Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

In: English and Literature

Submitted By alkunz
Words 1103
Pages 5
Introduction:TCP has responsibility of providing end-to-end reliable data on non-reliable Internet.This project is based on one powerful performance measurement technique called “Passive measurement”.
Passive measurement refers to the processing of measuring network, without infusing any traffic on network.Passive measurements used for monitoring traffic volume but can be used for network performance In contrast, some probe packets are introduced in Active measurement.
Active measurement, traffic injected through external sources for end-to-end data transmission, these artificially introduced packets may affect the performance of other applications between network paths..“IP networks supported only a best effort service”. TCP Operation and Performance:TCP was specifically designed to provide a reliable endto-end byte stream over unreliable internetwork and responsible for internet stability.TCP using basic technique as “positive acknowledgement with retransmission.
Reliability is basic issue in TCP that is achieved through a strong concept “sliding window”. The major problem with simple positive acknowledgement technique is, excessive amount of network bandwidth consumption.
RWIN is very important to calculate “Throughput” of network.Sliding window protocol solves the bandwidth problem by transmitting packets before acknowledgement received.
Sliding Window Mechanism and Window Size:The Sliding window performance can be judged through the size of window and the network speed on which packets are accepted. Intelligently selected window size can keep the network saturated all the time and idle time of network could be reduced to Zero, and obtains higher throughput than a simple positive acknowledgment protocol. The TCP window size is set to 64K initially because of its 16 bit header but it can exceed by using the window scaling factor options at the start of connection.TCP sender need to wait for at least one Round Trip Time (RTT) before acknowledgement received for transmitted segment. THROUGHPUT= (w. MSS)/RTTProfessor Jonathan Pitts quotted i.e Mathematically it can be presented like this, Max Throughput= Max advertised window/RTT.
RWIN is receiving window and equals to Bandwidth-Delay product. BandwidthDelay product can be calculated as Maximum available bandwidth multiplied by total latency.Congestion Control and Congestion Avoidance:Researchers agree that most of packets loss is due to congestion. It is important to know how TCP handles Congestion; a suitable window size is chosen.
SLOW START: Slow start algorithm removes the issue where two end point of communication transmit the data as fast as possible up to agreed window size completely disregard of network congestion.
CONGESTION AVOIDANCE :TCP uses this algorithm when packet loss occurs. Most of packet lost are due to Network congestion and shows there is high timeout and duplicate acknowledgements.
FAST RETRANSMIT:In Fast retransmit data continuously transmitted to keep throughput maximum and during this time it waits for acknowledgement of retransmitted packets.This mechanism can be monitored with any packet capturing tool. In this project it can be visualised and analysed in “wireshark”.
FAST RECOVERY:Principle behind fast recovery algorithm is to act as an interrupt; it stops TCP to go into slow start mode when it goes into congestion avoidance mode which is caused by Fast Transmit rather than simple timeout.Test Bed Description:The test bed used for conducting the experiments required assessing how TCP/IP behaves in different testing conditions.
TOPOLOGY DESIGN AND BASIC CONFIGURATION:There are two ways to put host in different network either by putting them in different domains Networks (dependent upon their network addresses) or by creating Virtual LAN. PC SYSTEM‟S SPECIFICATIONS:
PC1:PC1 is working as Traffic Source in most of the experiments. This System lies in VLAN4 with IP Address 192.168.4.2 .
PC2:PC2 is working as Traffic Sink in experiments and system is in VLAN5 and IP address is 192.168.5.2.
PC3:PC3 is very important system to check network performance in different extensive conditions and is a soul of project.System has two network interfaces for VLAN 4 and IP address is 192.168.4.1.
PC4:PC4 although doesn‟t work as main stream system in experimentation.
CISCO ROUTER 3640:Cisco 3640 router is used as multi service machine which is used from small to corporate sector and some internet service providers also used them.
IPERF is bi-directional traffic generation benchmark, although it is widely used for end-to-end performance measurement but it is not an official standard as it is open source. JPERF allows changing the buffer size but it is highly recommended not to exceed more than 130KB because after this it really doesn‟t affect on the network performance and its just waste of resource.
WIRESHARK: Wireshark is just like “tcpdump [27]” but with GUI interface and enhanced utilities. It is most popular network analyser is available on almost all Operating systems like Linux, Solaris, Mac, Unix-like and Windows. It understands the structure of different network protocols. it can capture packets with 500 capture and display filters. It allow user to save (.pcap) packet files and generate lots of statistical combination for file.Wirehsark GUI displays a TCP captured packet in three window pane.
NISTNET:Nist Net is useful in many terms as an inexpensive PC can emulate environment, works as router where router box is costly to buy and run. It has ability to perform complex router like scenarios by introducing traffic congestion, sever and sensitive delays, packet loss, bandwidth limitation, packets duplication and packet rearrangement.
PING TOOL:Ping tool is to determine the Host availability. It sends theEcho request to host and wait for ICMP packets which were sent to check host availabilityand gives the Round Trip Time (milliseconds) and Packet Lost(number, percentage) in summary.
Experimental Methodology: Technique which is adopted in this project is measuring through congestion window at sender to calculate RTT and Throughput, considered as popular passive measurement technique.
NISTNET AS NETWORK IN BOX:Nist Net sets up minimum and maximum threshold for DRD to drop packets. Nist Net also implemented Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) through DRD by associating it with queue length less than ECN minimum threshold. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT: Many Experiments done to validate network performance with altered Emulation settings, TCP window size and Buffer sizes. Every experiment is done at least 5 times but two best possible performance values are taken for throughput calculation purpose.
Project and Methodology Limitation: Passive measurement need full network access or in other words it need to be assumed this is tester/researcher‟s “own network”. As passive measurement does not inject any traffic so it gets relatively less samples and inaccurate packet pair [25].
General Conclusion: Better solution is to increase network performance. In this project objective was to investigate lightweight measurement techniques.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries, institutions and other users registered in the United Kingdom with the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T4LP/ [Fax: +44 (0)20 7631 5500; email: cla@cla.co.uk], in the United States with the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 [Fax: (+1)978 750 4470; email: info@copyright.com], or in other countries with associated Reproduction Rights Organizations, may take photocopies in accordance with the licenses issued to them for this purpose. Current status and evolution of industrial relation system in Bangladesh 978-92-2-122790-8 (print) 978-92-2-122791-5 (web pdf) The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area of territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to name of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International......

