house-keepers, child bearers and rearers. This typecast role model continues to put obstacles before the working women. A fundamental change is required in the attitudes of the employers, policy makers, family members and other relatives and the public at large.
The status of Indian women has undergone considerable change. Though Indian women are far more independent and aware of their legal rights, such as right to work, equal treatment, property and maintenance, a majority of women remain unaware of these rights. There are other factors that affect their quality of life such as age of marriage, extent of literacy, role in the family and so on. In many families, women do not have a voice in anything while in several families; the women may have a dominating role. The result is that the empowerment of women in India is highly unbalanced and with huge gaps. Those who are economically independent and literate live the kind of life that other women tend to envy about.

WOMEN’S ISSUESS
Medieval Indian Women
Medieval India was not women's age it is supposed to be the 'dark age' for them. Medieval India saw many foreign conquests, which resulted in the decline in women's status. When foreign conquerors like Muslims invaded India they brought with them their own culture. For them women was the sole property of her father, brother or husband and she does not have any will of her own. This type of thinking also crept into the minds of Indian people and they also began to treat their own women like this. One more reason for the decline in women's status and freedom was that original Indians wanted to shield their women folk from the barbarous Muslim invaders. As polygamy was a norm for these invaders they picked up any women they wanted and kept her in their "harems". In order to protect them Indian women started using 'Purdah', (a veil), which covers body. Due to this reason their freedom also became affected. They were not allowed to move freely and this lead to the further deterioration of their status. These problems related with women resulted in changed mindset of people. Now they began to consider a girl as misery and a burden, which has to be shielded from the eyes of intruders and needs extra care. Whereas a boy child will not need such extra care and instead will be helpful as an earning hand. Thus a vicious circle started in which women was at the receiving end. All this gave rise to some new evils such as Child Marriage, Sati, Jauhar and restriction on girl education
Child Marriage
It was a norm in medieval India. Girls were married off at the age of 8-10. They were not allowed access to education and were treated as the material being. The plight of women can be imagined by one of the shloka of Tulsidas where he writes "Dhol, gawar, shudra, pashu, nari, ye sab tadan ke adhikari". Meaning that animals, illiterates, lower castes and women should be subjected to beating. Thus women were compared with animals and were married off at an early age. The child marriage along with it brought some more problems such as increased birth rate, poor health of women due to repeated child bearing and high mortality rate of women and children.

Girl Education The girls of medieval India and especially Hindu society were not given formal education. They were given education related to household chores. But a famous Indian philosopher 'Vatsyayana' wrote that women were supposed to be perfect in sixty four arts which included cooking, spinning, grinding, knowledge of medicine, recitation and many more.
Modern Indian Women
The status of women in modern India is a sort of a paradox. If on one hand she is at the peak of ladder of success, on the other hand she is mutely suffering the violence afflicted on her by her own family members. As compared with past women in modern times have achieved a lot but in reality they have to still travel a long way. Their path is full of roadblocks. The women have left the secured domain of their home and are now in the battlefield of life, fully armored with their talent. They had proven themselves. But in India they are yet to get their dues. The sex ratio of India shows that the Indian society is still prejudiced against female. There are 933 females per thousand males in India according to the census of 2001, which is much below the world average of 990 females. There are many problems which women in India have to go through daily. These problems have become the part and parcel of life of Indian women and some of them have accepted them as their fate.
Lack of education
In India women education never got its due share of attention. From the medieval India women were debarred from the educational field. According to medieval perception women need just household education and this perception of medieval India still persists in villages of India even today. Girls are supposed to fulfill domestic duties and education becomes secondary for them whereas it is considered to be important for boys. Although scenario in urban areas has changed a lot and women are opting for higher education but majority of Indian population residing in villages still live in medieval times. The people of villages consider girls to be curse and they do not want to waste money and time on them as they think that women should be wedded off as soon as possible.
The main reason for not sending girls to school is the poor economic condition. Another reason is far off location of schools. In Indian society virginity and purity is given utmost importance during marriage and people are afraid to send their girl child to far off schools were male teacher teach them along with boys. The lack of education is the root cause for many other problems. An uneducated mother cannot look after her children properly and she is not aware of the deadly diseases and their cure, which leads to the poor health of the children. An uneducated person does not know about hygiene this lack of knowledge of hygiene may lead to poor health of the whole family.
Women's Struggle And Reforms
Though women of India are not at par with her counterpart in Western world but she is struggling hard to make her mark in men's world. We can count on certain names from the British India where women put the example of extraordinary bravery which even men might not be able to show. Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi was the one such woman. She was the one who put even British rulers to shame with her extraordinary feats in battle. She fought for her kingdom, which Dalhousie, British Governor General, had unlawfully annexed. She was in a true sense the leader of uprising of 1857. There are certain men who took the cause of women in India. There have been social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Vivekananda, Swami Dayananda Saraswati who have helped women gain their previous status in society.India, with a population of 989 million, is the world's second most populous country. Of that number, 120 million are women who live in poverty.
India has 16 percent of the world's population, but only 2.4 percent of its land, resulting in great pressures on its natural resources. Over 70 percent of India's population currently derive their livelihood from land resources, which includes 84 percent of the economically-active women. India is one of the few countries where males significantly outnumber females, and this imbalance has increased over time. India's maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the world's highest. From a global perspective, Indian accounts for 19 percent of all lives births and 27 percent of all maternal deaths.

