Free Essay

Does Schema Theory Effect Memory Encoding?

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By holala
Words 678
Pages 3

HL Psychology

Does Schema Theory effect memory encoding?

Memory can be defined as the process of reproducing and recalling information from something that has been learned before. (W. Matlin) There are two main types of memory storages, short term storage and long term memory storage. Short term memory is usually described as the recollection of information that happened recently, while long term memory is something that can retain and stay in your brain for long periods of times. (Zimmermann, 2014)
Schemas are mental saving devices, they are plans for action and frameworks for thinking. Schemas originally are used and serve as a window through which we perceive the way the world is. They are hierarchies of knowledge and provide us with all sort of different information. They allow us to navigate ourselves in a complex world through this pre-existing rules and guides for action and thought. (Bryan).
A study conducted by (Bartlett, 1932) “War of the Ghosts” was aimed to investigate the effects of schemas on human memory. In the method the participants were asked to read a story about an American tale where people were hunting seals in Canoes. The participants’ memory was tested and investigated by repeated reproduction and serial reproduction. In serial reproduction, the first participant would read the original story and then rewrite what they remember about it. The first participant’s reproduction would then be read by the second participant who also then reproduced it for a third participant. This procedure goes on until around 7 reproductions are made by an equal number of participants. In repeated reproduction, the same participant writes all seven reproductions of other participants over a long period of time. The results showed that the two methods concluded in very similar results however the story became much shorter and it changed to suit the participant’s cultural background. For example, ‘hunting seals’ turned into ‘fishing’ and ‘canoes’ became ‘boats’. Methodically this is a very strong study with two ways of assessing schema use (serial reproduction and repeated reproduction) and conducted over many years. The basic principle of this study and schema theory is people have the tendency to change details to suit their own cultural status and frame of understanding.

The office Schema study by Brewer and Treyens (1981) conducted an experiment where they tested memory of people on different objects that were in an office. The participants were asked to go to the office individually and observe for 35 seconds. In result, expected objects (fixed value) such as desks, pencils, etc. were recalled very well, however unexpected objects (optional value) such as a pair of pliers were usually not recalled. Some participants even recalled false objects that weren’t present in the room. Therefore schema theory can demonstrate how memory is distorted and changed way more than thought, as it has an affect on both retrieval and encoding.
Another study was conducted by Anderson and Pichert (1978) argued that memory consists of both encoding (take in of new information) and retrieval (when we need to recall information and “fetch” it) and this experiment had an intention to see in a closer look, how schemas affect memory.
For the method:
Stage 1: Participants heard a story about 2 boys that went to an isolated house in an attractive location, house was described with objects such as a 10-speed bike, a colour TV, and a rare coin collection.

Stage 2: Once the participants read the story they were asked to do a distracting task
Stage 3: Half of the Participants’ schema were switched so that bullglar schema was switched to a buyer schema. And the other schema was asked to recall their original schema.
The results showed that those who were switched remembered more by 7%. This shows that schema processing have some effect o retrieval as well as encoding.
Aim: Our aim is to investigate wether schema theory affects memory encoding and retrieval.
Hypothesis: Schema theory will affect memory encoding and retrieval.

Null hypothesis: Schema theory will not have an affect on memory encoding and retrieval.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...MEMORY Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place. Futhermore, memory has served as a battleground for opposing theories and paradigms of learning (e.g., Adams, 1967; Ashcraft, 1989; Bartlett, 1932; Klatzky, 1980; Loftus & Loftus, 1976; Tulving & Donaldson, 1972). Some of the major issues include recall versus recognition, the nature of forgetting (i.e., interference versus decay), the structure of memory, and intentional versus incidental learning. According to the early behaviorist theories (e.g., Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull), remembering was a function of S-R pairings which acquired strength due to contiguity or reinforcement. Stimulus sampling theory explained many memory phenomenon on the basis of statistical outcomes. On the other hand, cognitive theories (e.g., Tolman) insisted that meaning (i.e., semantic factors) played an important role in remembering. In particular, Miller suggested that information was organized into "chunks" according to some commonality. The idea that memory is always an active reconstruction of existing knowledge was championed by Bruner and is found in the theories of Ausubel and Schank. Some theories of memory have concerned themselves with the nature of the processing. Paivio suggests a dual coding scheme for verbal and visual information. Craik & Lockhart proposed that information can be processed to different levels of understanding. Rumelhart & Norman describe three...

