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Reading Material
Work Book
Effective Noting & Drafting

(Edited by Smt. Jayanthi Sriram, Asst.Director)

TEL. 26105592 TELEFAX: 26104183

Revised - 2005


In responsive administration it is obvious that the response has to be meaningful. Yet, it may not be effective unless the response time is optimised. This twin objective can be achieved through streamlining of the decision making process itself. In the Central Secretariat, as in other spheres of Government, contribution by all rungs of employees particularly by those at the cutting edge level, namely the Section Officers and Assistants, generally helps arriving at the right decision. Besides collection of information, such contributions are rendered through Noting & Drafting. Effective noting & drafting at every level, therefore, is a matter of prime concern.

2. To address this concern, we in ISTM have been according utmost importance to the inclusion of 'noting and drafting' as a subject in all our foundational and refresher Courses. Besides, focussed workshops on effective noting & drafting are also organised in large numbers. To help participants team effectively, the need for practical exercises cannot be overemphasised. Similarly, to help transfer of learning, reference material Presented in a crisp and user-friendly manner serves as e very useful aid.

3. The training monograph on 'Effective Noting & Drafting' which has been in use for the past several years has now been revised on the basis feedback received from the Participants of various workshops. In this monograph, additional chapters on "Definitions" of terms relating, to noting & drafting and "Allied Instructions- Correspondence with Specified Authorities" have been added. Besides, additional drafting exercises in respect of most commonly used forms of communication have also been included. I am sure participants would find the monograph very useful.


New Delhi, dated the 25th June, 2002

Table of Contents

|I - Reading Material |Page No |
|1 |Definitions | |
|2 |Noting | |
|3 |Referencing | |
|4 |Drafting | |
|5 |Allied instructions &Correspondence with Specified | |
| |Authorities | |
|6 |Styles in Notes & Drafts | |
|7 |Forms of Communication [including specimen forms, Instruction - Annex I, | |

|II - Work Book |Page No |
|1 |Comments & Faults Exercise | |
|2 |Documents & Action Point Exercise | |
|3 |Noting -- A Quiz | |
|4 |Exercise on Language - Edit your writing | |
|5 |Exercise on Noting | |
|6 |Exercise on Referencing | |
|7 |Quiz on Drafting | |
|8 |Exercise on Forms of Communication | |
|9 |Exercise on Drafting | |
| | | |

Part - I

Reading Material
Noting & Drafting

TEL. 26105592 TELEFAX: 26104183



Based on Manual of Office Procedure, some of the terms relevant to Noting and Drafting have been defined below:-

1. 'Note' means the remarks recorded on a case to facilitate its disposal, and includes a precise of previous papers, a statement or an analysis of the questions requiring decision, suggestions regarding the course of action and final orders passed thereon.

2. 'Minute' means a note recorded by the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister or a Minister.

3. 'File' means a collection of papers arranged chronologically on a specific subject matter assigned a file number and consisting of the following parts: (a) Notes (b) Correspondence (c) Appendix to notes (d) Appendix to correspondence

4. 'Notes Portion' in relation to a file means the portion containing notes or minutes recorded on a case.

5. 'Correspondence Portion' in relation a file means the portion containing 'receipts' and office copies of 'issue' pertaining to the file.

6. 'Appendix to notes' in relation to a file means a lengthy summary or statement containing detailed information concerning certain aspects of the question discussed on the file, incorporation of which in the main note is likely to obscure the main point or make the main note unnecessarily lengthy.

7. 'Appendix to correspondence' in relation to a file means lengthy enclosures to a communication (whether receipt or issue) on the file, inclusion of which in the correspondence portion is likely to obstruct smooth reading of the correspondence or make the correspondence portion unwieldy.

8. 'Case' means a current file or a receipt together with other related paper, if any.

9. 'Current file' means a file action on which has not been completed.

10. "Come-back Case' means a case received back for further action such as reexamination or preparing a draft or a summary of the case.

11. 'Docketing' means making of entries in the notes portion of a fife about the serial number assigned to each item of correspondence (whether receipt or issue) for its identification. The remarks recorded on the body of the receipt by higher officers towards its disposal are also required to be reproduced on the note sheet immediately after docketing a receipt.

12. 'Routine note' means a note of a temporary value or ephemeral importance recorded outside the file, e.g., a record of casual discussion or a note on a point of secondary importance intended to facilitate consideration of the case by higher officers.

13. 'Running summary of facts' in relation to a case means a summary of the facts of the case updated from time to time to incorporate significant development as and when they take place. It is prepared to avoid repeated re-capitulation of the case through self-contained notes.

14. 'Sectional note' means a note recorded on only one of the many issues raised in the PUC. ,

15. 'Security grading' means security marking 'Confidential', 'Secret or 'Top Secret'.

16. 'Urgent dak' means dak marked 'immediate' or 'priority' and includes telegrams, savingrams, wireless messages and telex messages.

17. `Referencing' is the process of identifying a document, decision and facts mentioned in a note, draft or office copy of communication issued.




(a) All notes should be concise and to the point. Excessive noting should be avoided.

(b) A simple and direct style of writing should always be adopted. Use of complicated and ambiguous language should be avoided.

(c) Notes and orders should normally be recorded on note-sheets.

(d) Notes should not be recorded on the receipt itself except in very routine matters.

(e) Verbatim reproduction of extracts from, or paraphrasing of the P.U.C or of notes of other Ministries recorded on the same file, should be avoided.

(f) Wherever a running summary of facts is available on the file, it should be referred to without repeating any part of the facts in the note.

(g) A note should always be written in a businesslike language. Even if apparent errors or misstatements have to be pointed out or if an opinion expressed therein has to be criticised, care should be taken to couch the observations in courteous and temperate language free from personal remarks.

(h) Any remarks recorded by the Branch officer, or other senior officers, on the receipt should first be reproduced while docketing the receipt.

(i) When passing orders or making suggestions, an officer should confine his note to the actual points he proposes to make. He should not repeat or reiterate the ground already covered in the previous notes. If he agrees to the line of action suggested in the preceding note, he should merely append his signatures.
(j) A self-contained summary of the case should always be put up with every file submitted to a Minister. Such a summary should bring out briefly, but clearly, all the relevant facts, including the views expressed on the subject by other Departments, if any, consulted in the matter, and the point(s) on which the orders of the Minister are sought.
(k) When a paper under consideration raises several major points which require detailed examination and respective orders on each point (or group of related points) it will be, noted upon separately in "Sectional" notes. Such sectional notes will each begin with a list of the major point(s) dealt with therein.

(1) The dealing hand will append his full signature with date on the left below his note. An officer will append his full signature on the right hand side of the note with his name, designation and the date.

(m) A note will be divided into paragraphs of a convenient size. Paragraphs should be serially numbered and may also have brief titles, if necessary.


Noting should be restricted to the minimum. It should be systematic and functional. The following approach could be adopted for noting on various categories of cases:-

1. Ephemeral Cases:

Such cases should be filed at the dak stage itself by the Section Officer or Desk functionary briefly recording the reasons why no action is necessary. These cases are also known as "No-Noting" cases. Such cases should be kept in the File "O" bundle and destroyed on 31st December of every year. These may also be returned in original to the sender recording requisite factual information.

2. Routine or Repetitive Cases:

In cases of repetitive nature, `a standard process sheet' which means a standard skeleton note should be developed indicating pre-determined points of check In respect of other routine cases, a fair reply should be put up without any noting.

3. Action-in-Correspondence Cases:

These cases also do not require detailed noting. It would be sufficient if a brief note (a paragraph or so) is recorded indicating the issue under consideration and the suggested action.

4. Problem Solving Cases

In these cases, a detailed note providing maximum information on each aspect will be necessary. Even then, the note should be concise and to the point, covering the following aspects:-

(i) What is the problem? (ii) How has it arisen? ' (iii) What is the `Rule', `Policy' or `Precedent? (iv) What are the possible solutions? (v) Which is the best solution? Why? (vii) What will be the consequences of the proposed solution?

5. Policy and Planning Cases:

These types of cases would not be large in number and are normally dealt with at sufficiently higher levels of the organisation. They require a thorough examination with maximum amount of noting developed systematically. A note in such cases should be structured in the following manner: -

(i) Problem: - State the problem. How it has arisen? What are the critical factors?

(ii) Additional Information: - Give additional information to size up the problem. The information would be available on the files and other papers in the Section. If sufficient information is not available to enable thorough examination, it should be collected before attempting a note.

(iii) Rule, policy etc: - Relevant rules, regulations, policy, standing orders, practices are required to be referred to, wherever available. Logical interpretation of such rules etc. bringing out their bearing on the problem has to be put across in a cohesive manner.

(iv) Precedents: - Precedent cases having a bearing on the issue under consideration should be put up. If there are varying precedents or any precedent differs in certain respects from the case under examination, the difference should be brought out so as to arrive at a correct decision.

(v) Critical analysis: - the case should then be examined on merits answering questions such as what are the possible alternative solutions/ which is the best solution? It should be ensured that views of other Divisions/Ministries etc. have been obtained where necessary. Attention should also be paid to other aspects like the financial and other implications, repercussions, and the modality of implementing the decision and the authority competent to take a decision.

(vi) Concluding para: - the concluding para should suggest a course of action for consideration. In cases where a decision is to be taken by a higher authority like committee, Board etc. the point or points on which the decision of such higher authority is sought should be specifically mentioned.


(a) Where the reference requires information of a factual nature or other action based on a clear precedent or practice, the dealing hand in the receiving Department may straightaway record a note on the file.

(b) If the reference seeks an opinion, ruling-or concurrence of the receiving Department and requires detailed examination, such examination will normally be done separately and only the officer responsible for commenting upon the reference will record the final views on the file. This separate examination can be done through routine notes or on what is commonly known as "shadow files"' which are opened subject wise in the receiving department.

(c) When a note on a file is recorded by an officer after obtaining the orders of a higher officer, a remark that "this has the approval of-----" should be added in that note.

(d) A copy of the note finally recorded on the main file will be retained with the routine notes/shadow file, before the main file is returned to the originating Department.

(e) The inter-departmental note recorded on the file of the originating Department will bear the subject file number (shadow file number) to facilitate filing of papers and their subsequent- retrieval for future reference.


The single File system applies to matters, which are not within the delegated powers of the attached or subordinate offices and have to be referred frequently to the Ministry/Department for seeking a sanction/order. The Non-Secretariat Office (Attached or Subordinate) will open files in such cases. Noting on such files in the Ministry/Department should be on the file of NSO. However, in certain selected types of cases concerning sensitive and delicate matters in the sphere of personnel, policy issues and finance, noting in the Ministry/Department should be on "duplicate or shadow" files (which would indeed be only notes recorded at a particular stage of the case or at a particular level). In such cases, the final decision alone should be suitably recorded on the NSO file.


