Free Essay

Drug Report: Amphetamine

In: Science

Submitted By tollerud
Words 506
Pages 3
Drug Report: Amphetamine

The chemical compound known as amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs called

psychostimulants. These drugs induce temporary changes in an individual’s mental state.

Typically, psychostimulants drugs help to increase one’s alertness or act as antidepressants to

bring about a positive mood swing. In regards to amphetamine, its primary function is to

improve focus and attentiveness. Amphetamine based drugs, such as Adderall and Dexedrine,

are often prescribed to treat individuals suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD) and narcolepsy. Another drug, Benzedrine, uses a racemic mixture of amphetamines to

stimulate the dilation of nasal and bronchial tubes to help treat people with asthma. However,

Benzedrine can also induce a strong euphoric effect and was one of the first amphetamine

based drugs to be misused for recreational purposes. Methamphetamine (or N-

methylamphetamine) is another, more dangerous, example of an amphetamine that is misused

for recreation. In large doses, this drug induces a powerful euphoric effect triggered by a

massive release of dopamine in the brain. Methamphetamine is a very powerful amphetamine

stimulant because it readily dissolves in nonpolar solvents and can easily pass through the

blood brain barrier; a fluid structure that restricts the flow of large hydrophilic molecules but

allows small hydrophobic molecules to enter. In general, most amphetamine drugs use their

hydrophobic properties to easily diffuse through the blood brain barrier. Once inside the brain,

amphetamines will interact with molecules involved with neuron signaling to increase the

concentration of dopamine being transmitted between neural synapses. It is thought that

amphetamines bind to dopamine transporting molecules and alter their structure in a way that

keeps them activated, thus prolonging the transmission of dopamine throughout the brain.

Brent Tollerud

Sythesis of Amphetamine:

“Amphetamine can be synthesized by the sequential alkylation of methyl acetoacetate

with dimethyl sulfate and benzyl chloride, followed by hydrolysis and deacetylation to give

2-phenylpropionic acid, which through reaction with thionyl chloride and ammonia forms,

2-phenylpropionamide. Upon treatment with aqueous sodium hypochlorite, this amide

undergoes Hofmann rearrangement to form racemic amphetamine (phenyl-2-aminopropane).

The order in which methyl acetoacetate is alkylated with dimethyl sulfate and benzyl

chloride is of utmost importance to produce the desired dialkylacetoacetate isomer. If methyl

acetoacetate is benzylated before it is methylated, the methyl group adds to the benzylic

carbon instead of on the acetoacetate alpha-carbon. By first methylating the sodium salt

of methyl acetoacetate and then benzylate the sodium salt of the formed alpha-methyl-

acetetoacetic ester, the formation of the desired isomer is ensured ("Drugs-forum," 2008.)”

Sources:

- Bluebelly. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.bluebelly.org.au/howtheywork/articlebabb.html?

aid=156&cid=28

- Drugs-forum (2008). Retrieved from http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=126

-Medlineplus. (2010, Jan. 08). Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/

a601234.html

-National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2010). Retrieved from National Institute of Drug Abuse website:

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/methamphetamine

- Smith, S. E. (07 N). Wisegeek. Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-benzedrine.htm…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Drugs

...DRUGS What is drug? A substance that alters the nervous system and consumed without a prescription, may be addictive and its use usually is socially or legally prohibited or restricted to the field of medicine. A legal drug complies with the rules or the laws established by the U.S. Department of Food and Drug Administration. Illegal drugs is contrary to law or is not permitted by law, it is illegal and is punishable in court with jail against crime to health to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States and bring to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States the Drug Enforcement Administration is in charge of that. Both illegal and legal drugs have a big impact in society, but their effects are different with individuals and in the society. Drugs not only hurt the person taking it. A lot of other people around you suffer the consequences. The drugs interfere with the relationship with the environment, family and work, and they can seriously compromise the learning process, especially for youth and adolescents. In addition, the drug increased the risk of all types of accidents. Therefore, in addition to the individual consequences, is the whole society (in varying degrees) that suffers from drug problems. And these problems are of all kinds: health, economic, cultural, of insecurity. No wonder, therefore, that drugs pose a collective concern and that, to deal with its consequences, many countries have implemented......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Illicit Drugs