Words: 9956 - Pages: 40

Free Essay


...What is memory? Memory is involved in all aspects of our lives, is it  a cognitive thinking process or a way of retaining information or is  it a number of connected stores or even actual information retained. According to Reber (1985), it is possibly all of these. Memory has  not been defined as a single process or fact and several theories exist about its nature, character and structure.  We have vast amounts of information stored in our memory systems which we are able to access quickly and effortlessly, this implies that knowledge stored must be highly organised to allow us to retrieve the appropriate information for a given situation. This organising will be  determined by the way that information is encoded into memory. The way the knowledge is organised will determine the type of process required to access that information in the future.  Atkinson and Shiffrin (1969) suggested that memory comprised of three separate stores. The sensory memory store, the short-term memory and the long term-memory each store has a specific and relatively inflexible function. This was called the multi-store model.  There are two main memory stores short term memory (stm) and long term memory (ltm),they are studies in terms of there ability to encode, which means make sense of information, also by there capacity, how much information is stored and by duration ,how long the information  can be stored.  How does the short-term memory store work? Conrad (1964) suggested that......

Words: 2046 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

A Model Theory for Generic Schema Management Models

...INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY A Model Theory for Generic Schema Management Models Kinan M Al Haffar UM4699SIT10550D 07/08/2007 Abstract The core of a model theory for generic schema management is developed. This theory has two distinctive features: it applies to a variety of categories of schemas, and it applies to transformations of both the schema structure and its integrity constraints. A subtle problem of schema integration is considered in its general form, not bound to any particular category of schemas. The proposed solution, as well as the overall theory, is based entirely on schema morphisms that carry both structural and semantic properties. Duality results that apply to the two levels (i.e., the schema and the data levels) are established. These results lead to the main contribution of this paper: a formal schema and data management framework for generic schema management. Implications of this theory are established that apply to integrity problems in schema integration. The theory is illustrated by a particular category of schemas with object-oriented features along with typical database integrity constraints. 1 Introduction This paper presents the core results of a model theory for generic schema management, by which we mean schema and database transformation capabilities that are independent of a particular data model. Such transformations require major database programming tasks, such as integrating source schemas when building a data warehouse......

Words: 5618 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding

...1 The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding Student X name University of New South Wales 2 Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prediction on depth of encoding. Participants (N=136) were given sentence stems and instructed to think of a word to finish the sentence. The full sentence was then completed with either a predictive or a nonpredictive word, and a recognition test given to see how well each word was retained in memory. Out of the three hypotheses, the results supported stronger encoding of predictive words over non-predictive words or the prediction itself. It was suggested this could be due to predictive words forming a more elaborate memory trace, which then integrated better with existing mental categories. 3 The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding When reading a sentence, the mind can form a prediction about which word should come next. Yet it is not clear how this prediction affects the encoding of the actual word that completes the sentence. A word that fulfils the prediction could be better encoded than one that violates it, simply because it forms a smoother fit, or because the mind was already prepared for it. Alternatively, the violation itself might create a stronger impact, leading to better encoding. A third possibility also exists: that the prediction overwrites the encoding of the actual word, regardless of its congruency. One of the most enduring theories of encoding is the levels of processing......

Words: 1492 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Effect of Word Processing on Memory Ability

... The effect of Word Processing on Memory ability Tutor: Mary Christopoulou Student: Panagiotis Moschonas Submission Date: 25/3/13 The effect of Word Processing on Memory ability Many researchers have done experiments or had conducted studies about the memory and our ability to storage information inside our brain and recall them when we need them. We divide our memory in three “pieces” the short-term memory and the long-term memory and the sensory memory. This memory model was explained by the researchers Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968. First is the sensory memory, it can memorize things only for a few seconds. The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli like the shape, the size and the color of an object. Second is the short-term memory, in this case we can store some information for a longer period so that we can be able to use them for example we can memorize a telephone number long enough to dial it and use it, after that we are giving away the information if we don’t need it. According to Peterson & Peterson (1959) the duration of the short-term memory is approximately fifteen to thirty seconds. The third one is the long-term memory, which is the type of memory that makes us remember information from the minute that we learn something for the rest of our lifetime. Some memories may be stored from sensory memory to long term memory is the......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Gender Schema Theory

...Gender Schema theory – Martin and HalversonOutline (AO1) 8 marks Gender Schema theory (GST) suggests that children learn about gender appropriate behaviour before gender consistency is achieved. The theory assumes that once a child has reached the gender identity stage at the age of 2-3 years. They start to accumulate knowledge about the sexes and order this information in the gender schema. Gender schemas are organised clusters of information about gender appropriate behaviours, attitudes and society’s explanations of each gender. This information is sorted so that it is relevant to their own gender, (the in group) and which is relevant for opposite gender (the out group). The children develop gender schemas by interacting with people and thus learning what toys, clothes and behaviour that are appropriate for each gender. Gender schema theory also suggests that children evaluate their own group positively and the out group negatively. This motivates them to be more like their own group and avoid behaviours of the other group. Children then start to imitate and display behaviours appropriate for their own sex. The theory assumes, once a child has developed a gender schema, they will show preference for the same sex play mates, gender stereotypes activities and actively ignore the other gender. GST also suggests that children ignore information that is inconsistent with their gender schema and therefore holds fixed attitudes about gender. Outline (AO1) 8 marks Gender......

Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Gps Effects on Memory

...Abstract A global positioning system or (GPS) can be roughly defined as any portable device that uses satellites to provide location, time, weather or directions to the device holder. Such devices are found in just about every modern smart phone as well as in the well-advertised portable or preinstalled devices made exclusively for automobile driving. Could the excessive use of such, devices be inhibiting our brain’s natural navigation system? In this paper I will address, this question by examining, certain brain studies. Through such analysis I will conclude whether the frequent use of a GPS adversely affects memory and the spatial orientation functions of our brains. I have a tawdry tale to tell, Of effects unforeseen, I didn’t treat my old brain well, Result? A sordid scene! I had a hippocampus once, But now it’s atrophied, In navigation I’m a dunce, Warnings I did not heed. A GPS device I used, To go from here to there, My cognition I have abused, Now, I have none to spare. Is there a moral somewhere, For elders tempest toss’d? These new advances bring despair, They’re great, but at what cost? (Eisenburg, 2009) Modern society allows us an array of devices to track, monitor and make tasks easier to perform in almost every aspect of our lives. Such devices range from smart phones and their related apps, which function as pedometers, ovulation, heart rate or even sleep-cycle monitors, to Global Positioning Systems (“GPS”) that have morphed into talking digital......

Words: 3450 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Describe and Evaluate the Gender Schema Theory of Gender Development

...Describe and evaluate the gender schema theory of gender development. Martin and Halverson believe that gender identity is gained around the age two-three. They also stated that when children realise that they are either a boy or girl they split themselves into two groups, their gender group being the ‘in-group’ and the opposite sex group is the ‘out-group’. The children then actively seek out how members of their group should behave (toys, games, activities) and ignore those that do not relate to their group, for example a young boy would completely ignore a girl’s toy and may avoid anything perceived to be ‘girly’. This leads them to form schemas and their environment, peers and parents helps them to develop these which become more complex over time. Gender schemas help us to understand why children’s beliefs and attitudes about sex roles are so rigid, for example children may ignore behaviours which go against gender schemas e.g. female fire fighters or male nurses. Studies that support this have shown that when young children watch films which depict contradicting gender role behaviours, they tune them out. A study that goes against Martin and Halverson’s theory of gender development is Campbell’s study (2000). Although Martin and Halverson believe that gender identity is gained earlier than what Kohlberg thought, Campbell has proof that children develop gender schemas even earlier than ages 2-3. His study was with children of three months, nine months and......

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Primary/Recency Effect of Memory

...VERBAL MEMORY LAB Convenor: |STUDENT ID: 1810710 | |Lab Class Attended |Tuesday 13th October 2009 | |(Day & Date): | | An Investigation to discover whether the primacy and recency effects changes depending on whether the words in the list are high frequency/ high imagery, high frequency/ high imagery with a semantic link or low frequency/ low imagery words. INTRODUCTION: Memory is a complex area within psychology and many different psychologists have found different ways of segregating the brain into different components. One of the first ways was the multi-store model of memory created by Atkinson and Schiffrin in 1968. The multi-store model of memory splits the brain into 3 core segments: • Sensory memory • Short term memory • Long term memory In this experiment the main segments that will be looked at are: the short-term memory and long-term memory. The multi-store model says that the short term memory has a capacity of 7(2 items and that it can hold this information for up to 30 seconds, this is because only the information that we are currently processing is held in the short term memory. It is due to the short term memory that we get recency effect,......

Words: 1675 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Effects of Common Behaviour on Memory

...LAB EXPERIENCE PAPER MEMORY in HUMAN BEINGS SECTION I: OVERVIEW Memory, is an abstract term with no real concrete definition or absolute understanding thus making the word intriguing enough to draw attention to the greater subject of what it is, how it works and why it goes wrong. It is an essential concept in our daily life yet is the most elusive and misunderstood human attribute. Its constant presence in our everyday and its intricately complex mysteries is what ignites my interest in the research conducted in this field of Psychology. As a college student memory plays a great role in our academic performance, from weather we can recall mathematical formulas to recalling something a professor said in class to remembering certain solutions, key words and definitions we read in course material. Therefore from a personal standpoint the topic of memory interests me, as by understanding this complex concept and going into the depths of it’s functioning, I might be able to improve my own. Memory is formed from childhood and I am interested to see if memory is an natural capacity, and if so what factors lead to a better memory and if not can memory be affected by daily everyday factors. From a Psychological perspective memory excites me because the way we remember things and how can help us understand behavior and reactions to various situations. Memory hence affects decision-making and all other spheres of human life. The recollection of memory, the gaps,......

