Premium Essay

Ecommerce Infrastructure and Security Management for Sarbanes-Oxley

In: Business and Management

Submitted By manfree
Words 2280
Pages 10
Overview of Sarbanes-Oxley

Spurzem (2009) states that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (often shortened to SOX) is legislation enacted in response to the high-profile Enron and WorldCom financial scandals to protect shareholders and the general public from accounting errors and fraudulent practices in the enterprise. The act is administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which sets deadlines for compliance and publishes rules on requirements. Sarbanes-Oxley is not a set of business practices and does not specify how a business should store records; rather, it defines which records are to be stored and for how long.
The legislation not only affects the financial side of corporations, it also affects the IT departments whose job it is to store a corporation's electronic records. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act states that all business records, including electronic records and electronic messages, must be saved for "not less than five years." The consequences for non-compliance are fines, imprisonment, or both. IT departments are increasingly faced with the challenge of creating and maintaining a corporate records archive in a cost-effective fashion that satisfies the requirements put forth by the legislation.

Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley

In consequence, Search Financial Security (2009) shows the Section 404 of SOX mandates that all publicly traded companies must establish internal controls and procedures for financial reporting and must document, test and maintain those controls and procedures to ensure their effectiveness. The purpose of SOX is to reduce the possibilities of corporate fraud by increasing the stringency of procedures and requirements for financial reporting.

These reports require to be conveyed annually of the public company by management on the internal control over financial reporting within the organization. McGladrey & Pullen…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

...of this research paper is to show how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 may have contributed to holding corporate executives accountable for their actions then and for the future. This research paper will examine and discuss the origin of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and go into detail regarding the eleven titles, or sections, of the document that it consists of. This research paper will then touch upon the different countries around the world that have been subsequently enacted with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and conclude with the debates over the perceived benefits and costs from both opponents and proponents. The following research paper will prove to be useful for any executive running a public corporation. After reading this research paper, one will come to discover and understand the new standards implemented for corporate accountability as well as the new penalties for acts of wrongdoing. Body The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, also known as the “Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act” by the Senate and “Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act” by the House of Representatives and commonly called Sarbanes–Oxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a United States federal law passed on July 30, 2002, which set new or enhanced standards for all United States public company boards, management and public accounting firms. It received its name after U.S. Senator Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) and U.S. Representative Michael G. Oxley (R-OH). The bill was enacted as a......

Words: 2565 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...Introduction The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was signed into law in July 2002 with the goal of improving the scope of declared information and the rectitude of financial statements of U.S. publicly traded companies through increasing their reporting standards, the implementation of independent audits, and the institution of steep penalties for corporate executives who submit fallacious filings (Botes, 2012). These actions provide increased investor assurance of the accuracy of public financial filings through improving their reliability and breadth of disclosure (Botes, 2012). The following report shows how the Act has impacted outside independent audit firms, the accuracy of public company financial statements and the cost of capital for public companies. The report further discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of the law, what changes should be made to it, and why the legislation cannot guarantee the accuracy of public company financial statements despite the attention CEOs and CFOs are paying to the law. Outside Independent Audit Firms Under SOX independent audit firms perform audit reviews of financial filings, in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), and under the direction of the Public Company Oversight Accounting Board (PCOAB), in order to assure the disclosure and accuracy of financial filings (Livingstone, 2003; Botes, 2012). Botes notes these reviews provide a uniform platform for sound financial reporting and act as a......