Words: 38847 - Pages: 156

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...fall in the middle of this continuum -- i.e., they hire the best people they can afford, but they also recognize the need to train and develop current employees as the firm grows. This publication should provide you with an increased awareness of the importance of creating a good human resource management climate within the firm, and specific guidelines on how to create such a climate. References http://www.linkedin.com/answers/hiring-human-resources/staffing-recruiting/HRH_SFF/767749-44244283 http://www.ehow.com/how_2136458_candidate-comfortable-during-job-interview.html http://www.ehow.com/how_7616576_fire-employee-financial-reasons.html http://www.sbaonline.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/serv_pubs_eb_pdf_eb4.pdf http://gametlibrary.worldbank.org/FILES/864_Types%20of%20Organograms.pdf ----------------------- The Concept of Authority Research and Development Chief Executive Officer Finance Accounting Production Human Resources Marketing...

Words: 2597 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Doc, Pdf, Docx, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...CURRICULUM VITAE Bishwarup Podder F-2/E, T & T Staff Quarters, College Road, Narayanganj -1400. E-mail: bishwarup1986@yahoo.com Contact no: 01914390840, 02-7644545 Objective: To find a challenging position in an Electrical and Electronic Engineering field to meet my competencies, capabilities, skills , education & want to share my own knowledge. Profile: --Hardworking, Confident and Responsible. --Able to work as a part of the team. --Able to work in a Dynamic and Challenging Environment. --Computer Literate. --Fluent in Bengali & English. Degree Information & Field of Study: |Name of the Degree |Institute |Board | |Grade Point | | | | |Year |Average | |B.Sc. in | | |2008 | | |Electrical & Electronic |Ahsanullah University of | | |3.454 out of 4.0 | |Engineering |Science & Technology | | | | |H.S.C |Govt. Tolaram College |Dhaka |2003 ...

