Free Essay

Discovery of Metals

In: Science

Submitted By sunilchi
Words 276
Pages 2
The discovery of metals

People probably discovered how to extract metals from their ores by accident when rocks containing metal were heated with charcoal in fireplaces.
A chemical reaction called reduction would have taken place which freed the metal from its ore. The same reaction is still used in blast furnaces to extract iron.

The first metals
The first metals worked by people were copper, gold and silver, probably because these are found as pure metals.
In about 3500 BC, the Sumerians learned how to make bronze by combining copper and tin. Bronze is stronger than the pure metals.
Iron was not used until around 1350 BC, probably because it needs much higher temperatures to separate it from its compounds.

New metals
Up until 1735 AD, the only known metals were copper, silver, gold, iron, mercury, tin, zinc, bismuth, antimony and lead.
Aluminium was discovered in 1825.
Now scientists can create new metal elements, such as mendelevium, by bombarding atoms with electrons in a particle accelerator, which is a type of nuclear reactor. The atoms break apart under the bombardment, enabling scientists to get a glimpse of their structure. Period | Approximate time (Middle East) | Neolithic Period (Late Stone Age) | 8000 - 4000 BCE | | Chalcolithic Period (Copper Age) | 4000 - 3150 BCE | Egypt: Beads from meteoric iron | Early Bronze Age | 3150 - 2300 BCE | Egypt: Oldest bronze (Old Kingdom, from 2700 onwards) | Middle Bronze Age | 2200 - 1550 BCE | First uses of iron in Hatti and Mesopotamia | Late Bronze Age | 1550 - 1200 BCE | Egypt: Oldest iron blade,probably Hittite. No local iron production | Early Iron Age | 1200 - 1000 BCE | | Iron Age II | 1000 - 586 BCE | Egypt: Beginning of iron production |…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Strange Discovery

...Strange discovery Experts disagree on the origins of the unusual find made last week by 17-‐ year-‐old Stuart Wilson and his father, Mike. Stuart, who lives in Saltcombe Street, Northton, with his family, were helping, his dad to build at new garden shed after the old one had collapsed in the November storms. Whilst digging to lie the new foundation Stuart’s shovel suddenly hit something hard and the two heard a loud ringing metallic sound. They continued to dig carefully around the object. Finally they uncovered appearance, and Stuart grave it up with his hands. Up came a half golden roman helmet, Stuart brushes the dirt of the helmet and the helmet was now shiny gold, it was decorate with signs, it really looks like signs from the roman time. Boat Mike and Stuart were speechless and they didn’t now what they have found. Mikes dad Stuart said the roman helm only was old clutter and he go bag to his business. To difference mike think the roman helm was so exiting. Because he just had Learn about the Roman time at his school so he knew exactly how such a helmet looked. He was sure that this half helmet was from that time. So he left his father in the garden and went inside to look at the half Roman helmet. He polishes the half helmet completely clean so you could see every detail on it. The helmet was really heavy so Mike had to put it on his desk while. When Mike had polished the helmet clean and nice, he showed it to Stuart. Stuart was convinced and believed......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...called METAL . Metal is a genere of rock music originated in UK & USA in late 1960's and early 1970's. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock,bands created a gener of music that developed a thick,massive sound,characterized by highly amplified distortion,extended guitar solos,emphatic beats and overall loudness . Metal lyrics and performance styles are generally associated with masculinity and machismo. Metal songs are known for its powerful,vigorous vocals,distorted guitar,emphatic rhythms,deep bass lines and heavy beats of drums.. The progenetors of the gener were metal bands such as Black Sabbath,Deep Purple etc. The typical band line up includes a drummer,a bassist ,a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist(the singer may or may not be an instrumentalist) keyboard instruments are not generally used. Metal vocals wary widely from the multioctave,theatrical approach of bands like Judas Priest,Iron Maiden etc tothe guff style of bands like Motörhead and Metallica,to the growling of many death metal bands like Nile,Cannibal Corpse etc to the screams of black metal bands like Gorgoroth, Motionless etc. There are many sub-gener of metal. Some of them are> i)HEAVY METAL: Heavy metal is generally regarded as synonymts with the term metal. It started in 1969 and in 1980's the New Wave Of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM) came about and have new impulse to Metal music. The NWOBHM is said to be the foundation of all modern......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Discovery Wheel