Words: 2798 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley

...Sarbanes-Oxley Act Article LAW/421 Sarbanes-Oxley Act Article The article chosen is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the legacy of Enron. This act was passed after corporate scandals that involved the regulatory mismanagement and fraud of Enron. This article review will cover topics on how the Sarbanes-Oxley and the collapse of Enron in which affected the ethical decision-making processes in business environments and criminal penalties for which the act provides. Decision-Making in Business Environment “A new generation of corporate leaders has entered the boardroom since Enron’s bankruptcy in December 2001” (Peregrine, 2011, Para. 2). The Act of Sarbanes-Oxley was passed to restore the integrity and to renew consumer confidence in the financial markets. The Sarbanes-Oxley regulates three areas: financial reporting, auditing, and corporate governance. The Sarbanes-Oxley requires businesses and corporations to develop and implement a code of ethics, collaboration, and confidentiality. The significance of this law is to viewed context that affect corporate governance and the exercise duties of officers and directors. Decision-making provides standards and guidelines to those employees of all levels. “This new law impacted accounting and financial decision making because it required companies to be responsible for their financial decisions; it also regulated the way board members and auditors interact, as well as, recognizing and regulating the problem of auditors......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 Aracheal Ventress Accounting 561 February 3, 2014 Professor Myrtle Clark Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 Corporation scandals, such as Enron, initiated the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 also known as SOX. Prior to its existence, the public became aware of Enron’s weak internal control, misleading earnings reports, and conflict of interests between executives and their chief auditor.Misleading information provided in false earnings reports allowed Shareholders and employees to continue to investing in Enron. Misappropriation of funds invested and eventually Enron filed bankruptcy in 2001. The fall of Enron had an impact that caused loss of jobs for thousands, the loss of retirement funds for all employees and no returns for their investors. The unethical practices of Enron caused the public to lose trust in the financial markets. This prompted a written legislative act addressing compliance in fair and accurate reporting of financial disclosures of corporations. In 2002, Paul Sarbanes, a Democratic Senator from Maryland, and Michael Garver Oxley, a Republican Congressman from Ohio serving in the House of Representatives, each introduced bills in their respective bodies that would result in legislation that would later bare their name. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 passed both houses by overwhelming margins; 423 to 3 in the House and 99 to 0 in the Senate. On July 30, 2002, President George W. Bush signed it into law (sox-online,......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...A Review and Analysis of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Megan Allen Jason Pratt Mike Sogunro LaShaunda Person University of Maryland University College This paper was prepared for AMBA 630, taught by Professor Little and Professor Riley Introduction The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was signed into law to protect investors by mandating processes that improved the accuracy and trustworthiness of corporate disclosures made pursuant to the securities laws, and for other purposes. The law was also enacted in response to several major corporate and accounting scandals; two of the most infamous cases are Enron and WorldCom. This research paper will focus on the analysis of four issues and discuss how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act affected the following subjects: A. 1. Audit committees of public company board of directors responsibilities since SOX 2. Sarbanes-Oxley section 404 on internal control 3. The accuracy of public company financial statements and the cost of capital for public companies 4. The main advantages and disadvantages of Sarbanes-Oxley Act B. Can legislation guarantee the accuracy of public company financial statements? Why have previous laws failed? Why CEOs and CFOs are paying so much attention to this law? Audit Committees of Public Company Board of Directors Responsibilities since Sarbanes-Oxley Act Since its enactment, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) has significantly increased the authority and responsibilities of audit committees and the board of......

Words: 3244 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002

...Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Bus 102 – Dr. Sean D. Jasso John Chi 12/9/2010 Table of Contents - Table of Contents Introduction History of the Act Implementation Impact on Business Policy Analysis Conclusion Appendix References pg. 1 pg. 2 pg. 3 pg. 4 pg. 7 pg. 9 pg. 11 pg. 12 pg. 14 1|P a ge Introduction Corporate Scandals are business scandals that initiate from the misstatement of financial reporting by executives of public companies who are the ones trusted to run these organizations. Corporate scandals are derived in many ways and these misrepresentations happen through overstating revenues and understating expenses, overstating assets and understating liabilities, and use of fictious and fraudulent transactions that gives a misleading impression of the company’s financial status. There were a few corporate scandals that took place in the last decade that forever changed investment policies in corporate America. The companies that are most commonly known for these scandals are Enron, Adelphia, and WorldCom. These companies had hidden their true financial status from creditors and shareholders until they were unable to meet the financial commitments which forced them reveal massive losses instead of the implicated earnings. The ultimate result cost investors billions of dollars when the share prices of the affected companies had collapsed. According to Hopwood, Leiner & Young (2002), pg. 130, “the public outcry from the corporate scandals were......

Words: 4118 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...The Purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and GAAP Bill Chase Grantham University The Purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and GAAP The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was drafted and passed in 2002, by Senator Paul Sarbanes and Congressman Michael Oxley. The purpose for drafting and passing the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation was to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures in accordance with existing securities laws, and to encourage and enable corporate executives to be more ethical and socially responsible when conducting business (Bawa, 2004). In other words, the Act’s measures were to strengthen the reporting requirements that already existed for publicly traded companies, by holding those in power in the corporate world accountable for their actions. The Act increases penalties for executives who do misdeeds and imposes internal governance rules on their companies (Bawa, 2004). How does the Act hold executives accountable? The legislation requires the most senior company executives (CEO’s, CFO’s, etc.) to certify the company’s financial statements each time those reports are filed with the Security and Exchange Commission (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2014 p 70). The impetus for passing Sarbanes-Oxley was due to the numerous corporate scandals that had come to plague the corporate world in the United States prior to the turn of the millennium. A common theme of these corporate scandals was the manipulation of company......