...Crime, Organized Crime, Illicit Drugs and Violence. Illicit drugs affect everyone. They may cause family problems, health problems even effort jobs or your performance. Even with the use of drugs that may have to be swallowed or even injected into your own body could increase chances of obtaining the HIV virus. But drugs that we smoke like marijuana could cause lung cancer. Illicit drugs can also affect the brain, by causing the brain cells to die and in cases resulting in permanent brain damage. The abuse of drugs also affect the economy, people using drugs are accident waiting to happen. Each year drug uses is the cause of a large number of accidents at home, office and on the roads. Everybody pays the price of drug abuse more cops and prisons more hospitals and treatment centers and many lives lost. Australia has approximately one drug overdose death each year. Broadly speaking, the prevalence of illicit drugs has been falling since the late 1990’s though some drugs have increased over that period. The authoritative reports below will summaries the trends as follows. In 2010, approximately 15% of the national population 14 years and above had used one or more illicit drugs in the past 12 months, with Cannabis the most commonly used illicit drug (10.3%), followed by MDMA (ecstasy),(3.0%) and amphetamines and cocaine (each used by 21%). Non – medical pharmaceutical use (0.2% to 0.4%). Just by using drugs they become part of the drug world. They are already......

Words: 2184 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Drugs

...presentation about drugs in common and special drugs Drugs in common: What are drugs ? A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages your brain cells are sending to each other, and to the rest of your body. They do this by interfering with your brain's own chemical signals: neurotransmitters that transfer signals across synapses. Drugs lead primarily to a intoxication or emergence of a dependency syndrome. They change the awareness and the perception of the consumer during their impact and beyond. They affect three primal parts of the brain: • The brain stem which is in charge of all of the functions our body needs to stay alive • The limbic system links together a bunch of brain structures that control our emotional responses. • The cerebral cortex is the mushroom-like outer part of the brain. In humans, it is so big that it makes up about three-fourths of the entire brain. It’s divided into four areas, called lobes, which control specific functions. Some areas process information from our senses, enabling us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex, known as the frontal cortex or forebrain, is the thinking center. It powers our ability to think, plan, solve problems, and make decisions. How do they proceed in our brain ? Drugs......

Words: 2408 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

College Students and Drug Abuse

...Drug abuse in Africa Sections ABSTRACT Introduction Historical background Current drug abuse situation in Africa Effects of drug abuse in Africa Control mechanisms Future trends Details Author: T. ASUNI , A. O PELA Pages: 55 to 64 Creation Date: 1986/01/01 Drug abuse in Africa T. ASUNI Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria A. O PELA Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria ABSTRACT Apart from cannabis abuse in northern and southern Africa and khat chewing in north-eastern Africa, the history of drug abuse in Africa is relatively short. The abuse of drugs in Africa is nevertheless escalating rapidly from cannabis abuse to the more dangerous drugs and from limited groups of drug users to a wider range of people abusing drugs. The most common and available drug of abuse is still cannabis, which is known to be a contributing factor to the occurrence of a schizophrenic-like psychosis. The trafficking in and abuse of cocaine and heroin are the most recent developments in some African countries that had had no previous experience with these drugs. Efforts should be made to design and implement drug abuse assessment programmes to determine the real magnitude and characteristics of the problem and to monitor its trends. A lack of funds and a shortage of adequately trained personnel have made it difficult to implement drug abuse control programmes...

Words: 3841 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Drugs

...Colegio Americano Del Noreste Drugs Miss: Nancy Mario Fabrizio Curzio Aguirre Grade: 9° Group: “A” December 3, 2013 How do the drugs affect the brain? When drugs get into the bloodstream they are carried to all parts of the body and some reach the brain. The quicker the drug reaches the brain, the more intense the effects. The quickest way to get a drug into the brain - and also the most dangerous way of using any drug - is to inject it intravenously, or into the vein. Almost as quick is smoking a drug. followed by sniffing or snorting and then by mouth. Eating or drinking a drug is the slowest route, because the drug has to pass through the stomach first. Once in the brain drugs affect chemicals called neurotransmitters. These are the chemicals that control the flow of information within the brain between the neurons or brain cells, forming a synapse. Neurotransmitters also alter people's moods and feelings. Different drugs can affect different neurotransmitters. How do the drugs affect the heart? Once drugs are taken and enter the bloodstream the heart pumps blood containing the drug to the brain where it will affect how people feel. Drugs can also have an affect on the heart directly and exacerbate heart disease. Heavy drinking of alcohol, for example, can weaken the heart's ability to pump blood and lead to heart failure although some studies have suggested that moderate consumption may be better for the heart than not drinking alcohol at......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Psychoactive Drugs