...Team Building Worksheet TEAM B Complete the Team Building Worksheet by answering the following questions in 200 to 300 words each. 1. Describe team members’ results on the Discovery Wheel and develop your multiple Intelligences exercises. What similarities and differences exist within the team? Jamie: My discovery wheel looked just like a lollipop! My strongest points were purpose, attitude, and communication. I really feel like it was a pretty accurate analysis and my weakest was health. I really know I need to start working on my health and what I eat and how I put exercising on the back burner. I am a Kinetic learner and Visual. I learn best when I can apply what I know to my life. If I can see it I can store in my memory bank which I think is the best way to learn. This was a great eye opener! Cicely: After completing the Discovery Wheel, I was able to become more aware of my studying habits. I was already aware of some of my faults when it comes to studying. But I didn’t realize the correlation between the habits in my health in and money managing skills. I now see that by improving my studying habits is a way to better other area in life. Mario: I see a lot of similarities on how my attitude effects my time management and my ability to commit to reading. Not how that relates to other areas though. I also see how my thinking, communication, and diversity are related. They all tie into how I choose present a......

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Jazz and Heavy Metal

...Heavy Metal The music of jazz has come a long way since the very beginning. Its influence on society and politics is unquestionable, and even more so when it comes to its impact on the musical world. If traced back to its origin, one can see that jazz has developed substantially starting from the early country blues and emerging onward to genres such as Dixieland, swing, bebop, cool, hard bop, and free/avant-garde. And like many musical genres, jazz has continued growing within the last few decades, fusing and incorporating musical aspects such as rock ‘n roll, Cuban, soul, Latin, and even “extremes” such as rap and, in particular, the music of heavy metal. The emergence of the fusion of jazz and metal cannot be exactly pinpointed (much like many other genres recorded in history), but it definitely had an origin. Perhaps it started early on with the development of jazz fusion (lead by Miles Davis in the late sixties/early seventies) and heavy metal (lead by the ever famous Black Sabbath) (Scaggs). But in order to comprehend this particularly odd combo, one must understand, or at least be aware of the basic concepts of both genres individually. For those who are not too familiar with the genre, heavy metal is an aggressive form of music, mainly standardized with fast guitar riffs and solos, heavy bass grooves, and fast (or slow), hard drumming patterns. Vocals can consist of growling used to express discontent or anger, but is not necessary to be considered metal.......

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Discovery in International Year of the Oceans

...“Disappointment is an inevitable consequence of discovery” To what extent is this true in Jean Spracklands poem International Year of the Oceans? Discovery is something that can be good or bad. The concept of disappointment being an inevitable consequence of discovery refers to discovery in a light that seems to ruin or denote something. This idea can be explored in Jean Spracklands poem International Year of the Oceans in which many this significant concept can be viewed. Discovery is able to disrupt the natural ways of the universe. The beauty of undisturbed nature is something that is able to provoke an emotional response from someone, especially if little is known about it. Immediately in the poem the audience is invited to imagine what it was like for the author’s grandparents. That is, “Our grandparents lived with a romantic moon.” Similarly, later the audience imagines where “a warm ocean sleeps.” Sprackland’s use of soft sounds in these two phrases reflects a peaceful and fully undisrupted moon and ocean, inviting the audience to imagine what it would be like. This is contrasted in the last stanza when Sprackland mentions “nuclear submarines”, suggesting abandonment, war and the eventual destruction of this sleeping ocean for our needs. The idea of disappointment being an inevitable consequence of discovery is supported throughout the poem. This disappointment is evident throughout the poem, thus being through harsh imagery (“Nuclear Submarines”) and intruding......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Discovery Project