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...1. Discuss the consequences proposed change from a partnership to corporation in terms of advantages and disadvantages. There are many consequences of the propos change from partnership to corporation because each one of partnership and corporation have his own advantages and disadvantages that's mean maybe if we change from one to other we will find some problem and some weakness in some points and on other points will find some strength things. For example: in partnership have two or more owners but in corporation have one owner. That's mean it's a disadvantage on partnership because it will be difficult to transfer ownership. Put on other side on corporation it's an advantage because it's easy to transfer of ownership. 2. Describe potential agency conflicts that can arise when hiring a management team and suggest possible solution In case mohd would like to hire a team of managers with international experience necessary to implement his corporate vision. Maybe he will face some difficult things with the management team because the management team that will come doesn't know everything about his company that's mean he should describe for the team everything about the company after that maybe they can do or not and this will be as a loss of his time to complete the work. I think on my point of view the best possible solution is train his team and put strategy and roles for everyone should interest to meet the company goal. 3. Determine the amount of cash the company......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...s Vocabulary Preparing Listening Grammar for IELTS IELTS Home Downloads IELTS Speaking Test IELTS Writing Test IELTS Reading Test IELTS Listening Test Writing Task 1 - A Writing Task 1 - G Writing Task 2 IELTS Speaking IELTS Practice Tests IELTS General Tests IELTS Sample Exam IELTS Line Graphs IELTS Tips IELTS Writing Samples Speaking Part 1 Speaking Part 2 & 3 IELTS Writing Task 1 #101 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The chart below gives information about the UK's ageing population in 1985 and makes predictions for 2035. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. Source: Office for National Statistics, National Records of Scotland, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency Test Tip In Task 1 of the IELTS Writing modules, you may be asked to interpret and describe data presented in graph form. There are three basic types of graph: pie charts, bar charts and line graphs. Bar charts are useful for comparing the quantities of different categories. Bar charts are constructed such that the lengths of the different bars are proportional to the size of the category they represent. Bar charts usually show the numbers or percentages on the y-axis and the different categories that are being measured along the x-axis. Both axes are labeled to show what they refer to. Sometimes each category along the x-axis can be divided......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...Paragraph on Co-Education eBudhia Articles Co-education is a system of educating boys and girls together. In ancient times, co-education was prevalent in Greece. Today, this system of education is there in almost all the countries of the world. It is economical. It generates a spirit of comradeship between boys and girls. The problem of shortage of trained teachers can be dealt with by this system. Boys overcome their curiosity and girls, their shyness. They learn to respect one another. Though a few conservative people are against this system, their view do not hold ground. Co-education generates harmonious relationship, a sense of cooperation, and thus, helps in the progress of the nation. 467 words essay on Co-education M Sanjeeta School and college where boys and girls study together are called co-educational. There are many co-educational institutions in our country. There are many arguments for and against co-education. Some are of the view that co-education is desirable at all stages of education, primary, secondary and at collegiate levels. Some are totally desirable at primary and collegiate levels and not at the secondary school level. The problem is linked with the aims and objectives set to be achieved at different levels of education and also with the roles the boys and girls have to play in a society later in their lives. However, it is agreed that at the primary stage of education it is desirable to have co-education. At this stage boys and......

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...geographical and location barriers. With almost one-sixth of the world’s population having access to the Internet, “location, location, location” in the physical world is becoming less and less and less important. However, now we have new issues to deal with, notably, a language barrier. What happens if you connect to a site that offers information in a language you don’t understand? How can you send an e-mail to someone in Japan who doesn’t speak English? One solution is language translation software, and one company leading the way in the development of language translation software is SYSTRAN. SYSTRAN offers a suite of software tools that enables you, among other things, to translate about 3,700 words per minute, translate e-mail, Web page, and pdf content, and display Asian fonts. Is it perfect? Not according to SYSTRAN’s disclaimer. It states specifics about what its products will do, but does encourage you to carefully review any translation before making it a part of your business communications. Indeed, when Kentucky Fried Chicken wanted to translate its slogan “finger-lickin’ good” into Chinese, it came out as “eat your fingers off.” Now, KFC wasn’t using SYSTRAN’s software, but this example does illustrate the difficulty of translating idiomatic phrases from one language to another. Product names are another example. When General Motors (GM) tried to sell the Chevy Nova in South America, people didn’t buy it. As it turns out, No va means “it won’t go” in Spanish. GM......