As provided in the Manual of Office Procedure, it might be necessary to prepare a self-contained summary when cases are to be submitted to the Minister. In such cases, the following points may be carefully observed: -

(i) A brief subject heading should be given in all such cases.

(ii) The summary should give the chronological facts of the case and should not omit any important considerations that could affect the decision.

(iii) If the case concerns other Ministries or Divisions the summary should contain the recommendation of that Ministry or Division and, in case of disagreement, the paints of difference and the recommendation of the Department concerned. Opinions of individual officers within a Department should not find mention.

(iv) The concluding paragraph should contain the point or points on which decision of the Minister is sought together with the recommendation of the sponsoring officer.

(v) The summary should be self-contained but it should not be unnecessarily long. Where the material to be submitted is lengthy, much of it should be relegated to annexure or appendices, keeping the main summary as brief as possible. This will enable the higher authorities to study the annexure or appendices if they want further details on any particular point. (vi) The paragraphs of the summary should be properly numbered.

(vii) The summary should be typed preferably in single space in small paras to enable easy reading.

viii) The annexure should be page numbered consecutively to facilitate location of the particular page or portion thereof, to which attention might be drawn during discussion or further noting.


The papers, folders, reference book etc., are to be arranged in the following order from top downwards, while submitting a case:

1. reference books; 2. notes portion of the current file ending with the note for consideration; 3. running summary of facts; 4. draft for approval, if any; 5. correspondence portion of the current file ending with the latest receipt or issue, as the case may be; 6. appendix to notes and correspondence; 7. Standing Guard File, standing note or reference folder, if any; 8. Other papers,, If any, referred to e.g. extract of notes or correspondence from other files, copies of orders, resolutions, gazettes, arranged in chronological order, the latest being placed on the top; 9. Recorded files, if any, arranged in chronological order, the latest being placed on the top; 10. Routine notes and papers arranged in chronological order and placed in a separate cover.


1. If the issues raised in two or more current files are so inter-connected that they must be dealt with together simultaneously, the relevant files will be linked in the manner indicated in (2) below. Such linking may also be resorted to if a paper in one current file is required for reference in dealing with another current file unless a copy -of the paper can be conveniently placed on the first file.
2. When files are to be linked, strings of the file board of the lower file (but not its flaps) will be tied round the upper file. The strings of the file board of the upper file will be tied underneath it in a bow so that each file is intact with all its connected papers properly arranged on its file board or flap.

3. On receipt back after completion of action, the linked files will be immediately de-linked after taking relevant extracts and placing them on the relevant files, where necessary.



Referencing is the process of identifying a document, decision and facts mentioned in a note, draft or office copy of communication issued. It involves a series of activities. These are described in the succeeding paragraphs.

1. Every page in each part of the file (viz., notes, correspondence, appendix to notes and appendix to correspondence) will be consecutively numbered in separate series, in pencil. Blank intervening pages, if any, will not be numbered.

2. Each item of correspondence in a file, whether receipt or issue, will be assigned a serial number which will be displayed prominently in red ink on the top middle portion of its first page. ,

3. The paper under consideration on a file will be flagged 'PUC' and the latest fresh receipt noted upon, as 'F.R'. In no circumstances, will a slip, other than PUC and 'FR' be attached to any paper in a current file. If there are more than one fresh receipt in a case, these should be flagged as 'F.R I', 'FR II and so on.

4. In referring to the papers flagged 'PUC' or 'FR' the relevant page numbers will be quoted invariably in the margin.

5. Recorded files and other papers put up with the current file will be flagged with alphabetical slips for quick identification. Only one alphabetical slip will be attached to a recorded file or compilation. If two or more papers contained in the same file or compilation are to be referred to, they should be identified by the relevant page numbers in addition to the alphabetical slip, e.g. 'A'/23 n., 'A'/17 C and so on.

6. To facilitate the identification of references to papers contained in other files invariably in the body of the note. The relevant page numbers, together with the alphabetical slip attached thereto will be indicated in the margin. Similarly, the number and date of orders, notifications and resolutions, and, in the case of acts, rules and regulations their brief title together with the number of the relevant section, rule, paragraph or clause, referred to will be quoted in the body of the notes.

7. Rules or other compilations referred to in a case need not be put up if copies thereof are expected to be available with the officer to whom the case is being submitted. The fact of such compilations not having been part up will be indicated in the margin of the notes in pencil.

8. The reference slips will be pinned neatly on the inside of the papers sought to be flagged. When a number of papers put up in a case are to be flagged, the slips will be spread over the entire width of the file so that every slip is easily visible.



A draft is a rough sketch of a communication to be issued after approval by the officer concerned.

SEARCHING Questions- One Dozen

▪ Is a draft necessary? ▪ Who should be addressed and who will sign? ▪ What is the relationship between the sender and receiver? ▪ What should be the form? ▪ Is something to be conveyed or to be called for? ▪ Are all details available? ▪ What is the intention of the decision? ▪ What should be the recipient response? ▪ Does the language convey? ▪ Has the referencing been done? ▪ Is it logically sequenced? ▪ Does it have proper urgency, security grading?

A draft should

▪ carry the exact message sought to be conveyed. ▪ be clear, concise and Incapable of misconstruction ▪ be lucid, brief and complete ▪ result in the desired response from the recipient ▪ be divided into paragraphs, according to the logical sequence of ideas expressed. have coherence of flow of ideas ▪ contain reference to previous correspondence, if any.


A draft should indicate

▪ File No. ▪ The name, designation, telephone number, fax number and complete postal address of the sender organisation ▪ The name/designation of the addressee with complete postal address ▪ Salutation (i.e. Sir, Dear.....etc.,), where required ▪ Subject ▪ Number and date of the last communication in the series (from the addressee or from the sender) ▪ The enclosures which are to accompany the fair copy (A short oblique line in the margin will indicate that enclosures are to be sent along with the fair copy) ▪ Subscription (i.e. yours faithfully, yours sincerely etc.), where required ▪ The mode of transmission, e.g. 'By Registered post' 'By Special messenger etc., at the top right corner ▪ Urgency grading, if required ▪ Endorsement, where necessary




(a) Modification of Notes:

(i) Whenever a senior officer finds it necessary to correct or to modify the facts stated in a note put up to him, he should do so by recording his own note giving his views on the subject. He should not require the note recorded by his junior to the modified or replaced. (ii) Notes recorded on a file should, in no circumstances, be pasted over, because pasting over (a) amounts to mutilation of official records and (b) gives an inelegant look to the file.

If any modification of an earlier note is found necessary, recording a note explaining the nature and extent of modification and reasons for it should do it. The earlier note should remain intact.

(b) Oral discussions: - All points emerging from discussions between two or more officers of the same department and the conclusions reached will be recorded on the relevant file by the officer authorising action. He may if considered important get it confirmed by the participants. Confirmation is desirable In the following circumstances: (i) If policy of government is not clear (ii) Departure from the prescribed policy (iii) Two or more levels differ on significant issues (iv) Decisions though agreed by all are significantly important.

[b (i)] Oral Instructions by Higher Officers: - Normally, it is incumbent on the Superior Officer to give his/her direction in writing, regarding the manner of dealing with a case. In some occasions, due to paucity of time at the disposal, if the l instructions have been given orally, the oral instructions thus given may be confirmed in writing at the earliest opportunity. Juniors should obtain written directions before carrying out oral instructions. If such instructions are not from the immediate superior, it should be brought to his notice.

[b (ii)] Oral orders by or on behalf of the Minister:- oral orders communicated by personal staff of the Minister shall be confirmed in writing immediately thereafter. If the oral instructions from the Minister or his personal staff are in accordance with the norms, rules, regulations or procedures, these should be brought to the notice of the Secretary. However, if those are not in accordance with the norms, rules, regulations or procedures, the officer receiving such instructions should seek further clear orders from the Secretary about the line of action to be taken stating formally that the oral instructions are not in accordance with the rules, regulations, norms or procedures.

[b (iii)] Confirmation of Oral Instructions: - communications requesting for confirmation in writing of oral instructions should be acknowledged.


The Manual of Office Procedure further prescribes that the correspondence with the following authorities will be made in the manner indicated against each.

1. Attorney General of India - Only by the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs.

2. Comptroller and Auditor General of India - References for his views or advice can be made only by or through Ministry of Finance. However, in matters of day-today administration direct correspondence by departments at their discretion is permissible.

3. Union Public Service Commission - All reference to be in the form of 'letter' addressed to the Secretary. In certain matters, e.g. requisitions for recruitment formal references should normally be preceded by personal discussions at appropriate levels.

4. Union Territory Administrations - routine references regarding the business of a particular department should be addressed to its Secretary. Other communications may be addressed to the Chief Secretary or the Administrator depending upon the importance of the matter.

5. State Governments - (a) Purely routine communications e.g. Acknowledgements may be signed by Section Officer. (b) Communications other than of purely routine nature will be sent over the signature of the branch officer. (c) Communications relatable to the business of a particular department should be addressed to its Secretary. (d) Other, special and important communications may be addressed to the Chief Secretary. (e) Demi official letters can also be sent. However, the requisite difference in levels should be kept in mind e.g. D.O. addressed to the Chief Secretary should not be written by an Officer below the level of Joint Secretary.
6. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariat - Communications requiring urgent or high level attention may be addressed to the Secretaries concerned and not to the Speaker or the Chairman direct.

7. Members of Parliament -

(a) Communications from MPs should be attended to promptly.

(b) Those addressed to a Minister should, as far as practicable, be replied to the Minister himself. In other cases, a reply should normally be issued over the signature of an officer not below the rank of Secretary. .

(c) Those addressed to head of attached/subordinate offices should be replied to by the addressee himself. In routine matters not involving question of policy, he may send an appropriate reply on his own. However, in matters involving question of policy, he should consult higher authorities before sending a reply.

(d) Normally information sought by any MP should be furnished unless k is of such nature as cannot be disclosed even on the floor of the Houses of Parliament.

(e) As far as possible, pre-printed or cyclostyled replies should be avoided while corresponding with MPs.

8. Ministers of State Governments - Same as in the case of MPs.

9. Foreign Governments and international organisations - Correspondence with: (i) foreign or commonwealth governments and their missions in India,

(ii) heads of Indian diplomatic missions and posts abroad and

(iii) United Nations and its specialised agencies: will normally be channelised through Ministry of External Affairs.

The instructions entitled "Channel of Communication between the Government of India and the State Governments on the one hand; and (i) and (iii) as aforesaid on the other, stipulate the cases in which and the conditions subject to which direct correspondence may be resorted to. Salient features of and specimen forms of communication for such correspondence are also Included in Chapter V of Notes on Office Procedure (1980).



