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Effect of Wood Ash in Fruit Ripening

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CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

Page 21

HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEM AND
GUIDELINES FOR ITS APPLICATION
Annex to CAC/RCP 1-1969 (Rev. 4 - 2003)

PREAMBLE
The first section of this document sets out the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Point (HACCP) system adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The second section provides general guidance for the application of the system while recognizing that the details of application may vary depending on the circumstances of the food operation.2
The HACCP system, which is science based and systematic, identifies specific hazards and measures for their control to ensure the safety of food. HACCP is a tool to assess hazards and establish control systems that focus on prevention rather than relying mainly on end-product testing. Any HACCP system is capable of accommodating change, such as advances in equipment design, processing procedures or technological developments.
HACCP can be applied throughout the food chain from primary production to final consumption and its implementation should be guided by scientific evidence of risks to human health. As well as enhancing food safety, implementation of HACCP can provide other significant benefits. In addition, the application of HACCP systems can aid inspection by regulatory authorities and promote international trade by increasing confidence in food safety.
The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the work force. It also requires a multidisciplinary approach; this multidisciplinary approach should include, when appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, production, microbiology, medicine, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry and engineering, according to the particular study. The application of HACCP is compatible with the implementation of quality management systems, such as the ISO 9000 series, and is the system of choice in the management of food safety within such systems.
While the application of HACCP to food safety was considered here, the concept can be applied to other aspects of food quality.

DEFINITIONS
Control (verb): To take all necessary actions to ensure and maintain compliance with criteria established in the HACCP plan.
Control (noun): The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
Control measure: Any action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Corrective action: Any action to be taken when the results of monitoring at the CCP indicate a loss of control. Critical Control Point (CCP): A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Critical limit: A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
2

The Principles of the HACCP System set the basis for the requirements for the application of HACCP, while the
Guidelines for the Application provide general guidance for practical application.

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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Deviation: Failure to meet a critical limit.
Flow diagram: A systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations used in the production or manufacture of a particular food item.
HACCP: A system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety. HACCP plan: A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure control of hazards which are significant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under consideration.
Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
Hazard analysis: The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Monitor: The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.
Step: A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food chain including raw materials, from primary production to final consumption.
Validation: Obtaining evidence that the elements of the HACCP plan are effective.
Verification: The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP plan.

PRINCIPLES OF THE HACCP SYSTEM
The HACCP system consists of the following seven principles:

PRINCIPLE 1
Conduct a hazard analysis.

PRINCIPLE 2
Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs).

PRINCIPLE 3
Establish critical limit(s).

PRINCIPLE 4
Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP.

PRINCIPLE 5
Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control. PRINCIPLE 6
Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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PRINCIPLE 7
Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application. CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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GUIDELINES FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE HACCP SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
Prior to application of HACCP to any sector of the food chain, that sector should have in place prerequisite programs such as good hygienic practices according to the Codex General Principles of
Food Hygiene, the appropriate Codex Codes of Practice, and appropriate food safety requirements.
These prerequisite programs to HACCP, including training, should be well established, fully operational and verified in order to facilitate the successful application and implementation of the HACCP system.
For all types of food business, management awareness and commitment is necessary for implementation of an effective HACCP system. The effectiveness will also rely upon management and employees having the appropriate HACCP knowledge and skills.
During hazard identification, evaluation, and subsequent operations in designing and applying HACCP systems, consideration must be given to the impact of raw materials, ingredients, food manufacturing practices, role of manufacturing processes to control hazards, likely end-use of the product, categories of consumers of concern, and epidemiological evidence relative to food safety.
The intent of the HACCP system is to focus control at Critical Control Points (CCPs). Redesign of the operation should be considered if a hazard which must be controlled is identified but no CCPs are found. HACCP should be applied to each specific operation separately. CCPs identified in any given example in any Codex Code of Hygienic Practice might not be the only ones identified for a specific application or might be of a different nature. The HACCP application should be reviewed and necessary changes made when any modification is made in the product, process, or any step.
The application of the HACCP principles should be the responsibility of each individual businesses.
However, it is recognised by governments and businesses that there may be obstacles that hinder the effective application of the HACCP principles by individual business. This is particularly relevant in small and/or less developed businesses. While it is recognized that when applying HACCP, flexibility appropriate to the business is important, all seven principles must be applied in the HACCP system.
This flexibility should take into account the nature and size of the operation, including the human and financial resources, infrastructure, processes, knowledge and practical constraints.
Small and/or less developed businesses do not always have the resources and the necessary expertise on site for the development and implementation of an effective HACCP plan. In such situations, expert advice should be obtained from other sources, which may include: trade and industry associations, independent experts and regulatory authorities. HACCP literature and especially sector-specific HACCP guides can be valuable. HACCP guidance developed by experts relevant to the process or type of operation may provide a useful tool for businesses in designing and implementing the HACCP plan.
Where businesses are using expertly developed HACCP guidance, it is essential that it is specific to the foods and/or processes under consideration. More detailed information on the obstacles in implementing HACCP, particularly in reference to SLDBs, and recommendations in resolving these obstacles, can be found in “Obstacles to the Application of HACCP, Particularly in Small and Less
Developed Businesses, and Approaches to Overcome Them” (document in preparation by FAO/WHO).
The efficacy of any HACCP system will nevertheless rely on management and employees having the appropriate HACCP knowledge and skills, therefore ongoing training is necessary for all levels of employees and managers, as appropriate.