...Abstract: all drugs affect the mind but psychoactive drugs are a specific type of drug that is specifically made to affect the brain’s chemistry in order to correct an imbalance or abnormality. They have many medicinal uses, beneficial to humans, yet people use them recreationally. Former athletes used them primarily for medicinal uses but most soon fell into addiction or abused them on others. They have various effects on us as humans, creating altered states of consciousness that causes us to even forget what we are doing and hurt ourselves. Fortunately, there are rehabilitation centers and drug organizations that help spread awareness and provide drug abuse help. In January 2012, Former NFL Darren Sharper filed a worker’s compensation claim in California that described health problems including sleep, in which he was given prescription Ambien, a brand name of Zolpidem used to treat insomnia, by his doctor. He was a frequent user, going through 70 pills in 65 days in January 2014 ("Darren Sharper case spotlights sleep drug's dark side", 2014). January 12, 2014, he was found with 20 pills when arrested by Los Angeles officers as a suspect for two rape cases. He is also suspect for at least 4 other cases in various states throughout the United States. Sharper is not the only person who has turned to Zolpidem for sleep treatment. In fact, he is one of the growing numbers of former and current NFL players who use Zolpidem, even to the point of addiction, just to help them...

Words: 1806 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Drugs

...Drug Trafficking Global Issues in Context Online Collection, 2014. [pic] [pic] Drug trafficking refers to the international black market trade of illegal drugs. While some drugs are produced and sold locally, the cultivation and manufacture of some illicit drugs occurs in only a few locations around the world. Most of the world's supply of cocaine comes from Central and South America and most opiates are cultivated in Central, Southeast, and Southwest Asia. A chain of drug cartels ships drugs around the world in order to get the drugs from the point of production to the user on the street. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in its “World Drug Report 2008” estimates that 208 million people worldwide use drugs annually on at least one occasion. The vast majority of global drug uses involved some form of cannabis. UNODC estimates that 165 million people have used cannabis in the last year. Amphetamine use comes in second with about 25 million users per year. According to United Nations (UN) estimates, the drug trade is a $400 billion per year industry. Drug trafficking traces its roots back to eighteenth-century China. By the late seventeenth century, opium addiction had become a major problem on the Chinese coast, where European traders imported opium from other parts of Asia. In 1729, the Chinese emperor banned the importation of opium into China. As the supply of opium decreased, the price of opium increased and drug smuggling increased. By the end......

Words: 2713 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Drug Addiction

...Kathryn Rapp Composition II 11/12/2012 Drug Addiction Everyone knows at least one person that has been or is addicted to drugs in some way, whether it be cigarettes, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Although, not many of those people ever look past the addiction and wonder why. I’m going to lean more towards the alcohol and illegal drugs that people are addicted to and try to get past the actual problem and try to explain the reasons behind it. It has been proven that most addicts are addicted because of childhood issues and traumatic experiences they never got past. One of the most known drug addictions is alcoholism. Alcoholism is when people become dependent on alcohol and their body and mind does not know when to stop drinking. They start to feel they have to have alcohol to survive or function. Recent data from the National Institutes of Health reports that 15% of the people living in the United States are considered “problem drinkers.” Of this 15%, 5%-10% of the males and 3%-5% of the females could be labeled as alcoholics. Another study found that approximately 30% of people in the U.S. report experiencing an alcohol disorder at one point in their lifetime. Researchers from the University of California in San Diego have found that the lifetime risk of alcohol-use disorders for men is greater than 20%. They share that there is a risk of around 15% for alcohol abuse and 10% risk for alcohol dependence. (http://www.alcoholaddiction.info/alcoholism-statistics.htm)......