| Workplace Problems | Family Problems | Financial Problems | Social Problems | Government Sector | 38% | 25% | 40% | 30% | Banking Sector | 50% | 25% | 15% | 25% | Malls Sector | 75% | 30% | 60% | 60% | BPO Sector | 80% | 25% | 50% | 60% |

The above table represents different problems related to their workplace, family, financial and social economic status in percentage. These data have collected from different sectors of Aurangabad and its rural area. I have collected this data from banking sector, from malls, BPO sector and government sector (Primary school, Colleges, MSEB and Tahsil office).
Among these I have taken eight sample from banking sector and I have observed that fifty percent working women facing problems at their workplace. In workplace problems I have asked some questions and these questions are, gender difference at workplace, any ill-treatment or any type of harassment by seniors, questions related to promotion, etc.
I saw they are facing problems relating to behavior and attitude of customers, they said the behavior of customers is not so good towards us and some women feel the attitude and behavior of their male colleagues is not so good and their male colleagues try to dominate. But banking sector’s working women are not facing problems relating to their promotion, behavior of their boss and they are not feeling any gender difference at their workplace.
Problems related to their family I observed that, there are twenty five percent working women facing family problems. I have asked some questions relating to family and these questions which are regarding family support for job,household,taking care of children, and other general questions.
After asked questions I observed that, some working women are facing the problem relating to family support towards their household work and job is not so good.
Problems related to financial according to collected data by me, there are only fifteen percent working women are facing problems relating to financial. In this section I have asked questions related to their salary, any gender difference on salary offered, independence relating to spend salary, does husband or family show their right on salary, satisfaction of getting salary. Among them some women said that their family or husband shows their right on salary.
In social-economic status, there are again twenty five percent working women facing problems relating to social-economic status according to my survey. They are feeling that, they are not getting more reputed treatment in society as working women. In this survey I have asked questions such as,any change in status in society, any reputed treatment and other general quentions relates to society and view of surrounding people towards working women. These are all about problems of working women in banking sector.
In the malls sector’s working women are facing more problems than banking sector according to my survey. In the malls sectors I have collected data from Big Bazar and Prozone mall of Aurangabad and I have taken ten samples for this survey. In this my survey I saw that, the biggest problem of working women of malls sector is the attitude of customer and their male colleagues is not so good.
In workplace problem according to my survey, there are 75% working women of do work in malls facing problems at their workplace. They are facing misbehavior of their customer and their male colleagues; they said that, the attitude and behavior or some customer and their male colleagues are not so good towards us. They give us mental harassment and verbal abuse etc. sometimes their try to dominate. They are facing the problem relating to their promotion.
In the problems related to family in my survey, there are thirty percent workings women are facing problems of the family. And these problems are, if sometime they have work load then their husband not understand. But some say that we feel good in their family because they cooperate us.
In financial problems, there are sixty percent workings women of malls are facing problems relating to financial. And problems related to social economic status according to my survey, there are also sixty percent working are facing problems relating to their social status. Most of them feel that attitude of people is not so good towards us as a working women in a mall. Some are feel that, we are not getting reputed treatment from society. These all about the data of malls sectors working women problems that are I have observed in my survey.
After collect data from banking sector and malls sectors them I have collected data from BPO Sectors from Aditya Birla Minacs, Aurangabad. From this BPO I have taken six samples out of forty that I have taken for my whole survey for to know what are the actual problems are facing working women. According to my survey in BPO sectors working women are also facing more problems than banking sector, government sector same as in malls sectors women. In BPO sectors working women mostly facing problems relating to verbal abuse by customer. In BPO sector I have divided problems in five sections that are, workplace problems, family problems, financial problems, their social economic status and some general questions.
When I collect data for which are the BPO sectors working women workplace problems then, I get result that, there are 80% working women are facing problems at their workplace according to six women that are I have taken as sample for survey. They said that, we mostly facing problems such as, verbal abuse by customers they speak dirty language with us. Some of them said that, their male colleagues try to dominate us and their behavior is not so good towards us. They said that, sometime our senior also tries to dominate us and we feel problems relating to our promotion.
The next section is family problems, according to my survey there are twenty five percent working women of BPO sector facing problems due to family. They are facing problems such as, sometime they feel their family dislike this job means they do not support this job. In case they need to out of station for their official work then their family not gives permission and sometime they also not also understand their workload. After that, in financial problems there are 50% women are facing financial problems. The problems such as, they do not get expected salary according to their work. In social economic status, there are 60% women facing problems relating to social status. They said that the attitude of society if not so good towards us because the people thinks are that , character of working women working in BPO sector is not so good therefore they shows misbehavior and not gives reputed treatment to us. Finally, after banking sector, malls sector, BPO sector I have collected data from government sector from different fields i.e. Tahsil office, MSEB office, Primary school teacher, from college. I have collected these data from rural area as well as urban area of Aurangabad. In the government sector I have found that, there are fewer problems have than other sector. For survey in government sector’s working women I have taken 16 samples.
In workplace related problems, I have found that there are 38% women are facing problems at their workplace. Some time they feel problem relating to misbehavior of customers and some male colleagues. In family problems, only 25% women are facing problems. The problems are in case they need to go out of station for their official work then their family dislike it. Then in financial problem, there are 40% working women in government sector are facing financial problem. These are, their family shows the right on their salary sometime. In the social status, there are thirty percent workings women of government sector are facing problems relating to the social issues. Because some time people of society not shows good attitude towards us as a working women. These all about information of problems of working women in government sector. So, according to above information or data I get conclusion that, the BPO sector and malls sectors working women are more facing problems than government sector and banking sector.
The above data shown in below Pie-Chart.