...Discovery Project: A Venture in Merging Brands, 65 Points Total: Introduction The Discovery Project will aid in identifying essential criteria you must consider as you pursue any organization. To outpace your competition, you will need to create a connection between the employer’s brand and your personal brand. In the four-step Personal Branding Process (Discover, Create, Communicate, Maintain), this jump-starts the Discovery stage. You will spend time finding key information and career opportunities on your selected organization that will be used in composing your resume, cover letter, personal brand pitch, online applications, and interview responses. Tasks You will: 1. Identify the name, and other criteria, of a company/organization (Part 1) for whom you would like to work, the Focus (Part 2), and its Competition (Part 3) and submit these in one document to the Blackboard Assignment Drop Box in a Microsoft Word document, by Friday, September 2, 2011 2. Review its website, if available, and other resources uncovered through our “Discovery Project” lecture for essential information that will be used in marketing yourself as a prospective hire 3. Collect and record this information so that you may draw from it and build your brand for future assignments 4. Compare and merge your and your organization’s brands so that you will gain experience promoting yourself to an array of employers 5. Submit the remainder of the Project (Parts 4 and 5) for grading in the......

Words: 1780 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Age of Discovery

...Age of Discovery People Bartolomeu Dias – A Portuguese explorer who’s motives were “to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do”. Anne Boleyn – The second wife of Henry VII, she promised Henry that if he married her she would produce a son. Instead she gave birth to Elizabeth I, she was soon beheaded by Henry. Catherine of Aragon – Henry VII first wife who gave birth to a daughter, Mary. She was divorced and replaced by Anne Boleyn. Charles V – The Holy Roman Emperor who was a devoted Catholic, he opposed to Luther’s teachings. He summoned Luther to the town of Worms in 1521 to stand trial so he could take back statements. Yet Luther refused, Charles issued the Edict of Worms and declared Luther an outlaw. Charles went to war with the Protestant princesses who followed Luther, ordering all the princesses to the city of Augsburg. There the princesses signed the Peace of Augsburg. Christina de Pizan – One of the first European writeres to question different treatment of boys and girls. She was highly educated for her time and one of the first women to earn a living as a writer. She produced many books and manual son military techniques. Desiderius Erasmus – A Christian humanist who wrote his most famous work The Praise of Folly. Erasmus believed in Christianity from the heart, not one of ceremonies or rulers. He thought that in order to improve society, all must read the Bible. Edward VI – The......

Words: 2852 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...Self-discovery Throughout one’s lifetime changes in a person’s views toward life are inevitable. Those changes can be seen as either positive or negative based on the experiences a person goes through. Some changes are seen as internal while others are seen as external. For instance, in Monkey by Wu Cheng-en and Candide by Francois-Marie Arouet De Voltaire, both authors are using their characters to portray self-discovery by having them go through a series of obstacles. As a result the characters changed their attitude toward life through the many obstacles that they had to undergo. Self-discovery is an essential part of a person’s life which can be seen internally or externally through a person’s characteristics and actions. The novel Candide is centered around the character of Candide who sets out on a journey to self-discovery in which he has “his eyes opened up to the true ways of the world” ( However, in this novel changes in Candide’s character can only be seen externally. Even though his opinions of the world change, he seems to hold on to the same essence throughout the entire story. At the beginning of the novel we see that Candide is very naïve and we also see that he only believes whatever he hears. Candide believes everything that Pangloss teaches him. Candide’s ignorance is shown when he sits with the Bulgars and says “You are quite right, it is just as Dr. Pangloss always told me, and I see clearly that......