The style in notes and drafts is as important as their contents. The following will be observed in drafting and also in writing notes: -

(1) "Information" is singular. If Information is called for on many points, it does not become "Information".

(2) The words "proximo" and "Ultimo" should be avoided. They lead to confusion and one has to take the trouble of looking at the date of the letter to find out what they mean. The names of the months must be used instead.

(3) "The same" must hot be used instead of "it" or some other simple word.

(4) Such needlessly formal words as "therein" and "thereon" should not be used instead of "in it" or "on if.

(5) The preference for passive verbs over active verbs generally make the style vague and clumsy, as "it is understood" for "I do not understand" or "The date of issue of the order should be reported by him" for " he should report when he issues the order".

(6) A simple or short word is to be preferred in place of a long phrase. Examples of needless verbosity are preference of "make the assessment' to "assess" "purchase' to buy 'commence" to "begin" and "omitted to" or "failed to" to the simple "did not' (the two latter ones are very common); "make enquiries" for "enquire"; "building purpose" for "buildings". Where "omit" by itself is proper and sufficient, the love of such redundant phrases is displayed as "has been omitted to be entered in the register" Instead of "has been omitted from the register". Another widespread error is the use of "for being" instead of "to be' and 'for doing" instead of "to do" and "returned for being stamped" instead of ' to be stamped". If the Secretary orders that an assistant should be punished "for being corrupt" it does not mean " in order to make him corrupt'.

(7) Foreign or classical words and expression should be avoided as far as possible; vernacular words should only be used when their meaning cannot be expressed equally well in English.

(8) Short sentences should be preferred to long ones "Secretary's attention is invited to O.M-----He is requested........" is better than "The Secretary's attention is invited to O.M. and he is requested". "in case in which" is a clam phrase for which "when", "where" or "if" can be substituted. The word "necessary" is usably superfluous in such phrases as "the necessary entried","the necessary corrections", "the necessary instructions", etc.

(9) The phrase "do the needful" should never be used. Either say definitely what is to be done or say, "do what is necessary". The word "avail" is very awkward one, as It is reflexive and also takes "of' after it. It is better avoided. Moreover, if you do use it, you must not say "the leave was availed of" or "I availed of the leave", still less "he is permitted to avail the holidays". You must say, "I availed myself of the leave" and so on. But why not simply say "took the leave"? "Available also is a bad word. A register "not readily available" may mean anything, for example, that it was needed for reference by one of the members or had been sent some-where out of the office, or was locked up and the key was elsewhere. It is very annoying to have one's work increased by having to send a note back to ask what it means.

(10) Split infinitives should be avoided. Write "kindly to state" and not " to kindly state'. A very common and equally objectionable feature of official communications is a similar splitting of other verbal phrases. For instance, "the Deputy Commissioner will, in the circumstances now stated, be requested" is not good English. It is quite as easy to say, "in the circumstances now stated, the Deputy Commissioner will be requested to..."

(11) Do not write "marginally noted' which could only mean, "having marginal notes". Write "noted in margin". Similarly "Plan marked' could only mean "marked with, plans" (Compare "pock-marked") and "plaint mentioned" neither does nor possibly could mean anything.

(12) Instead of such a phase as "the figures for 1949, 1950 and 1951 were 256, 257 and 348 respectively" which is confusing, write "the figure for 1949 was 256 that for 1950 was 257 and that for 1951 was 348". This is a little, if at all, longer and is perfectly clear. "Former' and "latter should also be avoided as they are constant source of confusion.

(13) Do not ride any phrase to death. Some persons begin every letter with the phrase 'with reference to'. It is better to vary the phrase so as to make it more definite. Say in reply to". "As directed in" and so on; or begin in narrative form "In their order... Government directed..." Avoid the phrase "with advertent to".

(14) In ordinary English "in case" does not mean the same as "if" 1 shall take my umbrella in case it rains" means" so as to be prepared for rain". Nor does" as well as' mean the same as" and. 1t is much more emphatic. It would be absurd to say, "a man was 5 feet 8 inches high as well as 21 years of age." But you might well say that" he was a good painter as well as a remarkable musician.

(15) The fondness for writing "as well as" for "and" and "in case for "if' presumably arises from the fondness of the users for a longer expression."In case if' is a stage further on the downward path. "I am unable to" for "I cannot" and "hand over" for "give" are other common examples of the preference for the longer phrase. "By the time" is sometime wrongly used for "then". "By that time" means "then". "By the time that" means "when". Always be as definite as possible.

(16) 'As such' is often misused. It is correct to say "Mr. A was then the Superintendent and as such was bound to report... but "Mr. A was not then the Superintendent as such he is not to be blamed" is meaningless."While such being the case" is a familiar embellishment of criminal complaints etc. "while" is here redundant.

(17) Tenses and moods are misused in almost every note or draft The misuse of "had' is one of the commonest errors. The pluperfect "had' is rightly used to emphasize the priority of one event in the past to another. It is correct to say" I had gone to bed when the house caught fire" but senseless to say" I had gone to bed at 10 o'clock last night" ("l went" is correct)-unless the meaning is that you had gone to bed before 10 o'clock. The present tense is wrongly used for the incomplete perfect, as in "I am record-keeper from 1906". "1 have been record-keeper since 1906" is coned. "Government press for a reply" should be "government is pressing for a reply". "The following men now act" is wrong. It should be "are now acing". "Act" means "usably act' or "habitually act"; "are acting' emphasizes the fact that they are doing-so now.

(18) "Must have' is sometimes misused for "should have" or "ought to have"." Must have done it," means that he certainly has done it. It is not to be used to mean that he has not done it but should have. "Till' is commonly misused in a way that it positively misleading."No reply was received till January 1st" implies that a reply was received on January 1st; but it is erroneously used to mean that even on January 1st no reply had been received. To convey this latter meaning "up to" with the pluperfect is the correct English- "up to January 1", I had received no reply".
(19) Distinguish "all the stamps have not been punched", which is ambiguous from "Not all the stamps have been punched", or "the stamps have not all been punched", `which mean that some have been punched and some not. These phrases are commonly confused. "He has yet to collect Rs. 1,000", is not ordinarily Modem English. "Still has' is correct."Yet" may be sued with a negative, e.g. "has not yet applied' and is only used with a positive verb in special phrases such as "I have yet to learn".

(20) "So" is not equivalent to `very". It is sometimes written "the peon is so impertinent", "I warned him so many times" meaning "very impertinent", "very often". Not so bad" means "rather good' but this is a colloquial phrase. Similarly, "too" has generally a relative sense, that is, it implies excess relatively to a certain standard or object not absolute intensity to speak (except in a few colloquial phrases, such as 'it is too bad"), but it is commonly written, "it is too hot" meaning "it is very hot".

(21) The very "to hope" implies pleasurable anticipation. It is used sometimes instead of a neutral word such as "think", and thereby producing comically in appropriate phrases, such as, "I hope your honor is ill". Omissions on articles (a, an & the) is a common faun. It is permissible in a telegram for reasons of economy not elsewhere. But articles must be used correctly. The statement "appellant is the inhabitant of Jaipur implies that there is only one inhabitant."An inhabitant of Jaipur" Is correct. "This is serious omission" should be "This is a serious omission."

(22) "As to" is common redundant from, e.g. "The Deputy Commissioner is directed to report as to whether"; "whether" alone is sufficient so also "as against" or "as compared with" are commonly used in comparing figures, where "against" or "compared with" are sufficient and correct. It is correct to say "as compared with last harvest, the yield was poor", but not "yield was 4 rupees as compared with 8 rupees last year". "As" means nothing in the latter phrase.

(23) Pseudo-accuracy accounts for much unnecessary verbiage. "If any" is a common example of this fault. It is quite unnecessary to say, "the Deputy Commissioner is requested to report the number of cases if any". If there are none, the Deputy Commissioner will say so. In the same way it is unnecessary to say "The Deputy Commissioner Is requested to report whether it is advisable or not to..." The use of the word "ask" instead of "order' or "direct' produces a curiously important effect when a lower subordinate is referred to."The S.D.O maybe -asked to report" sounds silly.
(24) On the other hand, the use of such phrases as "at all", 'care to', "in spite of" sometimes sounds needlessly discourteous as well as unidiomatic. "In spite of three reminders the Deputy Commissioner has not at all cared to reply" is rude as well as UN-English. "It" will be enough if the Deputy Commissioner..." is not English. The more appropriate phrase is "the Deputy Commissioner need only". Avoid pretentious words such as "penultimate". "Last but one" is quite good enough.

(25) "I am directed to request that you will be as good as to furnish me with information as to whether" is the sort of stuff that we come across frequently. "I am directed to enquire whether" means exactly the same and is not unduly curt. Never use several words where one will do. Do not write "make an application" but "apply" or" a level of the value of fifty paise only" instead of" a fifty paise stamp". Addition of the word "only" after any sum of money is in place in a bill or cheque not elsewhere.

(26) "In this connection" at the beginning of a sentence is a favourite bit of hackneyed padding. It means 'nothing at all. "In returning herewith" a favourite but inappropriate type of opening phrases. It is often aggravated by making the subject of the main sentence different from the implied subject of "returning" or by changing to the passive construction. You can say, "in returning ...I am directed to point out". You must not say, "In returning herewith the statement received with his letter.... The Deputy Commissioner. Is Informed". But this is quite common. On the other hand, such phrases as "Turning to paragraph "it may be observed" and so on ("Regarding, "Concerning", "Considering", etc.), are unobjectionable though "Turning to paragraph 1" is no doubt more strictly, correct.

(27) A needless anxiety to avoid repetition gives rise to various faults. Sometimes, instead of repeating a man's name, an assistant will say" the individual' which is not good English. The use of "former and latter", "respectively" and 'the same' have been mentioned already and also come under this head.

(28) The words" comprise' "compose" and "consists" are confused with each other. It is written "the land comprises of 3 plots" or "is comprised of. The correct forms are "the land comprises/consists of/is composed of three plots". It is also written, "the old building was substituted by a new one. You can say" a new building was substituted for the old one "or" "the old building was replaced by a new one". Dispose it off' is a common error for "dispose of it also "tear oft" for "tear up" and "stick up" for "stick in". (You can stick a thing "up" on a wall of course but not "up" in a book "Stick up to" is used for "stick to" itself a slang phrase. "He stuck up to the agreement" is wrong. It is also written 'slips have been pasted" and the "papers have en stitched' whereas "pasted in" and "stitched (or preferable 'Sewn') together" are correct.

(29) "Agree' and "tally" cannot be used actively. Figures may agree or tally. You cannot "agree" figures or "tally" them. Generally use unpretentious words rather than pompousness. "I went to camp" not" I preceded". "Live" or "dwell not "reside". Instead of "is much more usual in ordinary English than "in lieu of", which is phrase used mainly in legal documents."Stamp" is the ordinary English not "label"; and "Envelopes or 'letter' not "cover".