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Orphan Drug Report

...Orphan Drug Report An orphan drug is a drug designed to treat a rare disease or condition. For a drug to qualify for orphan status both the drug and disease or condition must meet certain criteria specified in the Orphan Drug Act (ODA). This designation would qualify the sponsor of the drug for developmental incentives which includes waiving of regulator fees, faster or simpler clinical trial and approval process, tax credit or grants to offset research and development, and a period of marketing exclusivity which means no competition for many years. it does not mean that the FDA is less strict when it comes to safety and effectiveness. All of this is specified within the FDA’s implementing regulations at 21 CFR Part 316. It’s important for these incentives to be available because there may only be a few thousand who suffer from a rare condition or disease. For the pharmaceutical industry to develop any drug it must see a certain amount of profit potential. Most of these disease are genetic, many appear early in life, and 30 percent of children with orphan diseases die before age of five. Although the market is small for orphan drugs, there has been notable growth in recent years. Currently, 350 orphan drugs are approved for sale in the U.S. A good example is Rituxan from Genentech, the second most profitable drug in the world, given orphan status to treat B-cell Non-Hogkin’s lymphoma. In 2010, it yielded $5.24 billion in sales for its use as an orphan drug......

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Why Drugs Interfere

...What drugs are likely to interfere with urine drug screens? Urine drug screens (UDS) are a frequent practice used to detect common drugs of abuse. On-site drug screening is performed for a variety of medical, professional, and legal reasons. A few scenarios in which screening may be done are listed below:1 Reasons for urine drug screening1 • Preemployment • Suspicion of drug abuse (e.g., unexplained negligence/impairment/behavior) • Random testing outlined in employment contract • Military service • Sports participation • Legal/criminal (e.g., postaccident, parole) • Drug-therapy compliance monitoring • Drug abuse rehabilitation monitoring • Postmortem investigation Screening Methods Urine drug screens are generally performed using either immunoassays or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).2 Immunoassay UDS contain specific antibodies against common drugs of abuse and their metabolites. The immunoassay is the most commonly used UDS because it is inexpensive and rapid. Five different immunoassays are available: cloned enzyme donor immunoassay, enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT), fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), and immunoturbidimetic assay radioimmunoassay (RIA). The substances most commonly tested by a typical immunoassay include amphetamines, cannabinoid metabolites, cocaine metabolites, opiate metabolites, and phencyclidine (PCP). Expanded immunoassays are available to test for tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates,......

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Amphetamine Use and Abuse

...Amphetamine use and Abuse Abstract Since the 19th century when Americans first discovered new wonder drugs like morphine, heroin, and cocaine, our society has confronted the problem of drug abuse and addiction. The United States--grappling with its first drug epidemic in the early 20th century--gradually instituted effective restrictions: at home through domestic law enforcement and overseas by spearheading a world movement to limit opium and coca crops. By World War II, American drug use had become so rare, it was seen as a marginal social problem. The first epidemic was forgotten. During the 1960s, drugs like marijuana, amphetamines, and psychedelics came on the scene, and a new generation embraced drugs. Today with the drug culture exploding, our government has developed new laws and agencies to address the problem. Drug Abuse in America A major problem that exists within American society is the abuse of mind-altering substances. Such narcotics cause not only health problems, but also violent and potentially criminal acts. A mind-altering narcotic can be defined as both the legal and illegal type. The four main categories of drugs are: narcotics, CNS depressants, CNS stimulants, and hallucinogens. Most of these drugs are highly addictive and are usually obtained by prescription or are considered a banned substance and must be purchased illegally. Users of many of the "harder" drugs being abused today also face the possibility of an eventual overdose. An overdose...

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Drug

...for why an individual would choose to use one or more of these drugs. Let begin with alcohol. It is classed as a depressant, meaning that it slows down vital functions—resulting in slurred speech, unsteady movement, disturbed perceptions and an inability to react quickly. As for how it affects the mind, it is best understood as a drug that reduces a person’s ability to think rationally and distorts his or her judgment. Alcohol overdose causes even more severe depressant effects like: the inability to feel pain, toxicity where the body vomits the poison, unconsciousness, coma, or death from severe toxic overdose. These reactions depend on how much is consumed and how quickly. There are different kinds of alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, ethanol, the only alcohol used in beverages, is produced by the fermentation of grains and fruits. Fermenting is a chemical process whereby yeast acts upon certain ingredients in the food, creating alcohol. Fermented drinks, such as beer and wine, contain from two percent alcohol to twenty percent alcohol. Distilled drinks, or liquor, contain from forty percent to fifty percent or more alcohol. Today, an estimated fifteen million Americans suffer from alcoholism. Next up is the stimulant, Cocaine. Cocaine is one of the most dangerous drugs known to man. Once a person begins taking the drug, it has proven almost impossible to become free of its grip physically and mentally. Cocaine is a drug in a powder form or crystal form. The powder is usually......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Amphetamine Use and Its Effects