Words: 18129 - Pages: 73

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf.Odt

...gov/news/studies/2009/oig-509exec-summary.pdf, accessed 4/11/11. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 United States of America v. Daniel Bonventre, Annette Bongiorno, Joann Crupi, a/k/a “Jodi,” Jerome O’Hara, and George Perez. 31 Randall Smith, “Wall Street Mystery Features a Big Board Rival,” Wall Street Journal, December 16, 1992. 32 Seal, “Madoff’s World.” 33 James Bandler and Nicholas Varchaver, “How Bernie Did It,” Fortune, April 30, 2009. 34 Andrew Kirtzman, Betrayal: The Life and Lies of Bernie Madoff. 35 Testimony of Harry Markopolos Before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services, February 4, 2009, p. 7, available at http://www.house.gov/apps/list/hearing/financialsvcs_dem/markopolos020409.pdf, accessed Testimony of Harry Markopolos Before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services; Markopolos, No One Would Listen. Testimony of Harry Markopolos Before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services, p. 10. Securities and Exchange Commission v. Jerome O’Hara and George Perez available at http://www .sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2009/lr21292.htm, accessed 4/11/11. 48 49 50 United States of America v. Daniel Bonventre, Annette Bongiorno, Joann Crupi, a/k/a “Jodi,” Jerome O’Hara, and George Perez. 51 Arvedlund, Too Good To Be True: The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff. 52 United States of America v. Frank DiPascali, Jr. 53 Chapman, “Before the Fall.” CASE......

Words: 10275 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...2010 Instructions for Form 2441 (Rev. January 2011) Child and Dependent Care Expenses Purpose of Form If you paid someone to care for your child or other qualifying person so you (and your spouse if filing jointly) could work or look for work in 2010, you may be able to take the credit for child and dependent care expenses. You (and your spouse if filing jointly) must have earned income to take the credit. But see Spouse Who Was a Student or Disabled on page 4. If you can take the credit, use Form 2441 to figure the amount of your credit. If you (or your spouse if filing jointly) received any dependent care benefits for 2010, you must use Form 2441 to figure the amount, if any, of the benefits you can exclude from your income on Form 1040, line 7, Form 1040A, line 7, or Form 1040NR, line 8. You must complete Part III of Form 2441 before you can figure the credit, if any, in Part II. Additional information. See Pub. 503, Child and Dependent Care Expenses, for more details. Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service If you are divorced or separated, see Special rule for children of divorced or separated parents below. To find out who is a qualifying child and who is a dependent, see Pub. 501, Exemptions, Standard Deduction, and Filing Information. CAUTION ! To be a qualifying person, the person must have lived with you for more than half of 2010. Definitions Dependent Care Benefits Dependent care benefits include: • Amounts your employer paid......

Words: 4514 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...Know Your Customers (KYC), Anti-Money Laundering (AML), Recovery and Investments. BIBLIOGRAPHY • www.canarabank.com • Retrieved 1 November 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ • http://www.businessweek.com/the_thread/brandnewday/archives/2005/03/canara bank _new_c.html • http://www.mind-advertising.com/us/ • http://www.mcspotllight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.htm • http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/information/company-details- -canara-bank--28.php • http://www.connectionsmagazine.com/articles/3/100.html • http://ezinearticles.com/?canara-bank-Business-Analysis&id=687438 • http://www.moneycontrol.com/static/pdf/aboutus/education/mcd_marketing.pdf • http://www.marketingshift.com/companies/canara-bank.cfm • http://www.canarabank.co.in/static/pdf/aboutus/education/.pdf • http://www.asso.org.au/profiles/general/consumer/canara • http://www.fool.com/investing/small-cap/2004/11/23/more-changes-at-canara-bank.aspx • http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest34334-293638-case-study-canara-bank-wryit-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ • http://www.goosepond.org/_blog/The_Goose_Pond_Blog/post/2010_canarabank_Big_Bass_Splash_Changes_Dates_Increases_Payo ut_for_Lake_Guntersville/ [pic]...

