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Essay Mal

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Submitted By lilmambo
Words 761
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Essayets format kan variere, med det er viktig å ha en god komposisjon. I et essay er det ikke meningen at man skal utarbeide en dyptgående analyse av det utleverte materialet, og derfor skal man heller ikke bruke noen analysemodell. Men presentasjonen må ha en klar struktur.

Et essay er en vandring i et tema, og man kan krydre teksten med småhistorier, sitater og liknende som kan kaste lys over temaet. Vandringen kommer også til uttrykk i komposisjonen. Det er ikke nødvendig å presentere hendelsene lineært, man kan hoppe både fram og tilbake i tid, og man kan ta med episoder, anekdoter, personlige refleksjoner, assosiasjoner og tankesprang underveis. Men teksten er bare tilsynelatende springende. Hovedidéen skal hele tiden ligge under teksten, som en rød tråd. I disposisjonen skal man sørge for at alle elementene blir tatt med i oppgaven på en velfungerende måte, og med en meningsfull struktur.

Man bør bygge opp et essay slik at det åpner med en innledning, hvor emnet og essayets særlige vinkling på dette presenteres.
Deretter skriver man en hoveddel, hvor emnet for alvor tas opp. I denne delen skal forskjellige betraktninger, refleksjoner og argumenter til sammen utdype og nyansere emnet, med det formål å vurdere det på et høyere abstraksjonsnivå.
Hoveddelen skal føre frem til oppgavens avslutning, som skal være åpen og legge opp til ytterligere refleksjon over det behandlede emnet.
Det er en god idé å forsøke å gjøre essayets layout oversiktlig. Det skal være leservennlig og enkelt satt opp. Det er ikke vanlig å ha flere overskrifter i et essay, men det kan være en god ide å dele oppgaven inn i avsnitt med en linjes avstand.

Essay oppskrift
I oppgaveskrivningens første fase bør man orientere seg og danne seg et overblikk over det utleverte materialet. En god måte å sikre overordnet sammenheng, er å begynne med et tankekart. Skriv ned assosiasjoner, ideer, episoder og spørsmål. Deretter reflekterer man over emnet, bestemmer seg for hvilken vinkel man vil angripe stoffet fra, og velger en hovedidé. Ut i fra dette utarbeides en disposisjon for essayet, med innledning, hoveddel og avslutning.

Innledning
I skolesammenheng skal innledningen på et essay i norsk åpne emnet som skal behandles i oppgaven. Det er her, i oppgavens begynnelse, at emnet og den valgte vinkelen presenteres for leseren.

Innledningen skal være fengende og interessant og vekke leserens lyst til å lese videre. Den kan for eksempel inneholde spørsmål knyttet til emnet eller noen innledende og overordnede problemstillinger, som man reflekterer over i oppgavens etterfølgende deler.

Det kan være en god idé å introdusere oppgaveteksten i innledningen, for å vise at betraktninger og refleksjoner i essayet tar utgangspunkt i det forelagte tekstmaterialet og eventuelle bilder. Det er også mulig å gjøre dette senere i oppgaven, men da må man være sikker på at det er klart for leseren at det er teksten/bildene som er utgangspunktet for oppgaven. Begrunn hvorfor spørsmålsstillingen er relevant, forklar fremgangsmåten og beskriv oppbyggingen av essayet.

Hoveddel
I oppgavens hoveddel legger man ut på en tankereise. Temaet bygges opp ved hjelp av fakta og eksempler som kan hentes fra litteraturen, media eller andre kilder. Underveis kan man flette inn personlige opplevelser og betraktninger, assosiasjoner og anekdoter.

Selv om det er lov med sidesprang og uventede momenter, er det viktig hele tiden å knytte teksten til hovedidéen. Husk at denne hovedidéen må være med hele veien, som en rød tråd.

Formuler egne tanker, vurderinger og spørsmål, men unngå åpen argumentasjon. Og ikke bli flåsete. Målet er ikke å komme frem til et svar, men å kaste lys over emnet. Bruk gjerne humor, satire og ironi, men unngå sarkasme.

Avslutning
Det er ikke målet med et essay å komme frem til en lukket og endelig konklusjon. Avslutningen skal være åpen. Man skal gjøre rede for flere synspunkter, og ikke trekke endelige slutninger. Bruk gjerne formuleringer som: "Det er kanskje slik at..." eller "Det kan vitne om..." Avslutningen bør inneholde en slags tvil eller en tvetydighet, der den endelige konklusjonen overlates til leseren.

Avslutningen skal avrunde emnet og åpne for leserens videre refleksjoner. Det kan man gjøre ved å stille ytterligere abstrakte spørsmål til emnet, på bakgrunn av de foregående betraktningene.

Avslutningen skal ikke redegjøre for alt som er behandlet i oppgaven. Men man kan med fordel stille forskjellige spørsmål som er relatert til de delemnene som har blitt behandlet tidligere i oppgaven.

Det kan også med fordel utarbeides en form for samspill mellom oppgavens innledning og avslutning. Det kan man for eksempel gjøre ved å stille spørsmål eller komme med refleksjoner som er en forlengelse av oppgavens innledning.…...

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