Words: 2530 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Metal Business

...whether Bangladesh should continue supporting this business on their soil. Some viable recommendations are made at the conclusion. Keywords: Ship breaking, ship dismantling, industrial safety, safety hazards, environmental hazards. 1. INTRODUCTION Ship recycling is the process of dismantling old ship to recover steel scrap and other materials. This industry had begun in Bangladesh in 1960, when a cargo vessel named M D Alpine of Greek was affected by violent storm and beached near sea shore of Fauzdarhat at Chittagong. The ship had to remain there for a long time. In 1965, the vessel was scrapped by Chittagong Steel House. In 1974, Al Abbas, a salvaged Pakistan Navy vessel, which was sunk during liberation war, was scrapped by Karnafully Metal Works and since then commercial shipbreaking began in Bangladesh. Finally in the year 1984, Bangladesh appears as a major ship recycling nation in the world [1]. Until 1960s, ship breaking/recycling activity was considered as a highly mechanized operation that was concentrated in industrialized countries- mainly USA, UK, Germany and Italy. The UK was accounted for 50% of the industry-Scotland ran the largest ship breaking operation in the world. During the 1960s and 70s, ship breaking activities migrated to semiindustrialized countries like Spain, Turkey and Taiwan, mainly for the availability of cheap labour and the existence of re- rolling steel market [2]. But from early 1980s, ship breaking is no more costeffective in those......

Words: 2918 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

United Metal

...Based on our NPV analysis of the Buy and Make scenarios that United Metal has the opportunity to choose between, we recommend that United Metal decide to continue manufacturing their components. We made this choice based on the following additional assumptions other than the ones already mentioned: * We determined that the cost per piece for United Metal is closer to £0.96 per piece based on the manufacturing cost, raw materials, and machinery over 8 years (without the warehouse extension). * Because this contract is based off one year renewals, we made the assumption that the agreed on price at £0.83 per piece is the same contract price over the next 8 years, with no decrease in price. * We also assumed that Amalgamated would not repurchase the machinery they would sell, but that United Metal would sell the machine at t=0 for the £5000 if they chose to go with the Buy scenario. * We also decided that the incremental cost of increasing the operations manager salary, although it was not a deciding factor, was still a contributing factor to our decision as a part of the opportunity cost. * The warehouse capacity is an additional 10% every year. We used this to help determine when we would need to invest in the warehouse extension. In our NPV analysis, we had to determine when we would need to invest in the warehouse extension. In the Make scenario, we already decided that we would reach capacity by Year 4. In the Buy scenario, we decided that we would......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Discovery Essay

...The nature of discovery entails a journey that is transformative and concerns one’s relationship with one’s self or one’s world. Discoveries can be either sought or serendipitous and can lead to good or bad consequences, but ultimately they are all concerned with the acquisition of greater knowledge and a new perspective. In William Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Prospero comes to realise not only the limitations of his art, but also the importance of love and redemption in redefining one’s place in the world, as well as one’s view of it. Peter Weir’s Dead Poets Society represents the importance of new perspectives on the familiar in order to realise the self, in the face of conflicting and controlling forces. The Tempest, as its title suggests, is partly concerned with the forces of nature, but mostly it is about the need for the liberating and redemptive power of forgiveness in the face of man’s inhumanity towards man. Prospero conjures a storm, with Ariel’s forced assistance, that brings to the island those who have wronged him. The scene seems set for a revenge plot to unfold. However, we soon discover that Prospero has changed in the 12 years that he has been exiled on the island. He realises that he is as much to blame for his exile as his treacherous brother Antonio to whom he relegated his ducal responsibilities in order to pursue his selfish interests: ‘And to my state grew stranger, being transported/And rapt in secret studies.’ Just as Miranda discovers her true......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Discovery Essay