Words: 7637 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

... ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form * * * ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form SignUp|Loginor use Bottom of Form * Home * Articles * Docs * Concepts * BrandGuide * Colleges * Forum * Careers * FunCorner * Quizzes * You are here:   Home BrandGuide FMCG Lifebuoy Lifebuoy < Lever Ayush.. |   | Liril 2000.. > | Lifebuoy | Parent Company | HUL | Category | Personal Care – Soap | Sector | FMCG | Tagline/ Slogan | Healthy hoga Hindustan; Lifebuoy hai jaha tandurusti hai waha | USP | Lifebuoy provides 100% better protection from germs as compared to ordinary soaps | STP | Segment | Personal Care – Soap, Hand Sanitizer, Hand Wash | Target Group | All households, to provide a 100% anti-bacterial soap for complete protection | Positioning | Lifebuoy's goal is to provide affordable and accessible hygiene and health solutions | SWOT Analysis | Strength | 1. First soap to use carbolic acid, which gave it a red color and strong, medicinal scent 2. Wide portfolio for the Lifebuoy brand ranging which includes Soap, Hand Sanitizer and Hand Wash 3. High consumer awareness for the brand of Lifebuoy 4. Most popular soap brand specially in the rural market 5. Excellent brand visibility and extensive distribution | Weakness | 1. Lower market penetration in urban areas as compared to rural areas 2.Initially positioned as a masculine soap, which was eventually...

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Od

...106 (Sec-C) PDM # 506 ECO 101 (Sec-H) DBR # 507 ECO 102 (Sec-E) CKS # 508 11 ENG 203 (Sec-K) MM # 304 ENG 203 (Sec-L) AIE # 305 ENG 250 (Sec-F) KAM # 414 ECO 101 (Sec-G) SAI # 505 ECO 101 (Sec-J) MS # 506 ECO 102 (Sec-F) SAI # 520 PHY 110 (Sec-A) RS # LAB CHM 116 (Sec-A) SKB # LAB PHY 110 (Sec-B) RS # LAB PHY 110 (Sec-C) US # LAB CHM 116 (Sec-C) DHR # LAB PHY 110 (Sec-D) ZA # LAB CHM 116 (Sec-E) SMB # LAB PHY 112 (Sec-G) ZA # LAB CHM 116 (Sec-F) NKD # LAB AGR 391 (Day) DSR # 123 BIO 253 (Sec-A) MRK #124 AGR 411 (Day) DSM # 124 AGR 203 (Day) DFS #305 SSC 101 (Day) DSS #323 AGR 381 (Day) PDF #414 BOT 107 (Day ACB #123 AGR 382 (Day) PDF # LAB AGR 401 (Day) DNJ # 414 SSC 101 (Day) DSS # 315 SSC 205 (Sec-A) MRD # 123 AGR 383 (Sec-A) PDF # 123 AGR 204 (Day) DFS # LAB AGR 411 (Day) DSM # 124 AGR 373 (Sec-B) DEH # 315 CHM 147 (Day) DSS/DAF # 123 AGR 383 (Sec-B) PDF # 124 AGR 371 (Day) DFS # 315 BIO 253 (Sec-B) MRK # 414 AGR 452 (Day) ACB # 513 SOC 201 (Day) DBR #324 SSC 205 (Sec-B) MRD # 123 BIO 207 (Day) DAR # 124 AGR 373 (Sec-A) DEH # 315 AGR 421 (Day) DNJ # 124 SSC 206 (Sec-B) MRD # LAB SOC 201 (Day) DBR # 124 ECO 302 (Day) AJ #611 ECO 482 (Day) AJ #611 ECO 305 (Day) CKS #612 ECO 304 (Day) MS #414 12 ECO 204 (Day) SAI # 315 THM 233 (Day) FAF #612 ECO 304 (Day) MS # 414 THM 117 (Day) MMI #612 ECO 482 (Day) AJ # 414 THM 115 (Day) MAH #323 ECO 305 (Day) CKS # 612 THM 241 (Day) MM #421 THM 301 (Day) SEH # THM LAB THM 301 (Day) SEH # THM Lab ECO 302......

Words: 19305 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Doc Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