Words: 1058 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

...What exactly is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act? Who does it protect? Who benefits from SOX most? I will discuss what the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) is its key components, and its primary objective. Also, I will discuss the criticisms surrounding the SOX act. Why it is important to enforce the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Finally, I will discuss if the SOX has achieved its goals. The main purpose of Sarbanes Oxley Act is to ensure that the corporate sector works with transparency and provides full disclosure of information as and when required (Bing, 2007). This basically means that corporations must keep good records of what goes on in their business, not just for their benefit, but just in case of an audit, then they’ll have all their transactions ready to be reviewed and to keep future corporate scandals down. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed by Congress on July 30, 2002. The law forced public companies to spend much more money having their books thoroughly audited, and it increased the penalties for executives who defrauded investors. Since the bill's passage and implementation, nervous investors who had yanked trillions of dollars from the market have returned (Farrell, 2007). The men behind the Sarbanes-Oxley Act consist of U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, New York Stock Exchange CEO John Thain and former AIG chief Maurice "Hank" Greenberg. Even though their voices my appear to be isolated, Charles Niemeier a member of the Public Company Accounting Oversight......

Words: 2320 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley

...Sarbanes–Oxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a United States federal law which was introduced in 2002. It is also known as the “Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act” and “and 'Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act”. The main objective of the act is to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures. New aspects are created by SOX act for corporate accountability as well as new penalties for wrong doings. It was basically introduced after major corporate and accounting scandals including the scandals of Enron, WorldCom etc so that the same kind of scandals do not repeat again. There are 11 titles on the act. Each title consists of several sections. The Securities and Exchange Commission needs to implement rulings on the requirements to comply with the law. These major elements are- 1. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board: This title establishes the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. It provides specific processes and procedures for compliance audits, policies for control purposes. Basically it provides an oversight of public accounting firms that do auditing. 2. Auditor Independence: It provides standards for external auditor independence, so that conflicts of interest can be minimized. It also mentions the requirements for appointing new auditor and auditor reporting requirements. Auditing companies are prohibited from providing non-audit services (consulting) for the clients......

Words: 1426 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley

...Sarbanes–Oxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a United States federal law which was introduced in 2002. It is also known as the “Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act” and “and 'Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act”. The main objective of the act is to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures. New aspects are created by SOX act for corporate accountability as well as new penalties for wrong doings. It was basically introduced after major corporate and accounting scandals including the scandals of Enron, WorldCom etc so that the same kind of scandals do not repeat again. There are 11 titles on the act. Each title consists of several sections. The Securities and Exchange Commission needs to implement rulings on the requirements to comply with the law. These major elements are- 1. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board: This title establishes the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. It provides specific processes and procedures for compliance audits, policies for control purposes. Basically it provides an oversight of public accounting firms that do auditing. 2. Auditor Independence: It provides standards for external auditor independence, so that conflicts of interest can be minimized. It also mentions the requirements for appointing new auditor and auditor reporting requirements. Auditing companies are prohibited from providing non-audit services (consulting) for the clients......

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745, also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002 and commonly called SOX or Sarbox; July 30, 2002) is a United States federal law passed in response to a number of major corporate and accounting scandals involving prominent companies in the United States. This examination of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, will address the following: 1.Analyze the new or enhanced standards for all U.S. public company boards, management, and public accounting firms that the SOX required. 2.Examine why the new enhanced standards are necessary 3. Evaluate the benefits and cost of the SOX Through research of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the above questions will be addressed. Analyze the new or enhanced standards for all U.S. public company boards, management, and public accounting firms that the SOX required. Sarbanes-Oxley Act was enacted following a number of major corporate and accounting scandals involving prominent U.S. companies. Public trust in accounting and reporting practices was in a spiraling decline, SOX was designed to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made in accordance with the securities laws. SOX standards must be followed or strict penalties for noncompliance can result.......