(30) You cannot say "he told/expressed that he was unwilling". It must be "he told me that he was unwilling'; "he expressed his unwillingness", "he expressed himself strongly"."Enough of money" is not good English. Say" enough money" "of" follows "enough" when for any reason it is necessary to use" enough' as a substantive, e.g. I have had enough of this' "I don't know enough of the language, to..."but" "I know enough English to..." "None" for "no one" is obsolete or poetical.

(31) Do not qualify expressions, needlessly. To do so produces flabby style. Words like "it seems" and "it appears" are used when there is really no doubt. "He was absent in his house" meaning the he was elsewhere than in his house is a contradiction in terms. "Absent from" is correct, but the ordinary English would be "he was not at home", or simply "he was away" or "was out". "Also" is misused with negatives. "He did not address the letter Assistant Director did not also stamp if should be "or did he stamp it".

(32) "He puts himself up at..." or "he is put up at", are wrong. The correct English (and it is colloquial) is "He is putting up at', "wooden piece" for "piece of wood" is a common error.

(33) "1 enquired into the witness" is another frequent mistake. You "examine" a witness and "enquire into' a case. But one does not "investigate into a case', one "investigates it'. Male member should not be used to mean "male" or "man". You can say "my family members" but "members of my family". "Through" meaning "past' and "cross' meaning" went past' are frequently used e.g. "I went though the temple", or "I crossed the temple". You "cross" a river or a road when you go from one side of it to the other.

(34) Do not use such phrases as "has breathed his last', or "is no more", for "is dead". "It is high time to do so and so" is an Idiomatic English phrase. "As it was high time, the court adjourned the case till next day" is not English.
(35) "In view to do" so and so is wrong. You can say "with a view to reducing" meaning "in order to reduce", and you can also say "in view of these circumstances" meaning "having regard to them."In view to" is impossible.

(36) "You should insist on the under secretary to reply' is wrong. It should be "should insists on his replying'."Address' is used sometimes as though it meant, "ask". "Government will be addressed to reconsider their order" is, strictly speaking, meaningless.

(37) "Government sanctioned a peon to the Deputy Secretary" should be "for the Deputy Secretary". "Petitioner wants that the land should be transferred" is wrong. It should be "wants the land transferred/to be transferred".



The specimens of different forms of communication generally used by various functionaries of the Government of India, are available at Appendix 9 of the Manual of Office Procedure (Twelfth Edition, May 2003) and have been reproduced at Annexure - I. A particular form of communication is adopted for a specific purpose with a specific target group to be addressed. It is, therefore obvious that each should have some distinctive features. The different forms of written communication and their methods of delivery generally used by a department are described below. Each form has a use and, in some cases, phraseology of its own. Only black or blue ink will be used in communications. A small margin of about one inch will be left on all sides (left, right, top and bottom) of each page of communications to ensure better preservations of records as at times the paper gets tom from the edges, making reading of the documents difficult.



This form is used for corresponding with Foreign Governments, State Governments, the Union Public Service Commission and other constitutional bodies, heads of attached and sub-ordinate offices, public enterprises, statutory authorities, public bodies and members of public generally. A letter begins with the salutation Sir/Madam as may be appropriate.


(a) This form is generally used in correspondence between Government Officers for an inter-change or communication of opinion or information without the formality of prescribed procedures. It may also be used when it is desired that the matter should receive personal attention of the individual addressed. Since demi official letter is written in the first person in a personal and friendly tone, it should be addressed by an officer in a Ministry/Department who is ordinarily not more than one or two levels below the - officer to whom such communication is addressed.

Note: For the purpose of determination of level, Secretary/Additional Secretary and Director/Deputy Secretary will be considered as one level. (b) Communications to non-officials can also take the form of a demi-official letter.

This form is generally used for corresponding with other departments or In calling for (formation from or conveying information to its employees. It may also be used in corresponding with Attached & Sub-ordinate Offices. It is written in third person and bears no salutation or supersession except the name, and designation of the officer signing it.


(a) This form is generally employed for obtaining the advice, views, concurrence or comments of other Departments on a proposal or in seeking clarification of the existing rules, instructions, etc. It may also be used by a department when consulting its Attached & Sub-ordinate Offices and vice-versa.

(b) The inter-departmental note may either be recorded on a file or referred to another department or may take the form of an independent self-contained note. The subject need not be mentioned when recorded on the file.


This form is used for communicating with outstation parties. In matters demanding prompt attention. The text of the telegram should be as brief as possible.

(a) Telegrams are of two kinds' viz., enclair telegrams and cypher code telegrams. The former are worded in plain language. The latter are expressed in secret language (code or cypher or both) but a combination in the same telegram of figures and letters having secret meaning is not permitted. In editing, numbering and issuing of cypher/code telegrams, the instructions issued by the Ministry of External Affairs in respell of external and by the Ministry of Home Affairs in respect of Internal telegrams should be carefully observed_

(b) Telegrams, other than cypher and code telegrams should normally be followed by post copies.


This form is normally used for issuing instructions meant for internal administration, e.g. grant of regular leave, distribution of work among officers and sections, appointments and transfers, etc.


This form is generally used for issuing certain types of financial sanctions and for communicating government orders in disciplinary cases, etc., to the officials concerned.


This form is mostly used in notifying the promulgation of statutory rules and orders, appointments and promotions of Gazetted Officers, etc. through publications in the Gazette of India. The composition of the gazatte, the types of matters to be published in each part and section thereof, the instructions for sending the matter for publication therein and for sending copies thereof are indicated in Appendix 11.


This form of communication is used for making public announcement of decisions of Government in important matters of policy, e.g., the policy of industrial licensing, appointment of committees or commissions of enquiry. Resolutions are also published in the Gazette of India.


This form is used when it is proposed to give wide publicity to a decision of Government. A Press communique is more formal in character than a press note and is expected to be reproduced intact by the press. A press note, on the other hand, is intended to serve as a hand-out to the press which may edit, compress or enlarge it, as deemed fit.


This form is used when a paper has to be returned in original to the sender, or the paper in original or its copy is sent to another department or office, for information or action. It is also used when a copy, of a communication is proposed to be forwarded to parties other than the one to which it is addressed. Normally, this form will not be used in communicating copies to State Governments. The appropriate form for such communication should be letter.


This form (same as in case of Office Memorandum) is used when important and urgent external communications received or important and urgent decisions taken internally have to be circulated within a department for information and compliance by a large number of employees.


This form (same as in case of Letter with a text attachment) is used for communicating with, the general public to create awareness and may take the form of audio-visual or written communication.


14. FAX facility

In urgent and important matters (including legal and financial messages), ~: departments may use fax facilities to send messages, wherever available. Offices not connected through fax but having telex facilities, may send urgent and important messages ' through telex instead of a telegram in communicating with out-station offices.


This method of delivery is used in communicating with offices to ensure receipt of communication and in the case of Registered AD an acknowledgement of the delivery is received by the issuing office.


This method of delivery is used to ensure quick receipt of messages warranting urgent attention at the receiving end and an acknowledgement of the delivery is also received by the issuing office.

17. E-MAIL

This is a papery form of communication to be used by department having computer facilities supported by Internet or Intranet connectivity and can be widely used for subjects where legal or financial implications are not involved.


▪ Specimens of all forms of communication are given in Annexure - I ▪ There is no separate format for "Telex" given in the Manual. The form of telex message will be similar to that of telegram. ▪ Fax (Fascimile exchange) is not a "form" of communication, but is a "medium" of communication. Any form of communication such as letter, D.O., or even photographs, extracts of Gazette, etc. may be sent through fax.



(1) Letter

No.................... Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of.......... (.......... Vibhag)

New Delhi, dated the

To The Director General, Central PWO, Nirman bhavan, New Delhi



With reference to your letter No ................ dated....... on the subject cited above.........., I am to inform you that........................

Yours faithfully,

Sd/- (A.B.C.) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India Tele.No...........

Copy forwarded for information /action to:
(2) (A.B.C.) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India Tele.No.


Deputy Secretary Government of India
Tele.No. (Bharat Sarkar) Department of..... (............ .. Vibhag)

New Delhi, the........
D.O. No: _____________________

My dear/Dear Shri.........

We propose to draw up a model scheme for.................. A copy of the outline prepared in this connection is enclosed.

I should be grateful if you would let me have your comments as soon as possible. I may add that we intend circulating the draft scheme formally to all departments in due course for their comments.

With regards, Yours sincerely,

(X, Y, Z)
Shri A.B.C.
Deputy Secretary
Department of............
(........ . Vibhag)
Krishi Bhavan
New Delhi-110001


NO..................... Government of India (Bharat Sakar) Department of............. (............. Vibhag)

New Delhi, the _____________________


Subject: ________________________________________

The undersigned is directed to refer to the Ministry of Agriculture's (Office Memorandum No dated on the subject mentioned above and to send the requisite information as in the enclosures.

2. Information regarding____________________________will be sent on receipt from the field offices.

Enc.: 3 statements

(A.B.C.) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India Tele.No.........

The Department of..........
(................ Vibhag)
(Shri /Smt............ ..)
Yojana Bhavan,
Parliament Street,
New Delhi


Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of.......... (............. Vibhag)

Subject: ___________________________________

The present rules regulating the issue of identity cards provide interalia that
2. A question has now arisen whether....................
5. This department will be grateful for the advice of the Department of Legal Affairs on the issue raised in pares 4 above.

Deputy Secretary
Tele. No.

Department of Legal Affairs (Vidhi Karya Vibhag) (Shri...............)
Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
Department of........ (Vidhi Karya Vibhag) I. D. No........ Dated......

(5) Enclair Telegram






(A, B, C) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India Tele.No. Department of................. (... ........ Vibhag)


New Delhi, the 2002

Copy by post in confirmation

To The Director of Census Operation, Maharashtra Sachivalaya, Bombay

(A, B, C) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India


No............ . Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of.......... (...... ... Vibhag)

_________________________________________________New Delhi, the



Subject: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________


(ABC) Under Secretary to the government of India Telephone No



New Delhi, the


Shri XYZ, a permanent Lower Division Clerk in this Department is granted earned leave for ....... days from ....... to........ with permission to prefix ... ..... a public holiday, to the` leave.

It is certified that but for his proceeding on leave, Shri XYZ would have continued in the same post.

(A, B, C) Under Secretary To the Govt. of India

Copy to:

1. Office Order File 2. Cashier 3. Section concerned 4. Shri X,Y,Z, LDC


NO……………… Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of...... (........Vibhag)

New Delhi, the


Sanction of the President is accorded under rule 10 of the Delegation of Financial Powers Rules, to the write off irrecoverable loss of Rs.5000/-(Rupees Five Thousands only) being the value of the following articles belonging to this department.