... INTRODUCTION ECONOMIC HISTORY SHOWS THAT DEVELOPMENT HAS STARTED EVERYWHERE WITH THE BANKING SYSTEM AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY IS HIGHEST IN THE INITIAL STAGE. MODERN BANKS PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART IN PROMOTING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY. BANKS PROVIDE NECESSARY FUNDS FOR EXECUTING VARIOUS PROGRAMMERS UNDERWAY IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THEY COLLECT SAVINGS OF LARGE MASSES OF PEOPLE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, WHICH IN THE ABSENCE OF THE BANKS WOULD HAVE REMAINED IDEAL AND UNPRODUCTIVE. THESE SCATTERED AMOUNTS ARE COLLECTED, POOLED TOGETHER AND MADE AVAILABLE TO COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY FOR MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS. ECONOMY OF BANGLADESH IS IN THE GROUP OF WORLD’S MOST UNDERDEVELOPED ECONOMIES. ONE OF THE REASONS MAY BE ITS UNDERDEVELOPED BANKING SYSTEM. GOVERNMENT AS WELL AS DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ALSO IDENTIFIED THAT UNDERDEVELOPED BANKING SYSTEM CAUSES SOME OBSTACLES TO THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. SO THEY HAVE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR REFORMING FINANCIAL SECTOR. SINCE 1990, BANGLADESH GOVERNMENT HAS TAKEN A LOT OF FINANCIAL SECTOR MORE TRANSPARENT, AND FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THESE REFORM ACTIVITIES HAS ALSO BEEN PARTICIPATED BY DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS LIKE WORLD BANK, IMF, ETC. IN 1996, WORLD BANK PUBLISHED ‘BANGLADESH: AGENDA FOR ACTION’ IN WHICH IT HAS SUGGESTED A LOT OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF OUR COUNTRY. THESE RECOMMENDATIONS......

Words: 1805 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Types: Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...suppliers websites * you could provide information in several languages if you were part of a multi-national company * you could provide a linked forum or bulletin board for updates and feedback * the report can be quickly forwarded to a large number of stakeholders – managers, clients and suppliers and * you could include a video podcast of management promoting the program, or a description of how a task has been implemented. The Certified Accountants Educational Trust (CAET, 2001) notes some issues with web-based reporting, which could be applied to any electronic document, even if only circulated internally within the company. These include ‘death by download’, when you provide the report as a PDF which is too large, discouraging feedback and dialogue and leaving users in the dark as to how current the report is. Acknowledging achievements, leadership opportunities and networking success It is also important to acknowledge achievements made by the implemented work practices. Consider how those who have successfully implemented practices can be awarded, and how the company as a whole can celebrate its achievements. (But remember to refer to the environmental sustainability of your party!) Implementing environmentally sustainable work practices may identify leadership opportunities and you may be able to share your success with other companies looking to undertake a similar program. Look to the skills of your......

Words: 16125 - Pages: 65

Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋـل ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ، ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺃﻫﻡ ﺭﻜﺎﺌﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ 0.2 ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ.‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ) ‪ (Platforms‬ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴـﺎﺕ ﻭﻤـﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﻬﺎ )٤(.‬ ‫‪Kirkpatrick, David," The Face book Effect", the inside story of the Company That Is Connecting‬‬ ‫.‪the World: New Yurok : 2010, Simian 8 Shuster‬‬ ‫-1‬ ‫.1 ‪What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of‬‬ ‫.‪Software‬‬ ‫-2‬ ‫‪http //digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu /files /report/digitalyouth- White Paper.pdf, " live‬‬ ‫.18‪with new media, p‬‬ ‫-3‬ ‫.201‪http://www.universalmccann.com/ Asset/Wave_3_20080403093750.pdf, Wave.3,P‬‬ ‫35‬ ‫-4‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺨﻼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ،RSS‬ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨــﺎﺕ‬ ‫، ﺍﻟﻭﻴﻜﻲ، ﻤﻨﺼﺎﺕ ﻤـﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼـﻭﺭ ) ‪ ،( Flickr‬ﻤـﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻔــﻴﺩﻴﻭ )‪، (You Tube‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺩﻜﺎﺴﺕ، ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ، ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺘـﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟــﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ، ﺍﻟــ‪ ،Mash- ups‬ﺍﻟﻌـﻭﺍﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟـﺘﺩﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟـﻤﺼﻐﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟـﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ )1(.‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻭﺴـﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻹﻋـﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺩ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺌﻠـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺍﺼـل ﻭﺍﻻﺘـﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﺠﻤـﺎﻫﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ، ﺃﻨﻨﻲ ﻻﺤﻅﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺤـﻭل ﺍﻹﻋـﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ، ﻓﺎﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﺭﻓﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻨـﻪ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺴـﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻋـﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ، ﻭﻫﻡ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﺨﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ، ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ) ‪ ،( New Media‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ......

Words: 49057 - Pages: 197