... AMPHETAMINE USE AND ITS EFFECTS Name: Institution: Course: AMPHETAMINE USE AND ITS EFFECTS Stimulant use by humans has a very long history. The Ma-huang drug has been used by the Chinese natives for more than 5000 years (Ebadi, 2002). The active agent of Mu-huang was found to be ephedrine in 1887. First synthesis of Amphetamine proper was in 1887 as part of a program for manufacturing aliphatic amines. At first, investigations on amphetamine properties concentrated on peripheral effects and it was found that it was a sympathomimetic agent having bronchodilator properties. However, the effect on the central nervous system was not reported until 1933 which was followed closely by the first amphetamine abuse reports. Amphetamines give people a feeling of relief from fatigue and euphoria, it produces anorexia, improves performance of doing simple tasks and increases the activity levels (Ebadi, 2002). Amphetamine abuse is considered to be related primarily to the euphorigenic effects that lead to its use in high doses before the onset of the final stage which is compulsive abuse. The abuse of Amphetamines at present has been at low epidemic levels since the drug as introduced in the 1930s. During the beginning of the 1950s and 60s however, the epidemic appeared in the United States, Sweden and japan. A study of the epidemic reveals that there were several factors which contributed to its spread and these include; large population segments being introduced to the drug for......

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

A Report of Drug X Transfer

...Executive Summary The report analyzes three options to record the transfer of the in process research and development project Drug X from Bust-a-Knee to Pharmers. Based on the analysis, we recommend Options #3 as the approach to record the journal entries at the date of transfer. The first option records the acquisition of Drug X and OuchX into an intangible account -- “ownership”. In the case of transfer ownership of the IPR&D of Drug X from Brust-a-Knee to Pharmers, Brust-a-Knee receives $2 million cash and incurred $2 million loss. The disadvantage of treating the $2 million loss into the expense account of Drug X is there may be future economic benefits for Brust-a-Knee to sell Drug X because the estimated revenue is $5.5 million. The second journal entry records increase of cash and revenue by $4 million, increase of cost of goods by $4 million and decrease in IPR&D account by $4 million. The second option shows changes in asset from IPR&D to cash as well as a matching revenue and expense caused by the transaction. However, the second journal entry does not consider the future possible $3.5 million profit by selling Drug X as well. The major difference between Option#3 and the other two options is that the $3.5 million is counted as the sales revenue at the date of transfer because it is highly possible for Bust-a-Knee to receive the future economic profits. Since Pharmer is the market’s largest pharmaceutical company, its technology and marketing......

Words: 1729 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Drugs in Sports

...Drug use has reached an all-time high in the sports arena. The need to succeed, be among the elite, financial gain, and the pressure to win are some of the many reasons that drugs are found in sports today. Drugs in sports range from therapeutic drugs, performance enhancement drugs, and recreational drugs. Drugs in sports are found on various levels of competition such as: high school, college, and professional sports. High school athletes' are using enhancement drugs so that they may receive a college scholarship, collegiate athletes' are using drugs so that they make it to the professional level, and professional athletes' are using drugs to make sure that they stay among the elite. Drug use in athletics have led to suspensions of players, athletes being banned from that particular sport, and ultimately death. There are many reasons for using drugs in sports, with performance enhancement being one of the top reasons, but no one will ever understand why athletes risk their career and lives. A concern for the public is the fact that athletes assume these risks just to be among the top competitors of sports. Drugs are a danger to the health of athletes. Drug use to enhance performance is unethical, and using drugs is illegal in today's society. Drugs in sports is unethical because the focus of winning and succeeding overshadows the real reasons for playing sports such as the love for a sport, natural talent and ability, and hard work to be among the elite. Athletes are......

Words: 4069 - Pages: 17