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Discuss the Role of the Microbes of Gonorrhea/E-Coli in the Ecosystem?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By rudan1025
Words 772
Pages 4
When bacteria get out of balance, entire ecosystem can be affected. Unhealthy conditions occur and the environment becomes distressed. When a bacterial imbalance occurs within or on the ecosystems of our bodies, we call it illness or disease. Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infectious diseases and as many as 700,000 people in the U.S. get gonorrhea every year (CDC). Sometimes it is transmitted from mother to baby during vaginal delivery, if the mother is affected. Men usually have no symptoms, although infrequently they may have pain when urinating, swollen testicles and/or discharge from the penis.

According to a Study completed by the European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, it was discovered that 15% of male infertility are caused by bacteria, parasites or viruses. These infections affect the testicles, the epididymis (a reservoir where the sperm is collected after it leaves the testicles), and the production of male sex hormones. If a woman has a partner that has been diagnosed with a low sperm count, this might have originated from a urinary tract infection or a previous infection of venereal disease. Sperm themselves can also be affected since micro-organisms can affect their development, maturation and motility (how they swim).

Another common type of urinary infection is from Escherichia Coli (E-coli). The e-coli bug grows in the intestines of humans and is usually good for you. They are part of the immune system as well as being responsible for the production of a type of vitamin K, which helps with the coagulation of blood; the e-coli bacteria prevent pathogenic infections by eating the bad bacteria in the gut. In many cases, too many e-coli multiply and they can spill out of the intestinal tract and end up clinging to the urethra (the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and infect the bladder itself. This can, in some cases, lead to damage of the reproductive system.

There are two other infections are associated with infertility are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea that are both sexually transmitted infections. In men, Chlamydia usually has no symptoms, so often; a man will not even realize he has it until he starts to experience infertility problems.

Women sometimes mistake their symptoms for a bladder or vaginal infection and they may have bleeding in between periods. If a woman has gonorrhea, she can develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) which is a cause of infertility. In addition to gonorrhea, chlamydia and e-coli, women can also have fertility problems resulting from bacterial vaginitis, a common vaginal infection. Up to one in ten women will have the infection at some point in their lives and it isn't sexually transmitted, but caused by an overload of normally friendly bacteria in the body. It causes heavier discharge with a noxious smell, although half of all sufferers won't notice any difference in their sexual health.

Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea and if a person has genital symptoms such as discharge, burning during urination, unusual sores, or rash should stop having sex and see a health care provider immediately.
Most of the time, a urine test can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if a person has had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from the throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man’s urethra (urine canal) or a woman’s cervix (opening to the womb).

Gonorrhea can be cured with medication prescribed by a physician. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. If a person’s symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, he or she should return to a health care provider to be reevaluated.
Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of getting or giving gonorrhea. The most certain way to avoid gonorrhea is to not have sex or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected

References:
Karpasea-Jones, J., (2008) European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 140, Issue 1, September 2008, Pages 3-11 retrieved on July, 16, 2013.

Health Science News (2007) Newly Discovered Sexually-Transmitted Disease Surpasses Gonorrhea Retrieved on July 17, 2013, from: http://www.healthsciencenews.com/2007/06/08/infectiousdisease_research

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease Retrieved on July 16, 2013 from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm…...

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