APPLICATION
The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks as identified in the Logic Sequence for Application of HACCP (Diagram 1).

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

1.

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Assemble HACCP team

The food operation should assure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an effective HACCP plan. Optimally, this may be accomplished by assembling a multidisciplinary team. Where such expertise is not available on site, expert advice should be obtained from other sources, such as, trade and industry associations, independent experts, regulatory authorities, HACCP literature and HACCP guidance (including sector-specific HACCP guides). It may be possible that a well-trained individual with access to such guidance is able to implement HACCP inhouse. The scope of the HACCP plan should be identified. The scope should describe which segment of the food chain is involved and the general classes of hazards to be addressed (e.g. does it cover all classes of hazards or only selected classes).
2.

Describe product

A full description of the product should be drawn up, including relevant safety information such as: composition, physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc), microcidal/static treatments (heattreatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc), packaging, durability and storage conditions and method of distribution. Within businesses with multiple products, for example, catering operations, it may be effective to group products with similar characteristics or processing steps, for the purpose of development of the HACCP plan.
3.

Identify intended use

The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or consumer. In specific cases, vulnerable groups of the population, e.g. institutional feeding, may have to be considered.
4.

Construct flow diagram

The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team (see also paragraph 1 above). The flow diagram should cover all steps in the operation for a specific product. The same flow diagram may be used for a number of products that are manufactured using similar processing steps. When applying
HACCP to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation.
5.

On-site confirmation of flow diagram

Steps must be taken to confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate. The confirmation of the flow diagram should be performed by a person or persons with sufficient knowledge of the processing operation. 6.
List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and consider any measures to control identified hazards
(SEE PRINCIPLE 1)
The HACCP team (see “assemble HACCP team” above) should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step according to the scope from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption.
The HACCP team (see “assemble HACCP team”) should next conduct a hazard analysis to identify for the HACCP plan, which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of a safe food.
In conducting the hazard analysis, wherever possible the following should be included:


the likely occurrence of hazards and severity of their adverse health effects;



the qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards;

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex



survival or multiplication of micro-organisms of concern;



production or persistence in foods of toxins, chemicals or physical agents; and,



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conditions leading to the above.

Consideration should be given to what control measures, if any exist, can be applied to each hazard.
More than one control measure may be required to control a specific hazard(s) and more than one hazard may be controlled by a specified control measure.
7.

Determine Critical Control Points
(SEE PRINCIPLE 2)3

There may be more than one CCP at which control is applied to address the same hazard. The determination of a CCP in the HACCP system can be facilitated by the application of a decision tree
(e.g., Diagram 2), which indicates a logic reasoning approach. Application of a decision tree should be flexible, given whether the operation is for production, slaughter, processing, storage, distribution or other. It should be used for guidance when determining CCPs. This example of a decision tree may not be applicable to all situations. Other approaches may be used. Training in the application of the decision tree is recommended.
If a hazard has been identified at a step where control is necessary for safety, and no control measure exists at that step, or any other, then the product or process should be modified at that step, or at any earlier or later stage, to include a control measure.
8.

Establish critical limits for each CCP
(SEE PRINCIPLE 3)

Critical limits must be specified and validated for each Critical Control Point. In some cases more than one critical limit will be elaborated at a particular step. Criteria often used include measurements of temperature, time, moisture level, pH, Aw, available chlorine, and sensory parameters such as visual appearance and texture.
Where HACCP guidance developed by experts has been used to establish the critical limits, care should be taken to ensure that these limits fully apply to the specific operation, product or groups of products under consideration. These critical limits should be measurable.
9.

Establish a monitoring system for each CCP
(SEE PRINCIPLE 4)

Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. Further, monitoring should ideally provide this information in time to make adjustments to ensure control of the process to prevent violating the critical limits. Where possible, process adjustments should be made when monitoring results indicate a trend towards loss of control at a CCP. The adjustments should be taken before a deviation occurs. Data derived from monitoring must be evaluated by a designated person with knowledge and authority to carry out corrective actions when indicated. If monitoring is not continuous, then the amount or frequency of monitoring must be sufficient to guarantee the CCP is in

3

Since the publication of the decision tree by Codex, its use has been implemented many times for training purposes. In many instances, while this tree has been useful to explain the logic and depth of understanding needed to determine CCPs, it is not specific to all food operations, e.g., slaughter, and therefore it should be used in conjunction with professional judgement, and modified in some cases.