(1) XXXX

(2) XXXX

(A,B,C) Under Secretary to the Govt.of India Tele. No.......

Copy forwarded to:

1. The A.G. C.., New Delhi
2. Internal Finance Section
3. Cash Sexton


[To be published in the Gazettee of India, Part 1, Section 2]*

Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of...... (... ... .Vibhag)

New Delhi, the


No....... Shri X, Y, Z, Under Secretary in the Department of ................ is appointed to officiate as Deputy Secretary in that Department vice Shri........ transferred to the Department of...........

(A,B,C) Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India

The Manager
Government of India Press
(Bharat Sarkar press)

No .................... New Delhi, the

# Copy forwarded for information to:
(D.E.F) Under Secretary to the Government of India

#Endorsement should be typed on all copies except one Intended for the Press.
*See Annexure - II.


[To be published in the Gazette of India, Part 1, Section I]*

NO……………… Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of....... (........ Vibhag)

New Delhi, the


The Government of India has had under consideration the question of further improving efficiency bf the departments and services concerned with the collection of revenue. As a first step in that direction the President has been pleased, under the powers vested in him by provisio to Article 309 of the Constitution of India, to decide that a Class I Central Service to be known as 'India Revenue Service' should be constituted with effect from..................

(A,B,C) Secretary to the Government of India


ORDERED that a copy of the resolution be communicated to.............. .

ORDERED also that the resolution be published in the Gazette of India for general information.

(A, B,C,) Secretary to the Government of India

The Manager,
Government of India Press,
(Bharat Sarkar)

*See Annexure - II

Not to be published or broadcast before......... a.m./p.m., the... .............. 2002.


In response to public demand, the Government of India has appointed a Commission to go into the problem of ......................... and make suitable recommendations to the Government.

2. The Commission will consist of Shri............ ... ....... as Chairman and the following as members:

1. 2. 3.

3. In making its recommendations, the Commission is expected to give consideration to the following matters: (a) (b) (c)

4. The Commission is expected to submit its report to the Government by...

Department of...... (....... Vibhag)

New Delhi, the

No...................... Forwarded to the Principal Information Officer, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, New Delhi for issuing the communique and giving it wide publicity

(ABC) Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India


NO……………… Government of India (Bharat Sarkar) Department of....... (........ Vibhag)

New Delhi, the

A copy each of the undermentioned papers is forwarded to ..................... for information and necessary action.

(A,B,C) Under Secretary to the Government of India Tele. No... ...

List of papers forwarded:


Composition of the Gazette of India and Instructions for sending material for publication therein

APPENDIX -11 [Vide pare 50 (11)] of MoP

A. Composition

|Part |Section |Type of matter to be published |
|I |1. |Notification relating to resolutions and non-statutory orders issued by the ministries of |
|(To be published from Faridabad) | |the Government of India (other than the Ministry of Defence). |
| |2. |Notifications regarding appointments, promotions, etc. of government officers issued by the |
| | |ministries of the Government of India (other than the Ministry of Defence). |
| |3. |Notifications relating to resolutions and non-statutory orders issued by the Ministry of |
| | |Defence. |
| |4. |Notifications regarding appointments, promotions, etc, of government officers issued by the |
| | |Ministry of Defence. |
|II |1. |Acts, ordinances and regulations |
|(To be published from Delhi) | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| |1A. |Publication of the authoritative texts in Hindi language of Acts, ordinances and |
| | |regulations. |
| |2. |Bills and reports of Select Committees on Bills. |
| |3. |Sub-section (1) General statutory rules (including orders, byelaws etc., of a general |
| | |character) issued by the Ministries of the Government of India (other than the |
| | |Ministry of Defence) and by central authorities (other than the administrations of Union |
| | |Territories) |
| | |Sub-section (ii) Statutory Orders and notifications issued by the Ministries of the |
| | |Government of India (other than the Ministry of Defence) and by central authorities (other |
| | |than the administrations of Union Territories |
| |3A. |Authoritative texts in Hindi (other than such texts published in section 3 or section 4) of |
| | |general statutory rules and statutory orders (including bye-laws of general character) |
| | |issued by the Ministries of the Government of India (including the Ministry of Defence) and|
| | |by central authorities other than administrations of Union Territories) |
| |4. |Statutory rules and orders issued by the Ministry of Defence. |
|III |1. |Notifications issued by the Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor General, Union Public |
|(To be published from Faridabad) | |Service Commission, Railway Administration, High Courts and the attached and subordinate |
| | |offices of the Government of India. |
| |2. |Notifications and notices issued by the Patent Office, Calcutta. |
| |3. |Notifications issued by or under the authority of Chief Commissioners. |
| |4. |Miscellaneous notifications including notifications, orders, advertisements and notices |
| | |issued by the statutory bodies. |
|IV | |Advertisements and notices by private individuals and private bodies. |
|( To be published from Faridabad) | | |
|V ( To be published fromFaridabad | |Supplement showing statistics of births and deaths, etc. |
| | |both in English and Hindi. |

Note 1 - Notifications it to be published in sub-section (1) of Section 3 of Part 11 are serial numbered by press as `G.S.R......and those published in sub-section (ii) as 'S.O.............. The identification numbers given by the ministries will appear within brackets at the end of notification".

Note 2 - Weekly statements of the Reserve Bank of India published by the Central Government under Section 53 (I) of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 is published in sub-section (ii) of Section 3 of Part II.

Note 3 - Part II of the Gazette Is published in octavo form so that each section might be bound at the end of the year in a form convenient for reference.

B. Instructions

1. The part and the section of the gazette in which the matter is to be published (vide 'A'. instructions above) should invariably be indicated on the top of the copy. for the guidance of the press. In case of doubt as to whether a notification should be treated as a statutory rule or order and published in sub-section (1) or sub-section (ii) of section 3, as the case may be, of Part II, the Ministry of Law should be consulted.

2. The original type-script copy, signed by a competent officer, should alone be sent to the press. Cyclostyled copy, carbon copy or a copy which does not bear the officer's signature wilt not be accepted key the press. Corrections, if any, in the copy sent to the press, should be legible and attested by the officer signing it.

3. Extraordinary Issues of the Gazette can be published whenever necessary. No matter should be required to be published in a Gazette Extraordinary unless it is of such urgent nature that it cannot wait until the publication of the next ordinary issue of the Gazette.

4. In fixing the date which a Gazette Extraordinary should bear, the time-schedule prescribed by the Chief Controller of Printing and Stationery should be observed. Where for any special reasons this is not practicable, the Government Press should be consulted, before fixing a date.

5. The notification to be published in a Gazette Extraordinary or the forwarding letter should invariably be signed by an officer not lower in rank than a Joint Secretary.

6. All notifications intended for publication as 'extraordinary issues' irrespective of the part, section, or sub-section, in which they are to appear, should be sent to the Government of India Press, New Delhi. The part and the section of the Gazette in which the notification would normally have been published will be indicated by that press in the issue itself.

7. 15 copies of every notification of general public importance will be sent by the department issuing it to the Parliament Library at the same time when it is sent for publication in the Gazette of India. A copy of the letter, forwarding the copies to the Parliament Library, will be endorsed to the Lok Sabha Secretariat and the Rajya Sabha Secretariat along with a copy of concerned Notification to each of them.

8. Not less than ten copies of every statutory Notification will be sent by the department a Issuing it to the Legislative Department of the Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs, on the date on which it is sent for publication in the Gazette of India.

9. Copy of every Gazette Notification will be sent by the Organisation Issuing it to all the concerned Ministries t Departments at the same time when it is sent for publication in the Gazette of India.

Part -II

Work Book
Noting & Drafting

TEL. 26105592 TELEFAX: 26104183








Excerpts from the CAT judgment in the case regarding
Seniority of Section Officers for promotion to the CSS Grade 1

"In view of the above, all the Original Applications are allowed and the Office Memorandum dated 29.1.1993 together with the list annexed thereto is hereby quashed. The Central Government will publish draft seniority list "prepared in the manner herein above indicated within four months from today. Objections against this list may be preferred within one month of the publication of the list. The final seniority list will be prepared within the next three months. During the intervening period, ad hoc promotions to Grade I may be made on the basis of the list annexed to the Office Memorandum dated 29.1.1993. In the appointment /promotion order, it will be specifically mentioned that the same is ad hoc and is subject to the publication of the final list in pursuance of the present judgment. Any person, who is found to have been promoted contrary to this list which will now be finalised, shall be reverted forthwith. Till the list is finalised, no versions will be affected. The Government will embark upon the exercise of paring Select List for promotion to Grade I only after finalising the seniority list. The list approved in Pardasani's case shall remain in tact. Promotions made from that list shall not be disturbed despite alteration of seniority position of those officers in the list which will now be prepared. There shall be no order as to costs.


1. What are the documents that you would require to analyse the above excerpt with a view to writing a comprehensive note?

2. Prima facie what do you think are the action points both long term and short term contained in the operative portion of the judgment excerpted above.


1. Answer 'True' or 'False' (if partly true, correct it):- ,

a. Remarks, if any, made by an officer on the receipt are to be reproduced on the note portion immediately after docketing.

b. When the note ends at the bottom of a page, invariably a blank note sheet should be added before submission of the file.

c. When a note recorded in the first instance requires any modification (on account of additional facts or any error having come to notice), the relevant portion of the note should be pasted over and a fresh note written thereon.

d. When rules or other compilations are not put up (although referred to in the notes), the fact that they have not been put up has to be indicated in the margin of the note.

e. The final paragraph of the note need not make recommendations for action, since officers will do that.

2. Fill In the blanks: -

a. ______________ means remarks recorded on a case or paper under consideration for facilitating its disposal.

b. When the PUC raises several major points requiring detailed examination and separate orders on each, all such points are dealt with through ________________instead of usual noting.

c. A note of temporary value recorded outside the file to facilitate consideration of the case by higher officers is called_____________ d. When the line of action is obvious or is based on a dear precedent or practice or has been indicated by a higher officer, a fair communication should be put up without any detailed_____________

e. In cases of repetitive nature____________ are used in order to ensure that none of the points of scrutiny is overlooked.