Words: 3499 - Pages: 14

Free Essay


...Self-Schema: A self-schema is a belief or idea about oneself that leads to a bias that is self-perpetuating. It could consist of a particular role in society or a generalization based on social sterotypes. If a mother tells her daughter she looks like a tom boy, her daughter may react by choosing activities that she imagines a tom boy would do. Conversely, if the mother tells her she looks like a princess, her daughter might choose activities thought to be more feminine. The self-schema becomes self-perpetuating when the individual chooses activities based on expectations instead of desires. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The term schematic describes having a particular schema for a particular dimension. For instance, a person in a rock band at night would have a "rocker" schema. However, during the day, if he works as a salesperson, he would have a "salesperson" schema during that period of time. Schemas vary according to cultural background and other environmental factors. Once people have developed a schema about themselves, there is a strong tendency for that schema to be maintained by a bias in what they attend to, in what they remember, and in what they are prepared to accept as true about themselves. In other words, the self-schema becomes self-perpetuating. The self-schema is then stored in long-term memory, and both facilitates and biases the processing of personally relevant information. The......

Words: 3127 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Examining the Effects of Music on Memory

...Examining the Effects of Music on Memory <Name Removed> University of Mary Hardin-Baylor Abstract This experiment was designed to test the effects that classical music has on memory. Previous experiments have shown that the effects of music can be beneficial in work and school environments. Our hypothesis was that a group that is required to listen to classical music during a study would outperform a group who studied in silence. The participants were college students and were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group performed the experiment in complete silence, while the experimental group listened to classical music the entire time. Both groups were asked to examine a picture and memorize as much as they could for two minutes. Immediately after two minutes a short distraction film was played and a multiple choice test was given. The results were not statistically significant and our hypothesis was rejected. Methodological limitations and ideas for follow-up research are discussed. Keywords: music, memory, memorize, distraction, test Examining the Effects of Music on Memory Memory is an area that sparks the interest of many scientists. Memory can be affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors having positive and negative influences on working memory function (Alley & Greene, 2008). Research has shown that if music is played to babies while in the womb, they possess recognition and memory recall of the music a year after......

Words: 2303 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Attention and Memory

...Acta Psychologica 141 (2012) 243–249 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Acta Psychologica journal homepage: locate/actpsy Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on attention and memory Lucy J. Robinson, Lucy H. Stevens, Christopher J.D. Threapleton, Jurgita Vainiute, R. Hamish McAllister-Williams, Peter Gallagher ⁎ Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 February 2012 Received in revised form 22 May 2012 Accepted 31 May 2012 Available online 26 June 2012 PsycINFO classification: 2300 Human Experimental Psychology 2360 Motivation and Emotion 2346 Attention a b s t r a c t It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18–35 years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance. Performance in the motivated group was significantly improved compared to the control group on the NSMT (condition by...

Words: 7999 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay


...of data and experience in analysts' long-term memory. The contents of memory form a continuous input into the analytical process, and anything that influences what information is remembered or retrieved from memory also influences the outcome of analysis. This chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of several components of the memory system. Sensory information storage and short-term memory are beset by severe limitations of capacity, while long-term memory, for all practical purposes, has a virtually infinite capacity. With long-term memory, the problems concern getting information into it and retrieving information once it is there, not physical limits on the amount of information that may be stored. Understanding how memory works provides insight into several analytical strengths and weaknesses. ******************* Components of the Memory System What is commonly called memory is not a single, simple function. It is an extraordinarily complex system of diverse components and processes. There are at least three, and very likely more, distinct memory processes. The most important from the standpoint of this discussion and best documented by scientific research are sensory information storage (SIS), short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM).29 Each differs with respect to function, the form of information held, the length of time information is retained, and the amount of information-handling capacity. Memory researchers also posit the existence of......

Words: 5151 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Does the Csi Effect Exist? blur with crime magazine television shows such as 48 Hours Mystery and American Justice. These programs portray actual cases, but only after extreme and lengthy editing of the content and incorporating a narration voice over for dramatic effect. Other shows that are even more popular that are helping the media to blur the fine line between reality and fiction, even further, are the forensic dramas like: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Cold Case and Bones. These shows however, are not reality and create what is commonly known as “the CSI effect” and in my opinion have caused jurors to wrongly acquit guilty offenders when no scientific evidence has been presented to the jury by the prosecutors. 
 The CSI effect is a phenomenon brought about by popular television shows such as: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Cold Case and Bones. and other forensic shows that are raising crime victims' and jury members' real-world expectations of the field of forensic science and type of forensic evidence that is presented by the prosecution. Much of these concerns come from the writers of forensic science television glamorizing the field, overstating the accuracy of forensic techniques, and exaggerating the abilities of forensic science. The CSI effect seems to skew public perceptions of real-world forensic science, as well as the behavior of criminal justice system actors; this is of particular concern in the courtroom setting, where many prosecutors feel pressured to deliver more......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6