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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control. Most monitoring procedures for CCPs will need to be done rapidly because they relate to online processes and there will not be time for lengthy analytical testing. Physical and chemical measurements are often preferred to microbiological testing because they may be done rapidly and can often indicate the microbiological control of the product.
All records and documents associated with monitoring CCPs must be signed by the person(s) doing the monitoring and by a responsible reviewing official(s) of the company.
10.

Establish corrective actions
(SEE PRINCIPLE 5)

Specific corrective actions must be developed for each CCP in the HACCP system in order to deal with deviations when they occur.
The actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought under control. Actions taken must also include proper disposition of the affected product. Deviation and product disposition procedures must be documented in the HACCP record keeping.
11.

Establish verification procedures
(SEE PRINCIPLE 6)

Establish procedures for verification. Verification and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly. The frequency of verification should be sufficient to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.
Verification should be carried out by someone other than the person who is responsible for performing the monitoring and corrective actions. Where certain verification activities cannot be performed in house, verification should be performed on behalf of the business by external experts or qualified third parties. Examples of verification activities include:


Review of the HACCP system and plan and its records;



Review of deviations and product dispositions;



Confirmation that CCPs are kept under control.

Where possible, validation activities should include actions to confirm the efficacy of all elements of the
HACCP system.
12.

Establish Documentation and Record Keeping
(SEE PRINCIPLE 7)

Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system. HACCP procedures should be documented. Documentation and record keeping should be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation and sufficient to assist the business to verify that the HACCP controls are in place and being maintained. Expertly developed HACCP guidance materials (e.g. sector-specific
HACCP guides) may be utilised as part of the documentation, provided that those materials reflect the specific food operations of the business.
Documentation examples are:
Hazard analysis;
CCP determination;

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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Critical limit determination.
Record examples are:


CCP monitoring activities;



Deviations and associated corrective actions;



Verification procedures performed;



Modifications to the HACCP plan;

An example of a HACCP worksheet for the development of a HACCP plan is attached as Diagram 3.
A simple record-keeping system can be effective and easily communicated to employees. It may be integrated into existing operations and may use existing paperwork, such as delivery invoices and checklists to record, for example, product temperatures.

TRAINING
Training of personnel in industry, government and academia in HACCP principles and applications and increasing awareness of consumers are essential elements for the effective implementation of HACCP.
As an aid in developing specific training to support a HACCP plan, working instructions and procedures should be developed which define the tasks of the operating personnel to be stationed at each Critical
Control Point.
Cooperation between primary producer, industry, trade groups, consumer organisations, and responsible authorities is of vital important. Opportunities should be provided for the joint training of industry and control authorities to encourage and maintain a continuous dialogue and create a climate of understanding in the practical application of HACCP.

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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DIAGRAM 1
LOGIC SEQUENCE FOR APPLICATION OF HACCP

1.

Assemble HACCP Team

2.

Describe Product

3.

Identify Intended Use

4.

Construct Flow Diagram

5.

On-site Confirmation of Flow Diagram

6.

List all Potential Hazards
Conduct a Hazard Analysis
Consider Control Measures

7.

Determine CCPs

8.

Establish Critical Limits for each CCP

9.

Establish a Monitoring System for each CCP

10.

Establish Corrective Actions

11.

Establish Verification Procedures

12.

Establish Documentation and Record Keeping

See Diagram 2

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

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DIAGRAM 2
EXAMPLE OF DECISION TREE TO IDENTIFY CCPs
(answer questions in sequence)

Q1

Do control preventative measure(s) exist?

Yes

No

Modify step, process or product

Is control at this step necessary for safety?

No

Q2

Not a CCP

Yes
Stop

(*)

Is the step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of a hazard to an acceptable level? (**)

Yes

No

Q3

Could contamination with identified hazard(s) occur in excess of acceptable level(s) or could these increase to unacceptable levels? (**)

Yes

Q4

No

Not a CCP

Stop

(*)

Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazard(s) or reduce likely occurrence to an acceptable level? (**)

Yes
Not a CCP

No
Stop

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
(*)

(*)

Proceed to the next identified hazard in the described process.

(**)

Acceptable and unacceptable levels need to be defined within the overall objectives in identifying the CCPs of HACCP plan. CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 - Annex

Page 31 of 31

DIAGRAM 3
EXAMPLE OF A HACCP WORKSHEET

1.

Describe Product

2.

Diagram Process Flow

LIST
3.

Step

Hazard(s
)

Control
Measure(s)

4.

CCPs

Critical

Monitoring

Corrective

Limit(s)

Procedure(s)

Action(s)

Verification

Record(s)…...

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