...Discovery Essay Discovery inhibits the ability to embrace new beginnings and accept a sense of change whether it is found or forced upon an individual. The places you travel and the people you meet can emotionally revolutionize a self-discovery through unexpected but anticipated terms evoked from curiosity. ‘Swallow The Air’ written by Tara June Winch and ‘The Thing Around Your Neck’ written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie break the inhibitions of vulnerability, as their ideas represented through cultural contexts and values, lead to an overall self-discovery. Tara June Winch’s ‘Swallow The Air’, explores the idea of vulnerability as a barrier to self-discovery. The protagonist, May Gibson, of mixed descent, lives in a dysfunctional and low socioeconomic family with her brother and mother. The sudden suicide of May’s mother ultimately shook her to the core, “When mum left I stopped being Aboriginal, I stopped feeling like I belonged. Anywhere” May’s stream of consciousness expresses her immediate loss of security present in both her culture and identity. Winch correlates May’s inner turmoil through the recurring motif of the Mingi turtle, whose hard exterior is displayed to protect the interior. The symbolic nature represents the vulnerability of youth, something May herself finds all too familiar within her lifestyle. A pivotal moment in the novel was the sexual violation of May from an indecent white man, leaving her inferior to the whites and unsure of her acceptance in...

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...The "Business Discussions" section's Question 1 on Page 117 How does discovery work? During discovery both the plaintiff and the defendant are called on to produce facts that are impertinent to the case. The lest expensive way to do this is through interrogatories in which the opposing party is given a series of questions to answer to the best of their knowledge. A more expensive way is when witnesses to the case are called in for a deposition and asked question to which that have to answer orally. Also, either party may ask for particular documents to be produced such as, warranties, contracts, receipts, etc., called request for production of documents. After one or all of these methods are used one of the parties may have a request for an admission to eliminate certain issues in the dispute and possibly come to an agreement that will avoid the case going to court. Can you be required to testify twice in a deposition and at trial? Yes a person can be required to testify twice in a deposition and at trial as long as the testimony they are given is not a repeat of what was already offered. Should you shred all documents you have a bout the case? You know that some of the documents will not put the firm in the best light. No, you should never shred any evidence. You should offer up any documents that is relevant to the case. You wonder what will happen at trial. Will it be like what you have seen on TV or in the movies? Real life court will be......

Words: 535 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Metal Sector

... METALS METALS Market Overview Current Status Competitive Advantages Government Regulations and Support Key Domestic & Foreign Players Future outlook Contact For Information A report by KPMG for IBEF 2 4 9 12 13 17 18 Market Overview The metal industry is a key sector in the Indian economy as it meets the requirements of a wide range of important industries such as engineering, electrical and electronics, infrastructure, automobile and automobile components, packaging etc. The metal industry consists of two major groups: ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. Non-ferrous metals, which include aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel and tin, are used to make alloys, castings, forgings, extrusions, wires, cables, pipes, etc., and find their application in a number of sectors such as agriculture, infrastructure facilities like power plants, automobiles, railways, telecommunications, building and construction and in engineering and chemical plants. There are significant reserves of non-ferrous metal ores in India. India is rich in bauxite (aluminium ore) and has grades of zinc, lead and copper reserves. Copper, lead and zinc are also imported as scrap or concentrates to be processed by secondary/custom smelters. Nickel and tin are also imported by India. Ferrous metals primarily consist of iron and different varieties of steel. Indian steel industry has shown strong performance in the recent past in terms of production, capacity utilisation, exports and consumption. India...

Words: 4799 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Finish of Metal

...the result of research about metal finishing industry. Thought out this paper, interpretations and analysis is provided on data and trends in order to provide insight not only on what is happening in the process of metal finishing process but also why it happens. Much of that information was obtained through literature research as well as attitudes, perspectives, and opinions gained through interviews with a wide variety of professionals directly involved in or affiliated with the industry. The paper covers the needed information of running metal finishing business and the classes and processes involved in the industry and also some common problems metal finishers always meet. Readers will have a basic understanding about one of the most important industries in the world after reading this paper. Keywords: job shops, captive, plating, organic coating, hazardous, pollution. I. INTRODUCTION Metal finishing industry refers to a wide variety of processes which provide the surfaces of manufactured products with a number of desirable physical, chemical, and appearance qualities. Metal finishing is one of the most pervasive services found in the national economy and is closely connected to industrial and consumer products as well as goods manufactured for the government sector. Every manufactured or fabricated product made of metal or having metal components will feature some type of metal finishing. This article will provide an overview of metal finishing processes......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2