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English Le

In: Business and Management

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EXERCISE I. What is a paragraph?
Some of these groups of sentences are paragraphs and some are not. Read them carefully and answer the questions.
1- Iceland is not a place for the ordinary tourist. The landscape, for example, is bare and strange—though many consider it beautiful in its own way. Then, too, the far northern climate is not ideal for tourism. The winter weather is extremely severe and the summers are short and cool, with constant strong winds. The remote location also means that many products have to be imported and so they are expensive. However, the few tourists who do put up with these difficulties are warmly welcomed by the Icelanders.
Is this a paragraph? _______
If it is a paragraph, what is it about? _____________________________________________

2- For fewer tourists, lower prices, and more beautiful scenery, head for the Sagres Peninsula. The regional museum has a rich collection of costumes, weapons, and handicrafts. Buses will get you to most places, but for long trips, trains are cheaper and more comfortable. The Portuguese economy has expanded very rapidly in recent years, but it still has many problems. In the fifteenth century, Lisbon was a worldwide center of political power, religion, and culture.
Is this a paragraph? ______
If it is a paragraph, what is it about? _________________________________________

3. The two peoples of Belgium—the Flemish and the Walloons—are divided by language, culture, and economics. Hotels in Brussels are expensive, so most young travelers stay in youth hostels or student hotels. In Antwerp, the home of Rubens, you can visit the house where he lived and worked. Throughout the centuries, Belgium has been the scene of many terrible battles between world powers. In many parts of the world, the Belgians are best known for their chocolate and their beer. Ships to England leave either from Oostende or from Zeebrugge.
Is this a paragraph? _____
If it is a paragraph, what is it about? _________________________________________

4. To an outsider, Istanbul may at first seem like a Western city. The Western dress, the many new buildings, the traffic problems all make the city seem very modern. But there is another side to this great city—its rich past as the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In the narrow backstreets, the bazaars, and the mosques, this past seems very near and real. And the spectacular mosques are evidence of the city's important role in the history of Islam as well.
Is this a paragraph? ______
If it is a paragraph, what is it about? ____________________________________________

Recognizing the topic of a Paragraph
Example a: (the answer is in the online presentation)
Example b: What is this Paragraph about? Read the paragraph and decide which topic is the best.
Communication is also possible among bees through their sense of smell. A group of b695, called a colony, uses smell to protect itself from other bees. This is possible because all the bees in a colony have a common smell. This smell acts like a chemical signal. It warns the group of bees when a bee from a different colony is near. This way, bees from outside cannot enter and disturb a hive (the bee colony's home). If an outsider does try to enter, the bees of that colony will smell it and attack it.
Make a check (√) after the best topic. Write “too specific" or “too genera!" after the other topics.
a. The chemical signals of bees ______________
b. How bees live _________________
c. How bees communicate through smell ____________________
The best topic is c, how bees communicate through smell. Choice a is too specific. Choice b is too general.

Exercise 2.
Example c: Read each paragraph, and decide which topic is the best. 0n the lines below each paragraph, make a check (√) after that topic. Write “too specific” or “too general" after the other topics.
Elephants
1. Elephants are the largest land animals in the world. Whales are the largest sea animals. These two huge animals may, in fact, come from the same biological family. Biologists now believe that the ancestors of elephants once lived in the sea, like whales. There is plenty of evidence to support this idea. For example, the shape of an elephant’s head is similar to a whale’s. Another similarity is in the fact that bath animals are excellent swimmers. Some elephants have chosen to swim for food to islands up to 300 miles away. Like the whale, the elephant uses sounds to show anger or for other kinds of communication. Finally, both female elephants and female whales stay close to other females and help them when they give birth.
a. How elephants are good swimmers _______________
b. The largest animals in the world ______________
c. How elephants and whales are alike ______________