Conclusion
The promary goal of this project report is to identify which type of problems are facing working women in private sector as well as publice sector. In analysis the detailed and reflective interviews with academic and physicests I identified several issues such as isolation, departmental, culture, harassment and compromises which caused difficulties and created barriers at various points in their careers. The younger women indicate that they have already encountered some of these barriers and work anticipeting others. They work though up-beat about the potential for career as they could see some ways forward. They also suggested different sort of compromises in putting job satisfaction and conditions before status and money.

Recommendation and Suggestion

It was evident from the study that the women civil servants suffer from a lot of problems ranging from negative attitude in work place and family to logistic deficiencies. These hamper their performance and reduce their efficiency. It is, in the long run wasting the national resources and potentials. To make the women civil servants true human capital, certain measures should be taken into consideration. Therefore, following recommendations are made to reduce problems and to create a congenial atmosphere for the women at the field level.

1. There should be a comprehensive policy in the civil service to remove the obstacles that hinder the performance of women and to address their special needs for better functioning.
2. There is already a rule that allow spouses to work in the same or closer places. It should be fully implemented and further change should be made to ensure that husband and wife will be able to work in the same or closer places throughout their career in the civil service.
3. There should be preferential housing arrangements from the government for the women officers posted in the field.
4. There should be daycare facility in every field station to facilitate better childcare and reduce tension of the mothers working in the civil service.
5. They should be given adequate logistic support, such as transport, staff and so on. Such facilities should be evenly distributed among all cadres.
6. During distribution of responsibility women civil servants could be consulted about their preference if there are options. Besides, transport, night stay, accommodation, food, and child care such issues should be considered during assigning a woman for work.
7. There should be decent and separate toilet and prayer room in accordance with the social norms for the women civil servants.
8. The training and promotion should be based on performance; and women should be given preference or quota could be preserved for them.
9. Women should be transferred less frequently, if they prefer it.
10. There should be a social awareness initiative to reduce “double burden” of the working women. Men should be encouraged from childhood to share household work with women. Media could be mobilized on this regard.
13. There should be clear and effective rule and system to deal with the issues of sexual harassment in the civil service.