3. Match the following:-

|a. Planning & Policy Cases |(i) Standard Process Sheets, can be used |
|b. Routine and repetitive cases |(ii) No noting is required. |
|c. Action -in-Correspondence cases |(iii) Detailed notes are required. |
| |Normally handled at the higher levels of the organisation. |
|d. Ephemeral cases |(iv) Detailed notes are required in respect of each of the questions |
| |involved. |
|e. Problem Solving cases |(v) A short para or so will suffice. |

4. Identify the nature of the case and the type of noting that, will be-required in the following cases:-

a. The orderly officer/caretaker has overstayed his leave in his hometown and has to be replaced, if he, does not resume duty within a week from today.

b. Some parts (costing about Rs. 1400/-) of the electronic typewriters have been stolen from the office of Minister last night. Decision on remedial preventive action has to be sought for.

c. Budget section has sent a note enquiring about the amounts of grants released from your Section during the last quarter of the last financial year.

d. Decision is required about making members of staff of the Regional Astrophysical Laboratory, Okhla which is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Science and Technology, eligible for allotment of Govt. accommodation from the General Pool.

e. An application from Smt. ABC, widow of late ABC, freedom fighter has been received requesting for transfer of the pension of her husband in her favour.

f. O & M Section has asked for the details of the work done in the area of recording and review/weeding of files during the last year.

g. E.I Section has sent a circular to E.II Section seeking their help in locating a file misplaced by them.

h. M/o Environment and Forests have requested Department of Culture to nominate an officer of the rank of Deputy Secretary / Director for participation in the seminar on 'Yamuna Beautification'

i. Shri XYZ has submitted an application for grant of GPF advance on account of marriage of his daughter.

j. Ministry of Home Affairs has circulated the vacancy of Hindi Officer to be filled on deputation basis for a period of three years.



More often than not, deadwood is noticed in our notes and drafts that we put up. Note that it is not there in everyday English -rather it is very much there nor is it grammatically wrong. Consider the following-sentence:

"The reason the attendance figure today is so low is due to the fact that the DTC has followed the policy of keeping the buses off road to avoid confrontation with the agitating students".

Can you spot the deadwood? Here it is:

The reason (omit) Figure (omit) Due to the fact that (because) Followed the policy of keeping (kept)

The sentence should, therefore, appear as:

"The attendance, today, is low because the DTC has kept the buses off road to avoid confrontation with the agitating students" Similarly, it is commonly seen that we write, "find enclosed herewith", whereas either "find enclosed" or "find herewith" should be sufficient. Hence the need to edit our writing. Our purpose is not necessarily to achieve brevity; it is to help our readers by removing deadwood that they have to hurdle over.


The following expressions contain deadwood/redundancies. Rewrite them on your note book not only to remove deadwood/redundancies but to make these expressions easy to read and understand:

1. It is our opinion that
2. True facts
3. We held a meeting for the purpose of
4. Prompt and Speedy
5. At this point in time
6. Vitally essential
7. During the course of our conversation
8. Assemble together
9. In the event that we find ourselves in disagreement
10. Consensus of opinion
11. The trouble with the new form is that it was improperly designed in the first place
12. 8.30 a.m. in the morning
13. We limited our discussions to only the basic essentials.
14. In this connection we would like to point out that the discrepancy that exists in our planning is
15. Repeat again
16. She is a person who does an excellent job as a programmer 17. Revert back
18. The main consideration is a matter of time
19. Please plan in advance to present your recommendations when the next meeting is held
20. We seldom ever have occasion to ask anyone to work overtime after office hours.




The right words go a long way to make our 'Notes' and 'Drafts' easy to read and understand. But words make up sentences and in fact, the sentences are the basic thought units of writing. Their length and general structure should, therefore, be given maximum attention. Many of us- probably most- tend to ignore sentence length as a factor in readability. Study made in this area shows that readers have difficulty with long sentences used in the notes and correspondence portions in the secretariat files. What is the best sentence length? - There is no formula. But still the moment the number of words in a sentence is about to cross twenty or so, we must pause. Then we should examine whether we can start a new sentence to make the presentation more effective.

This need not lead you to infer that all sentences should be short. Too many short sentences can also present difficulty in reading and understanding like too many long ones. In terms of sentence length, the objective is to strive for variety- that is, a good mixture short and medium-length sentences. Consider the following:

"The minimum essentials of an Annual Report of a Department are an organisational chart, annual action plan and performance appraisal reports and beyond these essentials the content of the report becomes an interesting challenge to the bureaucratic imagination. The elements selected for the report, the order in which they appear and the way they are presented are finally approved by the Minister, but most reports will contain these elements: cover, title page, table of contents, major achievements and the financial constraints."

You can easily see that the two sentences above contain four distinct ideas. Let us separate them:

"The minimum essentials of an Annual Report of a Department are an organisation chart, annual action plan and performance appraisal reports. Beyond these essentials, the content of the report becomes an interesting challenge to the bureaucratic imagination. The Minister finally approves the elements selected for the report, the order in which they appear and the way they are presented. However, most reports will contain these elements: cover, title page, and table of contents, major achievements and the financial constraints. "


To write effectively one has to visualize himself/ herself as taking readers by the hand and leading them through a territory they are not familiar with. A help that must be provided is the bridge that connects one idea with another.

"It would be a mistake, in our opinion, to ignore complaints from the consumer. We should not push the `panic button' every time we receive an irate letter".

There is no bridge between these two sentences and each conveys an entirely different thought. The reader, in the process, gets confused. Let us put a bridge between them:

"It would be a mistake, in our opinion, to ignore complaints from, the consumers. But, on the other hand, we should not push the 'panic button' every time we receive an irate letter."

Following are some of the examples of bridges:

| |HAND |


We know that to make sense, every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. Yet many people ignore this rule and produce no-sense sentences.

I "With reference to your letter No. 8/1/91-E.1 dated nil. It is requested that the newsletter may please be despatched early."

II. All the letters have been despatched by registered post. Which will ensure their definite delivery?

The first sentences in example-I and the second in example-II, by themselves, make no-sense. These are sentence fragments and should, as far as practicable, be avoided. It is only in rare cases- only to add emphasis - the short telegraphic sentences may be used.

"XYZ whose quotation is slightly higher than the lowest, is one of the best stationery suppliers. Perhaps the best."

(1) Edit and break-down the following passages into manageable thought units:-

A. There are two overwhelming reasons for retaining records: for reference on the part of the Department and to answer requests for information from the members of Parliament, financial institutions and the members of Public, but they also serve as a history of the Department and act as induction material for newly recruited officers. Therefore, they should, be retained covering all the divisions of the Department.

B. An error in the inventory will lead to other erroneous figures In the balance sheet, such as total current assets, total assets, owner's equity and the total of liabilities and owner's equity, as well as affect key figures in the income statement, such as the cost of merchandise sold, the gross profit on sales and the net income for the period.

(2) Use bridges when- necessary to tie these sentences together-

A. Almost all Assistants working in Administration Sections, if they can express well, can easily qualify In the SO's grade examination. This is not true. They should have excellent CRs and must prepare well.

B. There is a need to exercise economy on all fronts. We may cut down expenditure on OTA of drivers and reduce consumption of fuel by regulating the use of staff

(3) See if you can identify and do something with the sentence fragments in the following:

A. The duties of a Section Officer vary considerable. Anything from proper marking of dak to scrutinizing the notes submitted by the Assistants. .

B. The work in the section has been suffering on many accounts. Such as proceeding on long leave by two Assistants and non-provision of a substitute in place of one who retired last month.


FACTS: ▪ The period of two years of deputation of Shri ABC to the post of Administrative Officer in an organisation will expire on 31st December this year.

▪ His parent office has conveyed its concurrence to his further continuance on deputation for a period upto 31st December of next year.

▪ On consideration of the demand of the Employees Union, the organisation has formulated a proposal to amend the recruitment rules of the post of Administrative Officer. According to the amendment the method of recruitment is proposed to be changed from "by deputation" to "by Promotion by seniority subject to rejection of unit" from the cadre of Superintendents. Those with five years' service in the grade of Superintendent will alone be eligible for promotion.

▪ Even if the matter is processed on top priority the amendment to the Recruitment Rules is likely to be notified earliest by the middle of next year.

▪ The senior most Superintendent will complete 5 years service in the grade sometime in June next year but a disciplinary case is pending against him. However, he will retire on superannuation w.e.f. the afternoon of 316' December of next year.

▪ The next two persons in seniority will complete 5 years' service as Superintendent in August and September next year.

▪ It will not be in the public Interest to keep the post of Administrative Officer vacant.

TASK: Examine the situation and write a Note suggesting a suitable course of action. While writing the note, please keep in mind the various components of Noting.


Ministry of WAL
Department of LMN
Q. Section

Subject: - Extension of tenure of Sh. R.K. Singh, DIG, CBI

SI.No.16 (Receipt)-P.20/Corr. F/FR

The proposal from CBI reflecting once again their true colour is to extend tenure of Sh. Ram Kumar Singh, IPS (Maharashtra Cadre). Shri Singh whose phototraph was published only last month in Times of India in connection with some problem with his lady private secretary is at present working as DIG in the CBI. He is on deputation to the CBI from 01.06.96, as such he completes the deputation period of three years on 31.05.2001.

2. The State Government of Maharashtra in their communication vides their Director (Admn.) Sh. V.R. Phattarkine's letter to JS (V) at page 14/corr. Have sought immediate repatriation of the officer in view of the prevailing law and order situation. They have pointed out that communications in this regard was sent twice earlier but no reply was received and as planning of officer's postings are done in advance, an early confirmation would be helpful. The repatriation of the officer is necessary in view of the large number of vacancies existing at this level in the state police set up. However, it would be most appropriate to point out at this juncture that owing to the deteriorating law and order situation in the state particularly in its Marathwada and Konkan regions there was a tremendous uproar in the State Assembly and as a consequence thereof the Government of Maharashtra has constituted a one-man commission headed by Justice M.S. Tarkurrde, Chief Justice, Nagpur High Court to look into and recommend steps for complete overhaul' of the entire police set up in Maharasthra.

3. The CBI has justified the extension of tenure of Sh. R.K. Singh. Shri Singh is at present heading the team investigating the case of bomb blast in Kalka, which is a very sensitive case and lot of public opinion is being voiced against the delay in concluding the findings. Any change at this stage will lead to further delay in the proceedings. Last week when Shri Singh visited the Ministry to pursue his extension case he was mentioning that his house construction at Gurgaon is nearing completion and for that purpose he has to be in Delhi for a minimum of months. He requested, though orally, that if not anything, his extension should be considered on compassionate grounds.

4. We are already examining two proposals from the CBI for extension of the tenure of other two DIGs namely Shri Sukh Ram and Shri Bansi Ram in the organisation. The file is pending receipt of some additional information, from the CBI and would be submitted as soon the same is received. Of late there has been lot of delay in getting the requisite information from the CBI. On the one hand 'CBI is loading us with one proposal after another for extension of officers but on the other hand they do not care to reply to our queries. We may have to take up the matter with them so that such mundane matters do not affect our efficiency.

5. Latest instructions from the PMO regarding tenure appointments are placed at F/B. According to the instructions, no officer should normally be given extension of tenure. Since the word used is "normally" perhaps it may be concluded that in exceptional circumstances extension can be granted.