2. The elephant’s trunk is not just a large nose or upper lip. It’s an essential and unique feature that serves many purposes for this animal. For one, it is used to make many kinds of sounds. With its trunk, the elephant can communicate anger, fear. Or happiness. The trunk is also used as if it were a kind of hand. At the end of the trunk are two muscles shaped like fingers. These muscles can pick up food and water and carry them to the elephant’s mouth. Elephants use their trunks to take dust baths, too, throwing the dust over their backs. If an elephant’
a. The elephant’s trunk _________________________
b. The elephant's body _________________________
c. The elephant's dust baths ________________________________
3. The intelligence of the elephant is widely known. We say "the elephant never forgets" in honor of its excellent memory. Elephants are also surprisingly good at solving problems. An Indian farmer who kept elephants discovered this fact, to his misfortune. He had noticed that his elephants were eating his bananas at night. No fence could keep out the elephants, of course, so he decided to tie bells on them. Then he would hear them when they come to eat bananas and he could chase them away. A few mornings later, however, the bananas were all gone, though he had heard nothing at night. When he checked the elephants, he found that they had played a trick on him. They had filled the bells with mud so they would not make any noise!
a. Facts about elephants
b. How elephants get bananas
c. The intelligence of elephants

Example d: Read each paragraph and decide which topic is the best on the lines below each paragraph, make a check (V) after that topic. Write “too specific " or “too general” after the other topics.
The Construction of Houses
1. People usually build their houses out of the materials that are easily available to them. In some areas, most people build their homes out of wood. This is true in parts of North America and in Scandinavia. These areas have large forests, so wood is easy to get and inexpensive. In many other areas of Europe, there are few forests left. Stone and brick are cheaper, so most people build their materials. In tropical regions, houses are sometimes made from plant that grow there. For example, in parts of Africa or Asia, houses may be made out of bamboo. Finally, in the very coldest areas near the Arctic, people make their homes out of blocks of ice.
a. Materials used for houses __________________________
b. The wooden houses of Scandinavia __________________
c. Houses around the world __________________________
2- The differences in climate throughout Europe have resulted in differences in the way houses are built. In hot countries, such as Spain, Greece, or Italy, the houses usually have small windows to keep out the heat. However, in the cooler northern countries, such as Sweden or Holland, people want to let in as much sunlight as possible, so the windows are usually larger. In the southern countries, the houses usually have some kind of outdoor living area—a balcony, terrace, or courtyard—where People can enjoy the cool breeze. In northern countries, on the other hand, houses usually do not have such areas. People in colder climates spend less time outdoors.
a. The architecture of houses _____________________________
b. Houses in hot and cold countries ________________________
c. Houses with small windows ____________________________
3- One of the most famous houses in the United States is Monticello. It was the home of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States. Located on a hill near Charlottesville, Virginia, it has a beautiful view of the surrounding countryside. The house is famous, first of all, because it belonged to a president. It is also a fine example of early nineteenth-century American architecture. Jefferson designed it himself in a style he had admired in Italy. Many American buildings of that time, in fact, imitated European styles. But while most were just imitations, his Monticello is lovely in itself. Furthermore, the design combines a graceful style with a typical American concern for comfort and function.
a. The View from Monticello
b. American architecture
c. Reasons for Monticello’s fame

EXERCISE 3. Stating the Topic of a Paragraph
Example a:
Read each paragraph and decide on a good topic and write it below the paragraph. Be sure your topic is not too general or too specific
The Importance of Automobile Tires
1. If you ever get a blowout while you are driving, you should know what to do. A blowout is a sudden flat tire. It can be a very frightening experience especially if you are traveling at a high speed. If your car gets a blowout, the first thing to do is to hold very tightly to the steering wheel. You can easily lose control of the car if you do not have a good hold on the steering wheel. The next step is to get off the road. You must not try to stop or turn too quickly, however. After you check the traffic, you should move over to the side of the road and slow down gradually. Then you should turn on your flashing lights so other cars will see you.
Topic: ____________________________________________________
2. Most automobile owners check the gas and oil in their cars regularly. However, they may forget to check something else that is just as important: the tires. Some experts say that about 28 percent of automobiles in the United States have tires that are in poor condition. Some are too worn and others have too much or too little air. Worn tires can lead to a flat tire or a blowout, and sometimes to serious accidents. Tires that are not filled with the correct amount of air can also cause accidents. Thus, it is a good idea to give a quick glance at your tires every time you get into your car. Every month you should check the air pressure more carefully and look closely at the surface of the tires. This way, you may avoid the unpleasant experience of a flat tire or a dangerous blowout.
Topic: _______________________________________________________
3. Tires are one part of the car that need a lot of attention. You need, of course—FD check the amount of air in the tire and the amount of wear on the surface of the tire. But that is not enough. You should also bring your car regularly to the mechanic or tire specialist for some other work. First, the mechanic should rotate the tires after a certain number of miles. This means that the tires are removed and then put back on in a different position. The rear tires are usually moved to the front. The front tires are then moved to the rear and exchanged. That is, the tire that had been on the left front is now on the right rear and the tire that had been on the right front is now on the left rear. Changing the tires like this will prevent them from becoming too worn on one side. For the same reason, the mechanic should also balance the wheels. In balancing the wheels, each wheel is taken off and adjusted to make sure it goes around evenly.
Topic: ________________________________________________________