Annexure General: 1) Are you happy to be a woman?
1) Yes 2) No

2) Are you happy that you are a working woman?
1) Yes 2) No

3) Are you satisfied with your work?
1) Yes 2) No

4) Are you satisfied with your working place?
1) Yes 2) No

5) Reason for joining the job- 1) For financial need. 2) Due to family pressure. 3) For your happiness. 4) For time-pass. 5) Any other.

Workplace Problems: 1) Do you feel any gender difference at your workplace?
1) Yes 2) Very much 3) No 4) Sometimes

2) Does your boss give you any ill-treatment or does any type of harassment with some purpose? 1) Yes 2) No

3) If yes, what type of ill treatment do you face?
1) Late mark 2) Memo 3) Heavy workload 4) Stopping increment 5) Any type of misbehavior

4) In case you are late in the office or you haven’t completed your work in time due to family problem, then does your boss understand your family problems? 1) Yes 2) No 3) Sometimes 4) Always

5) Do you face any problem related to promotion as you are a woman? 1) Yes 2) No 3) Sometimes 4) Always

6) Does your male colleague try to dominate you? 1) Yes 2) No 3) Sometimes 4) Always

7) How do you feel the behavior or attitude of your male colleagues? 1) Good 2) Very Good 3) Bad 4) Very Bad

8) How do you feel the behavior or attitude of your customers/clients/students towards you? 1) Good 2) Very Good 3) Bad 4) Very Bad

9) Do you face any type of mental / physical harassment at your working place from other male colleagues? 1) Yes 2) NO

10) If yes, which type of harassment?
1) Interference in your work. 2) Increase / decrease in your workload. 3) Verbal abuse.
4) Any other, Please specify-

11) How do you face the problem posed?
1) You neglect it 2) you complain to higher authority 3) You handle it on your own
4) You tolerate it

Family Problems: 1) Which type of family do you live-in?
1) Nuclear Family 2) Joint Family

2) Does your family support you for your job? 1) Yes 2) Very much 3) No 4) Not so much

3) Does your family support for household work? 1) Yes 2) Very much 3) No 4) Not so much

4) Does your husband help you for household work or for taking care of children? 1) Yes 2) Very much 3) Sometimes 4) Not so much

5) Does your husband / family motivate you to go ahead in your career? 1) Yes 2) Always 3) No 4) Never

6) Does your husband understand you when you have work pressure? 1) Yes 2) Always 3) No 4) Sometimes

7) In case, you need to go out of station for your official work. Does your husband / family allow you? 1) Yes 2) Sometimes 3) No 4) Never

8) Who takes care of your children, when you are on you job? 1) Family members 2) Servant 3) Day-care school 4) Crèches

9) What is the response of your husband when you are working with male colleagues, does he- 1) Ok with it 2) Dislike it

Financial Problems: 1) Do you get expected salary according to your work?
1) Yes 2) No

2) In your organization is there any effect of gender difference on salary offered? 1) Yes 2) NO

3) Do you have independence to spend your salary? 1) Yes 2) NO

4) Does your husband / family show their right on your salary? 1) Yes 2) NO

5) How much percent of your salary do you spend for family? 1) 0-25% 2) 25-50% 3) 50-75% 4) 75-100%

6) How much percent of your salary do you save? 1) 0-25% 2) 25-50% 3) 50-75% 4) 75-100%

Socio-Economic Status: 1) Is there any change in living and financial status when you started working?
1)Yes 2) No

2) Do you get more reputed treatment in society because you are working?
1)Yes 2) No

3) Is there any change in your social status as you are working?
1)Yes 2) No

4) Do you think every woman should work to improve her status in society?
1)Yes 2) No

5) The views of surrounding people about working women are-
1) Good 2) Bad

Bibliographies 1. www.google.com

2. www.managementparadised.com

3. Magzines

4. Women and employment By- N.S. Nagar…...

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