6. It is for orders as to whether -

(a) we may consider extension of tenure of Sh. Singh to six months; (b) repatriate Sh. Singh to his home state; (c) seek the orders of PMO in the instant case.

(Under Secretary)

Director (P) - (On training)

Joint Secretary (E)


Working in your subgroup, please identify defects in this note and share your findings in the plenary.


Mark the correct sentences. Make corrections in the incorrect sentences.

1. In a file, only the notes portion and appendix to notes are referenced.


2. Notes/correspondence/appendix to notes and appendix to correspondence will be consecutively page numbered in separate series in pencil.

3. Blank intervening pages should also be numbered.


4. Each receipt and each issue will be assigned a separate serial number.


5. The serial number of a receipt will be displayed prominently in green ink on the left hand top corner of its first page.


6. Paper under consideration on a file will be flagged PUC and the latest receipt noted upon, as FR.


7. There may be, in addition to PUC and FR, other slips attached to papers in the current file.


8. In referring to PUC or FR, there is no need to indicate page numbers in the margin of the note.


9. Recorded files and other papers put up with the current file will be flagged with alphabetical slips.


10. One recorded file linked for submission may contain many alphabetical slips.


11. The number of the linked file referred to in the note will invariably be mentioned in the body of the note to facilitate its identification even after it is delinked and the slips are removed.


12. Rules and other compilations referred to in the case should be put up with files, even if copies are available with the officers to whom the case is being submitted.


13. When a number of papers put up in a case are required to be flagged, the slips will be spread over the entire width of the file so that every slip is easily visible.

14. Linking of current files should not be resorted to.


15. When files are to be linked, strings of the file board of the lower file will be tied round the upper file.


16. After completion of action, the linked files will be immediately de-linked after taking extracts and placing them on the relevant files, if necessary.


17. The two urgency gradings used for cases are 'immediate' and 'most immediate'.


18. Where Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha labels are used, it will not be necessary to use "immediate" or "priority" labels, in addition.


19. Once an urgency grading is assigned to a case, it will not be reviewed further.

20. Priority label will be used for cases, which require disposal in precedence to others of ordinary nature.




1. The subject should be mentioned in the communication

a. in all circumstances b. wherever appropriate c. only if indicated and approved in the note.

2. All drafts put in a file

a. may or may not bear a file number b. need not bear a file number c. should bear a file number

3. A draft should always -refer to: a. the number and date of the last communication b. if the present communication is not from the addressee then to his last communication on the subject c. to all the communications if there are more than one

4. When two or more communications are to issue from the same file to the same addressee on the same date

a. a separate serial number may be inserted before the numeral identifying the year b. letters may be put in separate files. c. A decision may be taken to send one of the letters on a different date.

5. A draft should clearly specify the enclosures

a. which are not to accompany the fair copy ;: b. which are to accompany the fair copy c. which are to accompany the file on which the draft is put up.

6. The total number of enclosures may be mentioned on the

a. bottom left-hand portion of the page b. top right hand comer c. bottom right hand portion of the page

7. If copies of enclosures referred to in the draft are available and need not be typed

a. the typist will be told so b. the typist is expected to know c. an indication to that effect will be given in the draft

8. Instructions regarding the method of despatch of the communication

a. will be indicated in the draft by the Section Officer b. may or may not be given c. need to be given only if the communication to be despatched by post is important

9. The name, designation and telephone number of the officer, over whose signature the communication is to issue

a. should invariably be indicated in the file b. should invariably be indicated on the draft c. can be decided after the draft is approved

10. The officer concerned will a. initial the draft in token of his approval of the draft b. always mark the draft as "immediate" or "priority" c. may or may not initial the draft as approval is available on file.




1. A decision of the Rajya Sabha Secretariat to print departmentally 5000 copies (cost Rs.15,000.00) of a brochure on 'A Comparative Appraisal of Role of Upper Houses in India & Abroad- is to be conveyed.

2. Shri X, Under Secretary is to be relieved from the Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, w.e.f. 01.02.99(FN) for taking up the appointment as Land Development officers in the Directorate of Land Development, Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment.

3. Replying to an MP's D.O. letter addressed to the Minister, seeking information on appointment of members of faculty in the National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Dehradun is to be put up.

4. Government has decided to appoint a commission to review the direct tax structure and recommend rationalisation thereof. The Commission will be headed by Sh. ABC, a retired Governor of Reserve Bank of India. The terms of reference have also been finalised. An announcement is required to be made to implement the government decision.

5. M/s Cool Air (P) Ltd. Is to be intimated that their claim for Rs.10,000/- towards refund of security deposit on account of air coolers supplied last year has been rejected due to unsatisfactory performance of the air coolers during the guarantee period.


1. An Express letter is actually in the form of a letter and sent through speed post.


2. The first appointment offer is sent to a successful candidate from the open market in the form of an Office Memorandum.


3. Permission to dispose of a flat may be given to an officer through Office Order.


4. The form Office Memorandum can never use the first person or the second person, nor does it bear any salutation or subscription.


5. While returning an application in original to the official for complying with certain requirements, the form Office Memorandum may be used.


C. Fill in the blanks:-

1. The form--------------------- uses formal language and is addressed normally to the head of the organisation.

2. The form ------------------------------- uses the language in a personal and friendly tone but is addressed to an officer of equal or upto two levels higher than the officer who is writing.

3. The form---------------------------- is sent from one Section to another within the same Ministry for collecting information.

4. The form --------- ---------------------- is used when cost of telegram is not justified.

5. The content of a ------------------------ can be enlarged or condensed of edited by the Press.

D. Name the form of communication for:-

1. Waiving Recovery of Losses

2. Establishing an Attached Office

3. Seeking concurrence of the Ministry of Law

4. Transferring a Parliament Question from one Ministry to another
5. Intimating Election Commission the names, designation etc. of the polling parties, required by them

E. Name the form(s) of communication in which we can use the following expressions: -

1. You are requested to nominate an officer of appropriate rank to participate in the Seminar of Agricultural Prices.

2. As in the absence of your response we cannot finalise the scheme, I shall be grateful if you would expedite reply.

3. Shri A.B.C., Section Officer, is hereby- informed that this Department has no objection to his enrolment in the IGNOU for MBA course.

4. Department of Health is requested to make available to this Ministry their views on the issues raised in the preceding paragraph.

5. Request wire number of custodial deaths in Calcutta Central Jail last six months.

6. Returned in original with the remarks that the applicant has not yet completed the period of cooling for one year since his return from his last deputation.

7. With the approval of the competent authority, it has been decided that the seating arrangement of stenographers of this Ministry with immediate effect will be as follows:

8. Sanction of the President is hereby accorded under Rule 10 of the DFPR to write off the irrecoverable loss of Rs. 3,000/- only being the book value of the following articles of this Department.

(i) (ii)

9. A copy each of the papers mentioned hereunder is forwarded to ---------- for information and necessary action.

10. As you may recall, during the meeting in Vigyan Bhawan held in August last we had discussed the issue of mobilising resources for adult education in the tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh,


Please read the following note and attempt.

(i) a draft letter addressed to the Universal Motion Pictures Add endorsements, if you consider necessary; and
(ii) a draft I.D. Note to Ministry of External Affairs.

SI.No. 26(R) (p.68/c)

This is a letter dated 28.01.2002 received from the Universal Motion Pictures Ltd., Tokyo seeking the permission of Government of India to shoot a part of their film "The Train" in India. They have also enclosed a copy of the script of the film which they are producing and this includes some sequences which involve Indian locations. Hence, to present the story in an authentic manner, it is necessary for them to make use of the Indian locale. Their request does not involve any expenditure on our part. They only seek facilities to complete their work in India.

2. It is our policy to permit such facilities on merit whenever foreign parties come to India. The only thing which we have to ensure is that:

i) they do not present India/Indians in any objectionable manner; and ii) they do not shoot anything else except as laid down in the script which has been approved by us.

To ensure (i) we have also to seek the approval of the Ministry of External Affairs so that the film has no political overtones and for the purpose of (ii) it has been our practice to attach a liaison officer with the foreign teams so that he can see that nothing else than what has been approved by us is shot by the party.

3. The request also involves permitting the foreign party in question to bring certain technical equipment like raw film, motion picture cameras, lens, etc., which they would require for their work in India. This material will of course be taken back by them on return but to get it cleared government permission to the Customs authorities is necessary. The Department of Revenue on our recommendation has to issue instructions to the Customs authorities to permit temporary import of the technical equipment required in such cases.

4. I have gone through the script submitted by the party and there is nothing objectionable regarding the portion which they want to shoot in India. However, before we communicate our `No Objection' to those as mentioned above, we have to consult the Ministry of External Affairs. Thus, we may in the first instance forward a copy of the script to Ministry of External Affairs for their clearance. As regards the technical equipment, we may, on receipt of clearance from MEA, write to the Department of Revenue to issue instructions to the Customs authorities to permit the party for import of the technical equipment as per the list given by them.

6. DS (F) may kindly see before the action as suggested in para 4 is taken.

Sd/- P.C. Gupta
DS(F) Sd/

Please issue.

Sd/- (P.C. Gupta) 23.02.2002


SI.No.27(l) (p.69/c)

Sl.No. 28(R) (p.70/C)

Note dated 21.2.2002 above may kindly be seen to recall the case. We have received clearance from the Ministry of External Affairs and they have no objection to our permitting the foreign party to shoot the relevant portion in India. We may now convey our permission to the Universal Motion Pictures and write to D/Revenue for customs clearance. JS (F) may kindly see for approval.

Sd/- (P.P. Goyal)
DS/ (F) Sd/- 21.3.2002

JS/(F) Sd/-21.3.2002

DS/(F) Sd/-21.3.2002

US/(D-I) Please issue.

Sd/- (P.P. Goyal)


SI. No.29 (I) (p.71 -73/c)


Two telephone of your office are not working properly for the last two months and complaints to. 198 and the local telephone exchange have not yielded any result. Please draft a d.o.letter from the Director (Administration) to Sh. K.P. Dubey, Divisional Engineer (Telephones), MTNL, Jeevan Bharti, New Delhi - 110 001, requesting him to issue instructions to the concerned officers for removing the faults in the two telephone connections.


TASK: Redraft the communication given below removing all the defects of form, language and style.

Department of Science and Technology
Technology Bhawan, New Delhi

The 12 March, 2002


In connection of this Department's Office Order No.23/5/2002-CM dated 23.2.2002, where under personal computers were distributed to the senior officers, it has been decided that all PSs /PAs/ Stenographers will attend the training course on computers to be held from 25.3.2002 to 2.4.2002. This decision has been taken at the instance of the orders MOS ( S&T) vide his note to the Secretary dated 1.2.2002, that all Stenographers should be trained in word processing software and hereafter they should do their all typing work on computer only. No staff will be sanctioned any type of leave during this period. All should be punctual and regular in attending the classes and derive maximum benefit of it.
Yours faithfully,



It has been decided that Shri Dayal Singh, Assistant in the Ministry of Agriculture posted in Parliament Desk is to be promoted as Section Officer on ad-hoc basis in the scale of pay of Rs.6500-10500 for a period of four months w.e.f. the date he takes over the charge of the post of Section Officer in Administration-III Section. The ad-hoc promotion would not confer upon him any right to regularisation or seniority in the grade of Section Officer.