Example b:
Read each paragraph. Working with another student, decide on a good topic and write it below the paragraph. Be sure your topic is not too general or too specific.
Health Dangers of Flying
1. Pilots and flight attendants have long known that they become especially forgetful when they fly often with little rest. They lose their car keys, forget their room number at a hotel, or forget the names of people they have just met. People usually think of this loss of short-term memory as a part of jet-lag, the negative effects that many people feel after long flights. A scientist named Kwangwok Cho, who had to fly across the Atlantic several times in one month, noticed the same problem with his short-term memory. He decided to find out why people with jet lag become especially forgetful. To understand what was happening, Cho did brain scans of people with severe jet lag. He then compared them with brain scans of people without jet lag. In the people jet lag, there were clear signs of damage to some brain cells. In fact, part of the brain had become smaller. This was what caused the difficulties with short-term memory
Topic: ______________________________________________________________
2. For many people, sitting still for a long time is one of the worst things about flying. Now doctors are discovering that there are good reasons to be unhappy about sitting still on long flights. In fact, it is not good for you at all: The blood in your legs does not flow well and you are more likely to get a blood clot (a small lump) in your leg. The clot may cause swelling and pain in the leg because the blood cannot flow past it. More serious problems can develop if part of a clot breaks off and travels to the lung. In this case, there is even the risk of death. To avoid risk, doctors recommend moving around as much as possible during a flight. Of course, you cannot stand up often or walk continually around the plane. But you can help the blood flow in your body by doing special exercises at your seat. Many airline companies now include instructions for these exercises in their in-flight magazines.
Topic: _______________________________________________________________

3. In the late 19905, flight attendants around the world noticed a dramatic increase in "air rage.” This is the official term for what happens when someone becomes extremely angry or upset on a plane. These people may become so dangerously violent that the plane has to land somewhere and unload the passengers. Air rage may be the result of several factors. The general worsening of travel conditions in recent years has led to crowded planes and frequent delays. At the same time, airlines have generally reduced the amount of seat space for each passenger, so people are more likely to feel stressed and aggressive. One other factor, however, has nothing to do with the airline industry. Flight attendants say that very often the people who become violent on planes have had too much alcohol to drink, either before the flight or on the plane.
Topic: __________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 4. Topic Sentences
Example a:
Each of the paragraphs below is missing the topic sentence. The missing sentences are listed at the end of the exercise (with one extra sentence). Read the paragraphs and choose the sentence that fits each paragraph best. Write the letter for the sentence in the empty space.
Facts about Alaska
1.____________________________________________________________________________The Russians were glad to get rid of this large piece of land so far from Moscow. Many Americans, however, were not happy about buying it. The sale was arranged by William Henry Seward, the American Secretary of State. When people talked about Alaska, they called it "Seward's Folly” or "Seward's Icebox." The; price for Alaska was $7,200,000—0r about two cents per acre. Though this was a bargain, many thought it was money thrown away. What would America ever do with such a cold land?
2. Do you know what “white out” means, or “ice fog”? These are terms that many Alaskans know well, though other Americans may not. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ .
"White out, for example, happens when a very strong, cold wind blows the snow on the ground. The snow fills the air so that you lose all sense of direction. “Ice fog” occurs on very cold (—40°C, or -40°F) days. When the air is this cold it cannot absorb any moisture, so the water in the air becomes a kind of frozen fog. This fog is very dangerous to drivers or aircraft.