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Sarbanes and Oxley

...Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 - SOX The finance industry was not always regulated. Prior to the great stock market crash in October of 1929, there was no regulation. After this crash, Congress held hearings to determine the problems and suggest solutions. This resulted in the Securities Act of 1933. The Security Exchange Commission (SEC) was created as a result of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The intent of this Commission was to restore confidence to investors by requiring honest reporting, and requiring companies and people who work in the industry to put investors’ interests first. After the fall of several publicly traded companies in 2001, it was clear that the SEC alone was not enough. For this reason and through the guidance of U.S. Senator Paul Sarbanes and U.S. Representative Michael Oxley, Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in July 2002 (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2013). The mission of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is stated in Public Law 107-204 (2002), “To protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made pursuant to the securities laws, and for other purposes” (p. 1). To determine if the mission of SOX is successful the following will be discussed; the main advantages and disadvantages associated with SOX, the affects SOX has on public company Chief Operating Executive’s (CEO’s) and Chief Financial Executive’s (CFO’s), the impact SOX has on outside independent audit......

Words: 3725 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

...The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Presented by: Ibrahim M. Conteh; Ruby Proctor Garcia; Kathleen M. Parry; Joseph M. Schmerling; Jaime Ulloa Auditing Theory and Practice 0902 ACCT422 4021 Due: April 29, 2009 Table of Contents Page Number What is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002? 3 Why was SOX established? 4 When did SOX take effect? 5 What companies were affected and how? 6 What does SOX compliance require? 9 Conclusion 11 References 13 What is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002? The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 – its official name being “Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002” – is recognized to be the most significant U.S. federal disclosure and corporate governance legislation since the Securities Act of 1933 (the Securities Act) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), and, the provisions of the Act are significant enough that it is considered by many to be the most significant change to federal securities laws in the U.S. since the New Deal. It is best understood, however, not as a piece of legislation centered on a new concept of regulation, but as a process which mandated that many major reforms be implemented as soon as possible (in some cases, within 30 days) on the precise schedule specified by Congress. In that sense, the Enron and WorldCom debacles provided the impetus of public outrage......

Words: 3247 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oxley

...The Effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act There have been widespread reactions to corporate scandals which have become seemingly common in corporate America. Government reaction to these unethical corporate and accounting scandals has led to regulation and intervention. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is seen as a response to the lack of corporate governance present in many corporations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002 and commonly called Sarbanes-Oxley, Sarbox, or SOX. This United States federal law was enacted on July 30, 2002 in response to a number of major corporate and accounting scandals, including those affecting Enron, Tyco International, Adelphia, Peregrine Systems, and WorldCom. The act is administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission. It sets deadlines for compliance and publishes rules on requirements. The Act contains 11 titles; these describe specific mandates and requirements for financial reporting. Moreover, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act introduced major changes to the regulation of financial practice and corporate governance. It is seen as the most important legislation affecting corporate financial reporting enacted in the United States since the 1930s” (Li, 1). It is extremely essential in to ensure protect to shareholders and the general public from accounting errors and fraudulent practices in an enterprise. However, with government regulation and intervention one......

Words: 2870 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Sarbanes-Oxley

...What exactly is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act? Who does it protect? Who benefits from SOX most? I will discuss what the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) is its key components, and its primary objective. Also, I will discuss the criticisms surrounding the SOX act. Why it is important to enforce the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Finally, I will discuss if the SOX has achieved its goals. The main purpose of Sarbanes Oxley Act is to ensure that the corporate sector works with transparency and provides full disclosure of information as and when required (Bing, 2007). This basically means that corporations must keep good records of what goes on in their business, not just for their benefit, but just in case of an audit, then they’ll have all their transactions ready to be reviewed and to keep future corporate scandals down. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed by Congress on July 30, 2002. The law forced public companies to spend much more money having their books thoroughly audited, and it increased the penalties for executives who defrauded investors. Since the bill's passage and implementation, nervous investors who had yanked trillions of dollars from the market have returned (Farrell, 2007). The men behind the Sarbanes-Oxley Act consist of U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, New York Stock Exchange CEO John Thain and former AIG chief Maurice "Hank" Greenberg. Even though their voices my appear to be isolated, Charles Niemeier a member of the Public Company Accounting Oversight......

Words: 2320 - Pages: 10