Task: Draft an Office Order conveying the decision.…...

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...Fall 13 rev. 1 Engineering & Green Technology Department Fall River, Massachusetts Course Number & Title: Instructor: EGR172 - Material Science Prof. Sid Martin Phone #: 774-473-7934 Email: (preferred) Engineering Materials Properties & Selection, Budinski & Budinski, Ninth Edition, Prentice Hall Lecture: Monday & Wednesday @ 11-12:15 pm, Rm: B112 Lab: Monday or Wednesday @ 12:30-1:45 pm, Rm: B112/B113 Text: Class Times & Locations: I. Course Description: A study of the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of engineering materials. Particular emphasis is placed on the interdependency of atomic structure, micro-structure, material phase relationships, and solid state reactions to each other and to the modification of these properties. The use of metals, plastics and advanced materials in economic, sustainable and reliable design is investigated. The laboratory includes metallographic examination using light microscopy and the study of material science principals and treatments of metals. II. Course Requirements: The Student is required to review daily assignments and lecture notes, and complete assigned reading, laboratory presentations and homework problems. Two hours of out of class study per class/laboratory hour should allow students to be adequately prepared for class and complete these requirements. Homework and Laboratory Presentations will follow a prescribed format and should be neat and......

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...Topic Tar sands oil spill in arkansas Name Nadya Sanjaya SID 1412251 DELETE THIS PAGE WHEN YOU HAND IN THE EXAM Objective: This take home exam is designed to test your understanding and interpretation of engineering ethics principles and social science issues as related to contemporary engineering problems. Procedure: Select a current engineering topic that is not the Dreamliner. Follow the questions on the subsequent pages. Writing format: Times new roman font, 12 pt. Single-spaced with justified margins. Just like on this page here. One space in between each paragraph. Email the final copy to Points will be deducted for incorrect format. Citations: Please cite all sources you use. In the text of the paper, please use a superscript when you make a citation, like this.1 Then, in the REFERENCES section, list your sources in order. Length: ‘Sufficient.’ I am not going to give a set page limit. Be concise but show depth. Writing style: You will be writing in some form, whether technical writing or essays, and then when you get jobs in the real world. There is no time to start practicing like now. Grammar and spelling are part of the grade! Proof-read your paper several times! 1. Introduction [10] Please introduce your topic and explain why it is important to you. The topic I’m writing is about the tar sands oil spill in Mayflower, Arkansas. ExxonMobil, the company that runs the pipeline was in charge of......

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...Alpha School of Academic Propensity Engineering Science Angular Motion Call 0977 127 054 or 0968226870 or 0950868535 Email: - Box 71528.Ndola 1.0 Definition: Motion will ever be motion except the point to be established is, what is being covered during that motion, in case of linear motion which we are all familiar with at this time what is being covered is distance (in meters or kilometers) whilst in angular motion what is being covered are angles (in degrees, radians or revolutions) hence the name angular motion. This is motion in which an angle (θ in radians) is swept through a time (t in seconds) see fig 1. As a particle moves from point P to point Q it covers a distance s and as it sweeps an angle θ, through a time t seconds. 2.0 Units The radian is defined as the angle subtended by an arc whose length is equal to the radius of the circle. Q sr 1r O r P 3. Relationship between the degree and the radian Taking ratios of similar shapes, Arc length PQ ( s  r ) Angle POQ  Circumference of circle Total angle in acircle r 1 radian i.e.  2r 360o  2 radians  360o  Half revolution is  radians  180o and  90o 2 1 radian  57.2958o  57.3o one right angle is  4.0 Arc length: Let s be the arc length subtending an angle θ radians at the centre of a circle Then arc length s  radians  Circumference Totalangle in a circle i.e. s 2r   radians 2 radians {s   s  r ( in radians)  360 o  2r...

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...Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Rev: 01 July 2011 Author: KLM Technology Group #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru Malaysia Viska Mulyandasari COOLING TOWER SELECTION AND SIZING (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE) Checked by: Karl Kolmetz TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION Scope Cooling Tower GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION Components of a Cooling Tower Tower materials Cooling Tower Design Consideration Operation Considerations Improving Energy Efficiency of Cooling Towers Tower Problems DEFINITIONS NOMENCLATURE 13 17 18 18 18 20 23 32 4 5 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied, reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for......

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...Construction Engineering This civil engineering branch deals with the planning, construction and maintenance of structures. Construction engineering is the planning and execution of designs from site development, environmental, structural, transportation and structural engineers. They must ensure that the plans that have been designed by other engineers are implemented to their exact specifications. Construction engineers will supervise field work during the entire project. They are in a sense a cross between an engineer and manager as they will oversee the project from start to finish and handle any problems that come up throughout the duration of the project. Structural Engineering This branch of civil engineering encompasses the structural analysis and design of structures. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer to analyze and design a structure that will safely bear or resist the stresses, forces and loads. The design must satisfy the project specifications while meeting all safety regulations. The structure must endure massive loads as well as natural disasters and climate changes. Geotechnical Engineering In geotechnical engineering the engineer studies soil, foundations and bearing capacities. The engineer will study the behavior of the earth materials and how they will affect a structure that is to be constructed. They will also evaluate pre-existing structures that are showing signs of problems with the earth materials under or near the......

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Engineering engineering, ethical issues occur almost all the time. these issues include obstacles that may or may not be intentional. as engineers we need the mathematics and sciences we take the time to learn, then we use the materials to solve these problems effectively and accurately to make life easier. i couldn't imagine how difficult it would be to build a real tower considering how difficult it was making a wooden one. during the process of building this tower, i had to design and draw to exact measurement a tower that i believed would be strong enough to withstand more weight than the rest of the towers created by my classmates. that was the easy part. i then had to cut the pieces of wood i would need for each wall to the exact size then frame it and glue it all together four times until they dried, using my geometry skills to make forty-five and ninety degree angle cuts. After the waiting process was over i then created another part of the tower called the beams which is basically extra support for the tower. I used a basic double V design to allow maximum strength for the tower and i did this nine times, three for each floor. I then had to pin the entire tower together, slide the beams in, glue the beams while they were in the tower, and place triangular floors while it was still drying. so after all the hard work was done, i simply finished gluing all the walls together and then i added a coating of super glue to the tower and i was finished. Using a software......

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...ENB100 - ENGINEERING & SUSTAINABILITY Progress Report (due in Wk12 Tutorial) ! Student Name: ! Student # Your task: Your role as a professional engineer will require you to assess multiple solutions for a single problem. Often, the suitability of the solution has little to do with the price or the provider but more to do with ‘fitness for purpose’. As such, it is vital that a structured process is used to identify the most appropriate solution. This process is called an evaluation matrix. ! Your task is two-fold. Firstly, in your own words, you need to define the term ‘evaluation matrix’. Make sure your definition relates to the engineering context and provide robust references. Secondly, you need to develop suitable criteria for use in your final project. Ensure you use clear and measurable criteria that take into account the client needs. ! ! ! 1. Definition An Evaluation matrices are used in the engineering profession as a tool to evaluate a number of different types of options against a prioritised criteria. If the design ideas do not meet the criteria then two different levels of the evaluation matrices can be used. The first level effectively acts as a filter with each different option evaluating it against the mandatory criteria. (UCLA, 1-2, 2014) para The design options that meed these mandatory criteria then go on to the second level with involves them being evaluated against prioritised criteria. This is vital this......

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...Task 1 Why does engineering equipment fail, what happens when it does and what can we do about it? Equipment’s fails because certain parts of it fail first and that prevents the whole process from working. It is important to understand the problem before any maintenance. There are a lot of reasons it could fail because of the age of the equipment and parts need to be changed or if the equipment vibrates nuts and bolts can be loosen and parts can fall apart. When this happens the machine needs to be stopped and maintained. Age is very important if the machine has been used for a very long time the efficiency and the quality wouldn’t be as good as a new one, a machine has a certain life span for example on a car the timing belt must be replaced after every 50,000 miles. Wear could lead to a fault in a machine because parts come into contact with each other for example a cars break pad. Corrosion in certain materials takes longer than others like aluminium, when a part of a machine corrodes it degrade and can cause failures. Raw materials such as oil and compressed air can run equipment’s. If something different unwanted to the equipment is in it, it can affect the way the machine works. For example water in a petrol tank will cause a car to break down and this is a fouling. Lack of maintenance can cause a fail, routine maintenance such as cleaning and lubrication. This cause for example in a factory that is manufacturing can will stop the line and check the cars in that line......

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...KOMBS ENGINEERING Pada Juni 1993, Kombs Teknik telah berkembang menjadi sebuah perusahaan dengan $ 25 juta penjualan. Dasar bisnis terdiri dari dua kontrak dengan Departemen Energi AS (DOE), satu untuk $ 15 juta dan satu untuk $ 8 juta. Sisa $ 2.000.000 terdiri dari berbagai kecil johsfor 15.000 Dolar untuk $ 0.000 DOLLAR setiap. Kontrak besar dengan DOE adalah kontrak lima tahun sebesar $ 15 juta per tahun. Kontrak ini diberikan pada tahun 1988 dan naik untuk pembaruan pada tahun 1993. DOE telah membuat jelas bahwa, meskipun mereka sangat senang dengan kinerja teknis Kombs, kontrak tindak-on harus melalui penawaran kompetitif oleh hukum. Pemasaran intelijen menunjukkan bahwa DOE dimaksudkan untuk menghabiskan $ 10 juta per tahun selama lima tahun pada tindak pada kontrak dengan tanggal penghargaan tentatif Oktober 1993. Pada tanggal 21 Juni 1993, permohonan proposal diterima di Kombs. Persyaratan teknis permintaan usulan tidak dianggap sebagai prob¬lem untuk Kombs. Tidak ada pertanyaan dalam pikiran siapa pun yang pada merit teknis saja, Kombs akan memenangkan kontrak. Masalah yang lebih serius adalah bahwa DOE diperlukan bagian terpisah dalam proposal tentang bagaimana Kombs akan mengelola proyek $ 10.000.000 / tahun serta keterangan lengkap tentang bagaimana sistem manajemen proyek di Kombs difungsikan. Ketika Kombs ^ memenangkan tender asli pada tahun 1988, tidak ada persyaratan manajemen proyek. Semua proyek di Kombs yang dicapai melalui struktur organisasi......

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