3. The Yukon River begins in Canada’s Yukon Territory. Many other rivers flow into it as it runs from east to west across central Alaska. Some of the rivers are fed by melting glaciers. This gives the Yukon its strange whitish, or milky, color. The river generally freezes in October and melts again in May. Large ice dams sometimes form and cause large-scale flooding. As the Yukon nears the Bering Sea, it breaks into many smaller river, forming a delta. This fact makes it impossible for large ships to travel up river. __________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

4. The Alaskan Malamute was originally developed by the Eskimos as a sled dog. __________
____________________________________________________________________________
It is a strong dog, related to and somewhat resembling a wolf. A thick coat of fur protects it even in the coldest weather. The Eskimos use these dogs to pull sleds for them across the Arctic snow and ice. They are intelligent dogs and quickly learn to obey the signals of the sled driver. With their Strength and loyalty, they have been known to save people’s lives in the Arctic. In spite of their wolf ancestry, they are also extremely gentle and friendly. Their protective nature makes them good companions for children.
Missing topic sentences:
a. That is because Alaska has unique weather that requires special expressions.
b. These days it is popular both as a sled dog and as a family pet.
c. In 1868, the United States bought Alaska from Russia.
d. The Alaskan gold rush in the 18905 nearly doubled the population of the area.
e. The Yukon River’s interesting characteristics make it one of Alaska’s impressive natural features.

Example b:
Find the topic of each paragraph and write it below. Then underline the topic sentence. Remember, the topic sentence is not always the first sentence in the paragraph.
The Hawaiian Islands
1, The Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, far away from any other land. There are eight islands of various sizes, and while they differ from each other in some ways, they share many features. They all have a tropical climate, with temperatures of about 78°F (25.6°C) in the winter and 85°F (29.4°C) in the summer. Rain falls often, but not for long. The islands also share a natural beauty, with mountains and waterfalls, rain and long, sweeping beaches. Their waters are filled with colorful fish, dolphins, and giant sea turtles.
Topic: _______________________________________________________________________
2. Until modern times, birds and insects were the only kinds of animals living on the lands, with just a few exceptions. The exceptions were the monk seal (a sea mammal) and a kind of a bat (a flying mammal). There were no other mammals until people arrived in about A. D. 500, bringing some animals with them for food. Pigs, for example: arrived this way. Other animals, such as mice, probably traveled to the Hawaiian Islands hidden in their boats. The islands, in fact, have an interesting and unusual natural history.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________________
3. Each the islands also has features that are special and unique. For example, the Big Island (Hawaii) is the only one with active volcanoes. Both Mauna Loa and Kilauea on that island occasionally erupt, pouring out hot lava and smoke. The island of Oahu is the site of Honolulu, the modern capital of Hawaii. This island also has one of the world's most famous beaches, Waikiki Beach. And finally, the island of Maui is important to Hawaiians for its role in the history of the islands. In 1800, Kamehameha, the king of Hawaii, established his capital on Maui, where it remained until the early twentieth century.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________________

Example c:
Find the topic of each paragraph and write it below. Then underline the topic sentence.
New Discoveries in Psychology
1. Many people who are good at music are good at languages as well. That should not be surprising, since the study of music and the study of language have a lot in common. Both require you to have a "good ear"—the ability to hear the difference between various sounds. They also require you to reproduce sounds you have heard. Finally, when you learn music or language, you have to learn complex sets of rules. With language, the rules are about grammar and meaning. With music, the rules are about sounds and rhythm. Not surprisingly, researchers have discovered a scientific reason why people are good at music and languages. According to a study done in Germany, you use the same part of the brain for both subjects. This part of the brain is called Broca's area. Scientists have known for some time that it is connected to learning languages. Now they believe that it is also the part of the brain you use when you are learning music.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________________
2. Some students become very anxious whenever they have to do a math problem or take a math test. Psychologists call this “math anxiety." Teachers used to think that this happened because the students were not very good at math. Now, however, researchers think that students who get math anxiety are not necessarily bad at math. There is a very different reason for their poor performance on math tests. New studies show that their feelings of anxiety prevent their brains from working well. One area of the brain that is especially affected is the working memory, which holds new information in your mind. This type of memory is essential for doing math problems. But why do students get math anxiety in the first place? That is another important question for teachers and researchers in education.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________________
3. A new study has concluded that if you are a positive person with positive feelings, you will live longer. Dr. Debora D. Danner and other psychologists have looked at the writings of a group of 180 women. All of these women had written a short autobiography when they were in their early twenties. There were few negative feelings expressed in these autobiographies, since they were written by women in a religious organization for the director of the organization. However, there was still a wide range in levels of feeling. Some of the writing showed very few feelings at all, while others showed lots of positive feelings, such as happiness, interest, and love. The psychologists then looked at the histories of the women to see how long they lived afterward. The women who expressed the strongest positive feelings also lived the longest. In fact, they lived an average of ten and a half years longer than the women who showed few emotions.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________________…...

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